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VL Month. 

JUNE, SO days. 


Fulh Moon 2J day, 8h. ]2in.eVea. 
Lasc Quarter J 0th day, 10b. 46m. eve. 

O high above all height ! compared to thee 

Thy works are less than nought and vanity. 

Thus high! thus great ! thou deign'st to bend thine eye 

On angel, man, a sparrow and a fly. 

The highest beings need tiiy constant care, 

Thy tender providence, the lowest share. 

New Moon 17th day, 6li 52id. ev, 
Firft Quarter 24th day, «t noon. 

M \w].Courtft Mpectst ^f eatker, &c |r 

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VIL Month, ' JULY, SI days. 


Thou gav'st me birth in happy frcedomV land, * 
Where richest blessings equal laws defend* 
Where Christ's pure word in native beauty shines. 
Clears nature's mazes, and her laws refines i 
Directs the path, and points the happy seat. 
Where peace, and joy> and virtue are complete. 

Full Moon 2d day, 1 Ih. 53in. morn. iNewMoon 17thdjiy,lh 45ifi mor. 
Laft Quarter 10th day, iOh. Sm, moni.!Fii ft Quarter 24th day, at noon, 
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O) what shall I return ? for aU is thine. 
Let my whole squI be fir'd with love divine ! 
Nor be my love to empty praise confin'd, 
What is our praise to thy all-perfect mind ? 
Let gratitude in acts of goodness flow ; 
My love to God, in love to man below. 

Laft Qaarter 8th day 6h. 4m. even. I Firft Quarter 22d day, Ih 55m. even.' 
NewMoon 15th day, 9h. 24m morn j Full Moon 30th day, 5h. 45m. even. 

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X.ATB riXHCIFAL 09 TBI VNlTtKStTT Of rAtIt, ftc. 


VOL. V. 




2891 8iA 

C O NT EN t S 

OF IftK IiJnIa WU5Mt 


•f*t HISTORY Of rtxitr. 

SJECT . 1. 3T^ «rrA and truancy of pmfi. ISsJSrU 

tanguttfts. The binh 6f Jitxander, 1 

^8Bct.n. The kaerdd'Ofar. SepitlofthchUttirydfPhiXfi, Hi 
Secf J fil. JDemMhefieahttrtfigueB the Jtherdoju agmn%t 
^ PhiUfi. Thatprirtte takts Oiynthu9. ai 

Secjfc. rV. Ffniip deeiatttffjr Thcbn agatntt thi Pho^ 

Cleans, Ht ifeiti^ wi Thermotiyim, 29 

S^et. V. Philip, extends his conquests into tUytim and 

Thraee. Character ^ Pht^mn, His success against 

PhiUfi. M 

Secti VI. PhiHfii^tdnHdgefieraU^mo of the GreeH. 
, Atheniansand Thebtma wdte against him. Be gains 

a battlt at Cheronea, 52 

fieet. VXI. Phiiifi decktred gtneraB^sima qfthe' Greeks 

agaihst the Persians, PHa death, 66 

ISecti Yin. Memchrabie attkms and sayinga ^ PhiSffi* 

Good and bad qua&ties ^that firince. 70 



Sect. I. jilexander'o birth, Aristotle aPftoitited his fire- 

cefitor. He breaks Bueefihatus. f9 

Sect. 11. Alexander ascends the throne. Declared gen* 

eraHssimo of the Greeks against the Persians, S? 

Sect. III. Alexander sets out against the Persians, Ob'" 

tains a Jamoua victory at the river Gramcus, 96 

Sect. IV. Alexander conquers the greatest part qfAHa 

Minor, Descrifitton. of Darius^ march, i03 

Sect. ^V. Alexander gains a Jamoua victory ovef Darius 

at Issua, CoTisequerwes of i/tai victory. 11/ 

Sect. VI. Alexander marches victorious into Syria, 

Lays siege to Tyrcy which he takes by storm, 129 

r- Sect. Vn. Alexander's journey to Jerusalem. He sub- 
^-5 dues Mgypt, /« declared son qf Jupiter, 153 





Sect Vni. Mexander rtaolves to go in /luriuit ofJDa^ 
rius. l^efttmwfi battle'of A^eld. 16<l» 

Sect. DC. JUexand'er iak^:4rbdaj Babylon^ Susd^ Per- 
BefiolU ; and finds inrnenae riches in those cities, 18S 

Sect. X. Daritts leaves Ecbaiana. IHs death, Alex- 
ander sends his corpse to l^ysigambis, 196 

Sect. XI. Vices which first caused the declension^ and at 
last the ruinj qfthe Persian em/ure, 200 

Sect. XII. Lacedpnu^orda revolts Jrom the Macedonians, 
jintifiater defeats Jgis, 4l€xander marches against » 
'Bessus,^ 204 

Sect. Xni. Alexander builds a city near^he laxarthes, 
Drfeats the Scythians. Takes the city yf Fetru. 221 

Sect. XIV. Death' q/ CUtus, Expeditions qf Alexander, 
He commands v)orship to be paid to himself, ' 232 

Sect. XV. Alexander sets out for India, Besieges and 
takes several cities. ^Defeats PoruSy whom he resiores ^ 
to his throne* • v ... 243 

Sect. XVI. Alexander advances into India. He. is tX'^ 
posed to great danger at the siege ofOxydraca. 266 

Scct^XVU. Alexander is grievously distreeseU by fa- 
mine. He marries Statira the daughter of Darius, 2rs 

Sect. XVni. Alexander enters Babylon, His death. His 
corpse conveyed to the temple ff Jupiter^jimmon, . 290 

Sect.'XIX. The^udgment we are tqform of Alexander, 302 

Sect. XX. Refiections on the Ptsrsians^ Greeks^ and M^- 
cedoniansy by M, Bossuet^ bishop qfMeaux» • 320 



Sect. I. Troubles which followed Che death ilf Alexander, 
Partition of the provinces, Aridaus is declared kingi 
Perdiccas appointed his guardian, 335 

Sect. 11. Revolt of the Greeks in upper Asia, Anttpater 
goes into Greece, Flight and death ef Demosthenes, 330 

Sect, HI. Procession of Alexander's funeral, Ptolemy y 
Craterus^ Antipatery and Antigonusy confederate c- 
gainst each other, * ^ ^ , • * 344 

Sect. IV. Regency transfemfd to Antipater, Polysper- 
chon succeeds him, The'latth' recah OlymptQs, *352 

.\ . 





The reigns f^PhUiPf king qf Macedon^ and Alexander hit 
soTty contmn the nfiace of 06 years ; the reign of the /or* 
iner including 24, and tlmt of the latter 1 2. They extend 
from the first year qfthe W5th Olynt/nadj or the year <f 
the world S644, to the first year qf the lUth Olymfiiad^ 
which answers to the year qfthe world 36S0. 

The Icings who reigned during that time in Persia were 
Jrtaxerxes^ Ochus^ Jrses^ and Darius Codomanu»* The 
Persian Em/tire expired with the last. 

We knoto not any thing concerning the tra?isactions qf the 
Jews during these 06 years, except, w/tat we are told hy 
Josephusy book xi- chap 7, and 8 qf his untiyidties qf the 
Jews, wider the high priests John, or Joiianon, and Jad" 
dus. These mil oe mentioned in the course qfthis his* 
tory^ with which that qfthe Jews is intermixed^ 

The above-metitioned space qf3% years, with respect to the 
Roman history, extends from the o93rf to the 429M yeetr 
from the foundation ofRome^ The great men who made- 
the most conspicuous figure among the Romans during 
that space qftime, were Afipius Claudius^ the dictator^ 
T, Quinctius CapitoHmus, 717. ManUus Torguatus, L, 
PaftiriusCursor^ M. Vaieiius Corvinus, Q/Pabius Max* 
imus, and the twoJ)ecii, who devoted themselves to death 
for the sake qf their country^ 



MACEDON was an hi^editary kingdom, situated in an- 
cient Thrace, and bonnded on the south by the moun- 
tains of Tbessaly j on the east by Bxotia and Picria, on the 
-west by the Lyncestes, and on tlic north by Mygdonia and 
Pelagonia ; but after Philip had conquered part of Thrace 
R&d niyriumy i&is kingdom extended from the Adriatic sea 


t<s tlie river Strymon. Edessa was at first the capital of it but 
^terwards resigned that hdnoor to Vdla^ famous for giyiDi; 
Dirth to Phifip and Alexander. 

Philip, whose history-^vc are going'to write, was the son of 
^myntas 11. who is reckoned the 16th king of Macedon 
fram Caranus, who had founded that kingdom aljout 430 

?ears before, that is, Anno Mundi 5312, and befoi^ Christ 
94. The history of all these monarchs is sufficiently ob*. 
SQure, and iocUides little more than several wars with the 11^ 
yrians, the Thracians, and cthei' neighbouring people. 

The kings of Macedon pretended to descoDd from Hercu* 
les, by Caranus, and consequently to have been Greeks origi*. 
fially. Notwithstanding this, Demosthenes often styles them 
barbarians, especially in his invectives against Philip. The 
^Creeks indeetl gave this name to all. other nations, without 
excepting the Macedonians. ^Alexander king of Macedon, 
in the reign of Xerxes, was excluded, upon pretence of bi^ 
&0l)ig a barbarian, from the Olympic games ; and was not ad» 
aaitied to share in them till after having proved his being orig« 
inally deseeded from Argos. fThe above-mentioned Alex* 
iAder, when he went over fix)m the Pei*»ian camp to that of 
tfie Greeks, in onler to acquaint the latter that Mardonius 
was defterroined to charge them by surprise at day -break, 
justified his perfidy by his ancient 4<^sc^iit, which he declare 
edtobc from the &reeks. 

The ancient kings of Macedon did not tlxink it beneath 
themselves to live at different times under the protection of 
the Athenians, Thebans, and Spartans, changing their alli- 
ances as it suited their interest. Of this we have several 
instances in Thucydides. One of them named Perdiccas, 
with \^hom Ac Atiieniajis were dissatisfied, became their 
ttibutaiy ; which continued from thc^^ir settling a colony in 
Amphipolis, under Agnon,'the son of ^jTicias, about 48 years 
beftic the Peloponnesito war, till Bra^das, the Lacedemo» 
iiian general, alxnit the fifth oV six A yeaV of that war, raised 
that whole province aga«mA them, and drove them from 
the fror tiers of Macedon. . 

We shadl soon see this Macedon, which formerly had 
paid tribute to Athens,' become under Philip the Arbiter oi 
Greece; and trktmp^ under Alexander, ovfer ail the forces 
of Asia. 

Am^Titasf , father of Philip, begaii to reign the third j'eap 
<>f the 96th Olympiad. Having, the very year «fter, been 
Warmly attacked by the Ulydans, anddispossesed of agrealK 

# Herod. 1. w c. 22. f Idenik 1, IK. c 44. . . 

T A. M, 3Aotf, AAt. /. C. 398. Diod, I. Jriv. p- 3<»7. 34». 

pfot of his ki^^m, which he thought it scafce possible for 
him ever to recover again, be addressed himself to tbo 
OlyBthians ; and in €>rder to engage thctD the more firmlf 
uk hi&interestyhe had given up to them a considerable tract 
of land in the neighborhood of their citv. According tn 
some autiiorsy Argaeus, who was of the blood royal, being 
sQppocted by the Athenians, and taking advantage of tiM 
troubles which broke out in Macedonia, reigned there two 
years.t Ainpitaa was restored to the throne by the Thessa* 
Hans^ upcn which Ue was desirous of resmning the pos&es- 
tioD of tiie lands, which nothing but the iA situatioa of his 
0kiPB had obliged him to resign to the Olynthiant* This 
CKxasioned a war ; but Amynthas not bebg strong enough to 
nake head singly against so powerful a people, the Greeksii 
•nd theAthenians in partioblar,seQthini 8ueco«rB,and enabled 
Urn to wf aken the power of the Olynthians, who threaten* 
ed him with a total and impending ruin, fit w^ thte thai 
Amyntaa, in an assembly of the Greeks, to which he ha4 
sent a deputation, engaged tounite with them to enable th# 
Athenians to. possess themselves of AmphipoHs, declaring 
ttat tJiis cHy belonged to the last mentioned people. This 
strong alliance was continued after hi^ dsath with ^neen En* 
rydiee,^ his widow, as we shall soon see. 
* fPhilip, one of the sons of Amyntas, was bom the sam# 
year this monarch declared war against the Olynthians* 
This, Philip was father of Alexander the Great ; for we 
aannot' distinguish him better, than by calling him the father 
ef such a son, as f Cicero observes^ of the father of Cato of 
Utica; . 

((Amyntas died^ after having reigned 94 years. He left 
ihree legitimate children, whom Eur^'dice had brought him» 
viz, Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, and a natural son 
pamed Ptolemy. 

Alexander succeeded his iaiher as eldest son* In the 
irery beginning of his reign he was engaged in a sharp war 
agaiust the Ill^'rians^ neighbors to, and pepetual enemies of 
Macedonia. Coocinding afterwards a peace with them, he 
put Philip, his younger brother, an infant, into their hands, 
by way of hostage, who was soon sent back to him. Alex*- 
under reigned but one year. 

♦ A. M. 3611. Ant. J, C. 383. 

i iCschin. de Fals, Logat. p. 400. t A* M. lizi. Ant. J. C. 383. 

\ M. Cato sentcntiam dixit hujus nostri CatonU pater, Ut cnim CKterl e« 
patiibu<(, sic hie, quilam«n illud progenuit, ex fiUo est nominandiis. J3c Offic. 
i.iii. n.66. 

I A. M. ^62,9, Ant J. C. 375. Dtod. p. 373. Juitln. 1. vU. c iv. 

4 ' ^ fflHTOftY OF I^HIlIF. Moot Xtf, 

* The crown now belonged by right toFerdiccas hb bfo^ 
^lei', who was become eldetA by his death ; but Pausanias, a 
prince of the blood n^al, who had' been exiled, disputed it 
with him, and was supported by a great ntirober of Mace- 
donians. He began by seizing s^me fortresses. Happily 
for the new king, Iplricrates was then in that country, whith« 
er the Athenians had sent him with a small fleet ; not tobe^ 
siege Aroi^poiis as yet, but only to take a view of the place 
and make the necessary preparations for bcsiegmg it. Eu- 
rydice hearing of hb arrival, desired to see hhn, intending 
to request his asastance against Pausanias, Wlvm he was 
come into the palace, and liad seated himsdf, the afflicted 
queen, the better to excite his compasdon, takes lier two 
children, Perdiccas and Philipt^ and sets the former in the 
arms, and the latter on the knees of Iphicrates ; she then 
spoke thus to him : ^^ Remember, Iphicrates, that Amyntar^ 
^ the father of these unhappy orplians, had always a love 
*< for your country, and adopted you for his son* This 
*< double tie. lays you under a double obligation. The amity 
^ which that king entertained for Atliens, requires that yoa 
** should acknowledge us publicly for your friends ; and thtf 
*' tenderness which that father had for your person, claims 
♦• from you the heart of a brother to these childre».'' Iph« 
ierateS) moved with this sight and discourse, expelled the 
usurper, and restored the lawful sovereign. 

f Perdiccas f did not long omtinue in trant^uillity. A new 
enemy, more formidable than the first, soon invaded his re- 
pose : this was Ptolemy his brother, natpral son of Amyn- 
tas, as was before observed. He might possibly be the e]d«> 
est son, and claim the crmvn as such. The two brothei*s 
referred the decision c^ their claim to PeloiHdas, general of 
the Thebans, more revered for his probity than )S& valQW*« 
Pelopidas determined in favour of Perdiccas ; and haying* 
judged it necessary to take pledges on both sides, in order to 
oblige the two competitors to i&erve the articles of the^ 
treaty accepted by them among other hostages, he carried 
Philip with himtoThebes,!! where he resid^ several yeari« 

« A. M. 3tf ;a. Ant. J. C. %1S' XjtOx, de Fab. Lesat. p. |$(9, 400^ 

t Philip was not then less than nine ycaw old. 

% Plutarch in Pelop. p. 19*. 

S Plutarch mippo.<te» that it was with Alexander that Ptolemt disputed the 
empire, which cannot be made to agree with the relation of Aichines, wttd> 
being hift cotemporary, it more worthy of credit. I therefore thotsght pro- 
per to subatltnte Perdiccas iititead of Alexander. 

B Thchls trienn:o obse^ habitus, prima pucritiae rodhneitt» ie qrbe sererit*- 
t's antiquas^ et in domo Epaminondse summi et phtlosophi et itinperatcfi', At* 
po.>nft. Jdsiin. 1. vU. c. |. n^lip IKcd ffi Thcbei sot ^y three, but nUiG^sr 
ten yeaifc • 


He was then ten years of age. Eurydice, at Iicr leaving thi« 
roucU loved son, earnestly besought Peltipidas to piixurc 
him an education worthy of hi:» birth, and of the city to 
which he was going an hostage. Felopidas pluced \\\'\\ \\ ith 
Epaminondas, who had a ctjlcbrated P) tha}$ore:in jihilosc- 
pher in his home for Uie education of his son. Philip im- 
proved gi'eatly by the instructions of his preceptor, and 
mach more by those of Epaminondas, under whom he un» 
doubtedly made some campaigns though no mer>tiun is 
made of tUis^ He could not possibly liave had a more ex- 
cellent master, whether for war or the conduct of life ; 
for this UlusUious Theban was at the same time a great 
philosopher, that is to sa^'^, a wise and virtuous man, and a 
)!^reat cor^manUer, as well as a great statesman. Philip was 
very proud.oLbein«; his pupil, and proposed him as a model 
to himself ; most happy could he have copied him jicriect- 
ly V Perhaps he borrowed from Epaminondas his activitv 
in war, and his promptitude in improving occasions, whicfi 
however formed but a very inconsiderable jnirt of the mer- 
it of this illustrious personage : but with regard to his tem- 
^rcnce, his justice, his disinterestedness, his sinccritj-, \\\s 
raagnanimitV) his elemency, which i*endercd him truly great, 
these \9erc virtues which PJiiiip had not i^eceived from na- 
:ture, and did not acqfiiire by imitation. 
. l^e Tliiebans did not know that they were then forminj; 
•and educating the most dangerous enemy of Greece. *Af- 
ftet PliUlp .had spent nine oi* ten years in tlieir city, the news 
4>f n rev^^ution in Macedon niadc him resolve to leave The- 
^hes clandestine! V. Accordingly he steals away, makes the 
utmost expedition, and finds the Macedonians gi-eatly sur- 
prised at having lost their kine Peixliccas, who had been 
killed an a great battle by the Jllyrians, but much more so 
to'fiiid they had as many enemies as uelghbourff. The Jllv- 
•riafiis wore ob the point of returning into the kingdom with 
A greate* force ; the Peonians infbsted it with perpetnal in- 
-curskms ; tiieThracians >vere detevmmed to place Pausa- 
iiias on the throne, who had not abandoned his pretensions • 
'and the Athenians were bringing Argxus, whom Mantias 
.theii* general was ordered to support with a strong fleet and 
a considerable body of ii-oops. Macedonia at that time want- 
MBd a prince of years to^ovem, and had only a child, Amyntas 
the son of Perdiccas, and lawful heir of the' cpown. Philip 
gOTenie«i'tlie kmgstom for iome time by the title of guard- 
4an to thepritce ; but the subjects, justly alarmed, deposed 
the nephew in.favQur of. the uncle ; and instead of the heii- 
A2 • 
* Dw<U I, xvit 1^, 407. Justin. I, vil, c, 5, 

$ »[«TOR¥ Of fbtlif; Book XTf, 

whom nature had given ihem, set him upon the throne 
whore the pi^esent conjuncture of affairs required } persuad* 
ed that the lawsof necesblcy are superior to all others. ^Ac'* 
cordingly Philip, at 24 years of age, ascended the throne th^ 
first year of the 105th Olympiad. 

The new king, with great coolocss and presence of iDtod^ 
used all his endeavors to answer the expectations of the 
people ; accordingly he provides for and remedies every 
tiling, revives the desponding courage of the Macedonians, 
and reinstates and disciplines the army. fHe was infiexi- 
b\v rigid in the last point ; well knowing that the success 
oi all his enterprises depended on it. A soldier who was * 
thirsty, went out of the ranks to drink, wkich Philip punish- 
ed with great severity. Another soldier whoeught to have 
stood to his arffts, laid them down : him he tmmediatelf 
ordered to be put to death. 

It was at i\m time he established the Macedonian pha- 
lanx, which afterwards became so-fomous, and was the 
choicest and best disciplined body of an army the world had 
ever seen, and might dispute precedency in thoee respects 
with the Greeks of Marathon and Saiamio. He drew up 
the plan, or at least improved it frooi the idea suggested by 
Homert. That poet descnt>es the union of the Grecian 
eomn\andcrs under the image of a battalion, the severs ef 
which by the assemblage or conjooction of ttttir shields, 
form a body impjcnctrable to the enemy's darts^ I^ rathrar 
believe that PhHip ibrmed the idea of the p^lanx from the 
lessons of Epamhiondas, and the sacred battalion of the 
Thel^ns. He treated tliose diosen foot-soldiers with par- 
ticular distinction, honoured them with the titie of his com- 
rades, or companions^ ; ahd by such marks of honour and 
confidence induced them to bear, without any mfurmnring, 
Ihe hardest fetigues, and to confront the greater dangers 
with intre^adity. Such familiarities as these co^ a moii- 
. arch little, and are of no conunoB advantage to him^ I ^all 
insert, at the end of this section, a more particular descrip- 
tion of the phalanx, and the use made of it in battles* I 
shall borrow from Polybms this descrij^ion, the length of 
which would too much interrupt the series tyf our history ; 
yet being placed separately, may probably please, e^Kciatty 
by the judicious rraections of a man so well skilled in the 
art of war as that historiaxk. 

One of the first things Philip took care of was the negoti- 
ating a cautious peace with the Athenians, whose power he 

* A. M. ^644. Ant. J. C. 3do. DIM. t/xvi. )>. 404—41 3: 
t ^I'tan. 1. xW. c. 49. ' t n!ad. N. v. 130. ^ 

S Ptsiitfirf^ signifies verbatim a fsot-soUIieo «earsd«» cmnfaston. 

Sett. I. Hist 08T or tnthtP. T 

dreaded, and whom he was not WilUng to ftiake his enemies, 
In the beginning of a reign hitherto but ill established. He 
therefore sends ambassadors to Athens, spares neither pro« 
mises, nor protestations of amitf^ and at last was so happy as 
to conclude a treaty, of which he knew how to make ail the 
advantages he had proposed to htmsetfir 

IramecUataly after this, he does not seem so much to act 
like a monarch of but 24 years of age, as like a politjciaii 
proftsimdly versed in the art of dissimulation ; and who, with- 
out the atsislanGe of experience, was already sensible, that 
to know when to lose at a proper season is to gain. "He had 
seized upon Amphipolis, a dty sitoated on the frontiers of 
his kingdom, which consequently stood Very oonvenient for 
him. He could not keep it, as that woold have weakened 
his army too much, not to mention that the Athenians, whose 
friendship it was his interest to preservey- wocdd have been 
ejLasperated at his holding a place which they clahiied as 
their cokny. On the other side, he was determined not to 
give np to his enemies one of the keys to his dominions. He 
tlierefore took the resolution to declare that place free, by 
permitting the inhabitants to govern themselves as a repub- 
lic, and in tius mann^ to set them at variance with their 
ancient masters. At the same time he disarmed the Peoni- 
ans by dint of promises and presents, resolving to attack 
them, after he had disanited his enemieS| and weakened 
them by that disunion. 

This address and snbtilty established him more firmly on 
the throne, and he soon mnd himself wiU^out competitors. 
Having barred the entrance of his kingdom to Pausanias, he 
inarches against Argseus, comes up with him in the road 
from Mg» to Methone, defeats him, kUls a great number of 
his soldiers, and takes a multitude ctf prisoners ; attacks the 
Peonians, and subjecu them to his power: he afterwards 
turns his arms agakist theil^rians, cuts them to pieces^ and 
obliges them to restore to him all the places possessed by 
them in Macedonia. 

tMuch about this time the Athenians acted with the great* 
est generosky in regard to the inhabitants of Enbaa. That 
island, which is smamted from Bceotia by the Euripus, was 
so called from its large and beautiful pasture lands, and is 
now called Negropoot. | It had been subject to the Athen* 
ians, who bad settled colonies in Eretria and Chalcis, the 
two principal cities of it. Thucydides relates, that in the 

• Poly«n. 8traU& 1, Iv, c, 17. 
f A, M. 3646, Ant. J. C. S5S. 

•{. Van. Paterc. I. i, c. 4. Thocyd. 1, vUI, p, 61^ Dcmoft. pt9 Ctciipl^. 
f, 4S9* •^Bscblo* csBtift Ctcslph. Pi 44i* 

9 j»«T#»Y'ar-F«i.Juxj»i Book XIF, 

Pelopoim^an war, the revolt of th« Eiibiotaj&s dimnayed th« 
Athenians yery much, because ihey drew greater revenuef 
ivQtp. thencQ thaa frooi Attica, From that time Eulxea be'> 
eame.a. peey to lactipns ; and at the Itime of wbicli .^ 
now speajLingy.ouQ pf these factions, implored, the a;9(i»ta&ci9 
of Thebes, and the ojl^er oCAthfiOJl^.. At flrrt. t^Thet>4l» 
met with no obstivcley and eatily ^a<ile ibe^faotAan tliey es- 
poused triumphant. However, at the* ai^iival of the. Atl!«H^ 
ians, Qiattet^ took a very different tura.- Though they were 
yery much offended at the Euboeans', who had behav«d very 
injuriously towards them, ncvertiiekss, sensibly affected with 
the great dangei* to\^hich they were ex^sed|iand ^i^tting 
their private 4«sentQ)ent8| they am mpdiaiiiely gewve themi'Uch 
powerful succour boti%by nea and }m\f^ thiatki a iew days 
tliey forced the Thebans tq ijgtire. ..And now bcipg absolute 
iniwters 6f the i^laqdi they i^estored the inhabtitai)^ their 
cities and liberty, persuaded, sa>*s iEschincb* in relating UUa 
circumstance, that, justice requires we should obliterate the 
reme<abi*anceof.pai(t injuries when the pai*ty ofiendiui; re- 
)»ose their trust iathejofeiided. The Athenians, after hav- 
ing restored. Eubo&a tg ix% former tranquility, retired, with- 
out desiring.any ot^r boiiefit for all their. iierviceti than the 
^lory of hqivin&a|^pea((ed U)e troubles of that iidand. 

But tlipy did: »ot always .beh^'e in this xnanner >vith re- 
gard, toother states 5 -a»d it »ra$ thin gave rise to « tthe 
*' war of the allies," of whicli I have spofeenelsewhere. . 
« . Hitherto FhiUp, that is duri«g dte'&rst years of hb^ reign, 
^ad eiaptteyed Ms endeayoui-s to triumph over his competi- 
tox's for the throne ; to pacify domestic di vinous, to I'cpel the 
;a.ttacka/of his forei^i enemies, and to disable them by hts 
frequent victories, from troubU»g him in the possession of 
his kingdona. . . , 

But he is nOw .going to appear in another character. Span- 
!ta fwd AUien»f a'&er Ivaving- loag 'disputed the^ empire of 
^reece^ha^ weakened thenwelVea by their reciprtical divi- 
sions. This circunistance had given Thebes an ix^poitunity 
^r regaiiOBg. its^ former grandeur J but Thebes having weak- 
:t;W^ itself by the .wars in which it had been engf^d against 
.Sparta and Athens, <gave Philip an o6cft»ion of a8i>iring also 
in his turn to the sovereignty of Greece^ And now, as a 
politician and a conqueror, herevolve^, how he may best ex- 
?tend his frontiers, reduce his neighbours, and weaken ,tho9e 
iwhom iie was.not abJe to conquer at present : how .he otay 
introduce himself into the aflPairs of Greece, share in its in- 
testine feuds, make himself its .arbitcV, join with one side 
to dfistx'jy the. ^iher ; in a word, to obtain the empire over 

t A. M. 1646. ' • ' . . * 

«Cuk cgoumenoi dtkition rlnai tco orgeo apomnenioneuto en to pisteothenal 

ieci. Z HisTomr irtr rftiLUP^ # 

an. In the lexecution of this great dedign, he spired neither 
ftrtifices, open force, presents, nor pronises.- He enph^s 
for this purpose negoGiatkms, treaties, and affiances, and 
each of them, singly, in^iich a manner as he judges most 
conducive to the success of his design ; advantage soMy de- 
termining him in the choice of measures. 

We sl^U always see him acting under this second char- 
acter, in all the steps he takes henceforth, till he assumes 
a third and last character ; which is, preparing to attack 
the great king of Persia, and endeavourinc;) to become tht 
avenger t>f Greece, by subverting an empire which befin^ 
had attempted to^ut^ect it, and which had always eonthm- 
ed its irreconcileable enemy, either by ojien inraaion or te* 
crct intrigae. 

We have seen that Philip, in the very beginning of hfa 
reign,;had seized upon Am{^updiis,43ecaQseweU situated f» 
his views ; but that to avoid restoring it to the Athenian*, 
"who claimed it as one d ^eir colonies, he had dedaved K a 
fi^e city. But atthis time, being nolongei^ under suctt great 
apprehensions from the Athehians, he resumed his forner 
•design of seizing Amphipdis, *The Inhabitants of this city 
-bdng threatened with a speedy siege, sent ambassadors to 
the Atbeniaos, ofEbring to put themselves and their city un» 
der the protection of Athens, and beseeching; them to accept 
the keys of Amphipolis. But that repirf)lic rejected their 
o^r, for fear ctf bfeajting the' peace they had concluded tlia 
preceding year with PhiUp* t However^ this monarch wa» 
not- so deUcate in this jwint ; fop he besieged and took Am- 
phipolis by njean» of the intelligence he carried on in die 
city, and made it oat of the strongest barriers of his king? 
dr^i. Demosthenes, in his orations, frequently reproachci 
the Athenians with their indolence on this occasion, by rep- 
resenting to them, that had thin' acted at this lime with the 
expedition they ought, they would have saved a confederato 
citv, and spai^ed themselves ik, multitude of misfortunes. 

4 Philip had promised the Athenians to give up Amphipo- 
]i9 into dieir hands, and by this promise had made them su- 
pine and inactive ; but he did not value himself upon keep- 
ing his word, and siiVcerity was in no manner the virtue ho 
professed. Sor lar from surrendering this city, he also pos- 
sessed himself of Pydnaf and of Potid3&a.| The Athemana 

*Dein«iitfr. I^Iyntli. W p. a. 

i A. M. 3tf4tf. Ant. J. C. 308. Dtod. p, 411. ' > 

i TOod. p. 411, 

\ PydQa, a city of MMiedoa. fitiMted on the golpk tnciqitly called $ltm 
fthfTstuAent, and now Golfo dt Salonchi. 

I Potidaea, another city of Macedonia, on the bordcn •£ asdcnlTl^ace. K 
w» b»c €9 ttidia, or three Uagiict tnm Olynthn*. 

t^ tti&t>oftt or -FvcLf p* JBook XlK 

kefi a ganiflpn ihtho ktter; these bedismisBfid^tthbttt do*' 
tng them the least injury ; and gave iq> this cit;^ ta the Oiyn> 
thoans^ tOienga^ them in his interest* 
' * From thence he proceeded to seize Crenides* whick ihe 
Thaoans had bniit two years before^ and which he called 
Philippi from his own name. It was near this ctly, after* 
wards famous for the defeat of Bratns and Cas^tts^ that he 
efiened certain gold mines, which erery year produced np* 
itmrds cC 1000 talents, that is, about, 144,0001. sterling ; a 
Hgious sum of money in thai age# By this means mcmey 


ftroe mor« current in Macedon than befim \ aad Philip 
Urstoaased. the golden species to be coined there^ which «mt;- 
^ed t moaarchy. Supecbmty of finances is of eodkss ad^* 
vanUge to a state ; and no prince understood them better 
thaii Phil^ or negtected them less. By this fund he %as En- 
abled to maintsdn a fpo werlid mrmy of fbreigbers, and fo bribe 
A Dumiber of creaturfs in most of the citiea of Greeoe. 
• I Demosthenes sa3rs Chatwtien Greece -was ia .ita most 
Hoori^ing cdHditfan ^^ gold and silver were ranked hi the 
^ JMmtef of prohibited arms.^ But Philip thought,, spoke 
and acted in a quite i£ffereftt maimiBr.. |(It is said that, con^ 
•tiiltlfig Uie oracle rsf Dciphos, he Teceitvd the foUowing aai» 

: ' .. Jr^reai9 taykahi makoUi kai fianta kr^teicU. \ [ 
. , Make toiq tbjr'weipoot ud thoalt coo|Qer ill 

' •J'h'e aidvfcfe of the priestess became fus rule, and' he apli 
plifed It with, gr^at success. He owne^.that he had carried . 
more places by nioncy than arm s^ that he never forced;a gate 
till afterhaying attempted to opea It .with a golden key ; ^d . 
that {iq did not thihk any fortress impregiiaUe into wluc4x ^ 

i Gr^hM Xlcxandro regf mii«io Ailt lilt 
ChoBdius, IncultiB qui venlbus et maTe nttd ' * '. , ' 

RettuUt «ccepto«, rcg&lc ntifniMii*« Phl1ipiM><i. 

Homt. U li. E^iUiLostift* 

• Chf rilvs tho Pqican fmt^ ^PVov^d^ 
Himher«n»zd£dweU, »ful him helov'd ; . 
Hi* dull uneven verfe, by a gr«at goo<l U%pt 

* GbthidrlUsiavOurs, and'afiif citato. 

. Crotch* Hor« ' 

I Philip. m.p, pa. 

^J Sojdw. . * ; . 

H k sunt finmCTati aurtt-trecent! numfni, qui vocantor Phinppt. ' 

» Plaut. \aTpcn. ' 

ntde laden \vith silver tduld find' entratce. * It >89 been 
said that he was a merichaiit rather than a conqueror ; that 
it was not Philip^ bat tiis gold, which suMued Greece ; and 
fixkt he bought its cities rather than took them. He had pen- 
sioners in all the commonw^ealths of Greece, and retained 
those in his pay who had the greatest share in the public af. 
lairs. And indeed he was le«s proud of the success of a bat- 
^ethan that of a nego(»ation, well knowing that neither $is 
generals nor hissoAdierB coold share in the honour of the lat« 

Philip had married Otympfas, dati^te^ of Keoptolemns. 
The latter was son of Alcetas, king of Molossus^ or £piru8« 
OiyinpiAfr brought him Alexander, surtodmedtfae Great, who 
tf as iborn at Pella, the capita] of Mteedonia, the first year of 
the 106th Olympiad, t rhilip, who ai that time wasiabsent 
from his kin^om, had Uiree very agreeable iadvices brought 
him ; that he h$id ctcrfied the prize In the Olyinpic games ; 
^lat Parmenio, one of his .generals had gained a great iricto- 
ry over the Hl^rians ; and that hi$ w^e was delivered of ft 
son. Thisprmce, lernfied at so signal a hai^ppiness^ which 
fi^e heathens thought frequently the oipen of spme ;n«timfiil 
catastrophe, cried out, ^ great Jupiter, iq retArn for j»o many 
*'< blessings, Send ihe as soon as possiWe «o^e slight nusfor*. 
tune.." . 

§ W^ rtiay forjA a judgment of phili^^s care and attention 
iwith regard to the education oi tins prince, by the letter he 
^rote a tittle after his birth to Aristotle, to acquaint him 90 
early, that hp had made choice of him for his son's precep* 
6)r. ' " IaK> to inform you,'* said he, *^ that! have asonborn^ 
*' I return thanks to the gods, notsa much for. howg given 
^^hlm to roe, as to have giy^n him in the timethat AristoUe- 
f^ lived. X may justly proouse mya^lf tha|; yoii w^U^sake luit^ 

# CaU&dtt* emptor OlyntUL 

■ Juy. «5it. xa. I. 4n 
^mppw aiajore ex pMte oeratovc^i^eiip, quam victor. 

niffidit ko»thim .. ■ . 

POf ta« ¥ir Macedo, ct subruit xmiilos 
Reg^ miineribus. . ... |taAt.Ji^iat«4,a«t. 

When cligfh^' mu! tvh^n ixt%'At» fM, 
fheis^lden 'w^«II^otm titfaVe the tf^ll 1^ 
Gold PbiKp'siltfAi)Kingh •*ertltrew. 

CP«ch*i Hor. 

f A. M. 3^. Ant . |. Qi is6. Plut» in iMcx p ^6i, Jitttte. t».icfi, <, i (L 
iPTut. in Apopbth. p, lE?^. 

t Plvtaich suppoKs that thl»new4 yr*% l^^oucM lUm IttmMlMelf tfcc» iM 
^ftl&S bf PotMK, Init ihU city ^ bem takpa two MMpfttitore.. 

U Hif TOit or PHILIP. JSook Xir, 

*^ a sucoessop worthy of us both, and a king vorthy of Mace* 
^ donia/* What noble thoughts arise from the perusal of 
tSiis letter, far difierent from the mamiersof the present agef 
but highly worthy of a great monarch and a good £^ther ! I 
shall leave the reader to make such reflections on it as he 
shall think proper, and shall only observe, that this exam- 
ple may serve as a lesson even to private i)ersons,as it teach- 
es, them how highly they ought to value a good master, and 
the extraordinary care they should take to find such an one ; 
^ for every son is an Alexander to his father. It appears 
that PhiUp t put hjis son very eariy nader Aristotle» convinc- 
ed that the success of studies depends on the foundation first 
laid ; and that the man cannot be too able, who is to teach 
the principles of learning and knowledge in the manner they 
ought to be inculcated. 


% This II was a body of infantry, consisting of 16,000 hea* 
vy-armed troops, who wew always placed in tlie centre of 
the battle. B^des a sword,^they were armed with a shield, 
and a pikci or spear, called by the Greeks sarissa. This 
pike was 14 cubits long, that is, 21 French feet ; for tlie cu- 
bit consists of a foot and a half. 

The phalanx vras commonly divided into ten corps, or bat- 
talions, each of which wa^ composed of 1600 men, 100 feet 
in rank, and 16 in file. Sometimes the file of 16 was doubled, 
and sometimes divided according to occasion ; so that the 
phalahx was sometimes but eight, and at other times S3 
deep : but its usual and regular depth was of 16. 

The nMce between each soldier upon a march was six feet, 
or, whica is the same, four cubits ; and the ranks were also, 
aibout six feet asunder. When the phalanx advanced to- 
waixls an enemy, there was but three feet distance between 
each soldier, and the ranks were closed in proportion. In fine, 
when the phalanx was to receive the enemy, the men who 
composed It drew still closer, each soldier occupying only the 
space of a foot and a half, 

♦ Ftfi^amnt A!^«ndhii<i dir! nobis, ira«HMltnin gremto, dlgnnm ^ntt cu% 
infimtem . (qaanqum ratM culque d|c9Uf eA.i QnifitH, 1, {,0,1. 

t An Phttllppoi Macedonum reii Alexandra ftlio mo priiiia literttum eletnen- 
tatradi ab&rittotele fumma ejui letatb phU<wo|>ho voiuU-et^ttt iUc autccplnet 
hoc omciam, si mm atudlonim inltia a parfectininio quoque opUoM tractari, 
|»crtinere ad rammam credldlisct i Quintil. ibid, 

;t Polyb« U arft, p,.7tf4*-7tf7, (d« 1« stti, p. tf64.<^ fnitraend, Aciib. . 

\ Dccifn et sex milla PediivAt more Macedonam armati fuere, qai phalanr 
cm aweUaJbantur. Haec «r.edU adcf IWt in froote, in decern partet divU4» 
' Tit, Imv, I, xu«Utf.iiv'49. 

•SRp^, /. nisr^kY or m«u». ii 

Thk ts^idently flhows the dfflbre&t space wludi fhe front 
^the phalanx took up in theie three cases, soppodng the 
^hole to consist of 16,000 raen, at 16 deep, and conseqaentfy 
Always leoo menin front. Tliis ^pace, or distance, in ttie fir* 
'Case was 6000 feet, or 1000 fathoms, which make ten lor* 
dongs, or half a league. In the secc^ <»tae it was but halC 
as mttch^ and took up five furlongs, or 500 fiithoms.* And* 
»in the third case, it was again diminished another half^ and 
extended to the distance of only two furlongs and a hau^ or 
S50 fathoms. 

Polybius exarnittes the phalanx in tHe second case, in which 
'it marched to afttack the enemy, l^iiere then was three feet 
•in breadth and depth between each soldier. We observed a^ 
i>ovc, that their pikes welt; 14 cubits long. The space be* 
tween the two hands and that part of the pike which project- 
^ beyond the right, took up four, and consequently die pike 
aivaficedten cubits beyond the body of th^ soldier who car- 
ried it. This being supposed, tlie pikes of the soldiers placed 
in the fifth rank, whom I wiU <»il the. fifths, ard so of thti 
rest, projected two cubits be}*<xid the "first raiik ; the pikea 
-of the fourths, four.; those of the thirds, sfx ; those^ot the 
seconds, eight cubits; in fine, the pikes of the soldiers who 
"forni^ thefirst Tank, advanced ten cubics towards the ene- 

The reader wiH «ia^y conceive, that when the soldiers 
?who composed the phslan jr, this great and utiwieldy machine^ 
wery part of whith bristled with pikes, as we nave seen 
Tiioved all at once, presenting their pikes to attack the enemy, 
.that they must charge with great wee. The soldrers, who 
were behind the fifth rank, held their pkes raised, hut ix- 
-oiinittg a lilfle over the ranks who pi-ecedcd them ; thereby 
forming a kind of afoof, which, not to mention their shields, 
>fecttrcd them from darts discharged at a distance, which 
fell without doing tliera any hurt. 

The soldiers of all the other ranks'heyond the fifth, could 
iiot indeed engage a^inst the enemy, nor reach them with 
their pikes, but then they ga%*e great assistance In battle to 
those jn fi'ont of them ; for by supporting them behind with 
the utmoj^ strength, and pi-opping them with their backs, 
they inc;*eased in a prodigious manner the strength and im« 
T^etuoslty of the onset, they gave thdr comrades such a force ; 
as rendered them immoveable in attacks, and. at the same' 
time deprived them of every htupt or opportunity of flight by 
the rear ; so that they were under the nccessit/ cithet to 
■conquer (HT die. 

• Five itadis; 


And indeed Polybius acknoTfledges, that as long as the sol^ 
dier!$ of the phalanx preserved their d^sposijtion and order a» 
a phalanx, th^t is, t& long as t}>ey kept tlieir ranks in the 
close order we have described, it was impoauble for an eR. 
.emy either to s^staii^ its weight, or to opep and break it.-?- 
And this he demonstrates to us in a plain and sensible man- 
ner. The Roman soldiers (for it \s those he compares to 
the Greeks in the place in' question,) says he, take up in 
tight three feet each. And as they must necessarily move 
about very much, either to shift their bucklers to the right 
and left, in defending tliemselves, or to thrust with the point, 
or strike witli the edge, we must be obliged to suppose this 
distance of three feet between eveiy soldier. Ip this every 
Jioman soldier takes up six feet, that is, twice as much dis* 
tance as one of the * phalanx, and consequently opposes 
* singly two soldiers of the first rank ; ^nd for the sape rea^- 
son, IS obliged to n)ake head against ten pikes, as we beforie 
j[)bserved. Now it is impossible for a single soldier to breajc 
or force his way throygh ten pikes. 

tThis Livj' shows evidently in a few words, where he de- 
scribes in what manner the Romans were repulsed by the. 
Macedonians at the siege of a city. The consul, says he^. 
made his cohorts to advance, in order if possible to pen^f 
trate the Macedonian phalanx. When the latter, keepinj^^ 
jL'cry close togptli^p, had advanced forward their lon^ ^^»»i\ 
the itomans having discharged ineffectually their jamins 
'agairtht the \Iacedoniahs, whom thejr shield^, pressed vety.-* 
close together coyered like a ropf and atortoise ; tl)e.*H«2! ^ 
nians, I say, dri^w theiy swords. But it was not possibile^^*. 
them either to come to a plose engagement, or cut or braa|^. 
the pikes of the enpmy ; and it they happened to culiyij, 
break any of them, the broken piece of the pike servetl^s- 
a point ; so that this range of pikes w^th which thp frp^t fjf 
thephalanx was armed, stj 11 /existed. ■.\'-^.. 

I Paulus -ffimilius, owiied that in t)ie battle with Perseus, 
the last king of Macedon, this r^i^inpart of brass, and'fgi^e&t 
of pikes, impenetrable to his legions, ftlled him yf\xh. terix>r 
and astonishment. He did not j-emember he said any thing sp 
formidable as this phalanx \ and oixksfk afterwards declared, 

* It was before safd, that each soldier of rbe phalaoz took ag threp 
feet when he aiJvaoced co attack the enemy, and bvfthalf as much 
when he watted bis confiog np. In this last case each ftoman 9(4- 
(Ijcr was obliged to make head agajasf ^9 pikes. * , 

t Liv. l,zxzii, o, 17. 

^ Plut. in Paul. iEmil. pj.^6j. 


that this dreactfu! spectacle had made so strong an impressiou 
opon hitn, as almost made hhn despair of the \ ictory. 

Froraf what has been said above, it follows, that the Ma- 
cedonian phalanx was invincible ; nevertlieless, we find bf 
histbry that the Macedonians and theii phalanx were van- 
quished and subdued by the Romans. It was invincible, repU- 
edPolybius,so long as it continued a phatenx, but this hap]xm- 
ed very rarely ; for in order to its tneing so, it required a flat 
even spot of gi-ound of large extent, without either tree, bush, 
intrenChment, ditch, valltey, hill or ri\^r. Now we seldom 
find an even spot of ground^ of 15, 20/ or moi^e furlongs* in 
extent ; for so large a space rs necessary for containing a 
Whole arniy^ of which the plmlanx is but a part, 
• But let u8 suppose (it is Polybius who still speaks) that 
a tract of ground, such as could be wished, wtre found ; yet 
of what use could a be Jy of troops drawn up in the form of 
a phalanx be; should the enemy, instead ot advancing for- 
ward and offering battle, send out detachments to lay waste 
the country, plunder the cities, or cut oflTthe contoys ? That 
in "case the enemy should come Kb battle, the general need 
only command part of his frcrnt, the centre for Instance, ta 
give way and ffy, that the phalanx may have an* opportuni- 
ty of pursuing them. In this case it is maniifest the phalanx 
-would be broke, and a large cavity made in it, in which tiiis 
Romans would not fail to charge the phal^x in flank on the 
right and left, at the same time tliat those soldiers, who are 
pursuing the enemy, may be attacked in the same manner. 

This reasoning of Polybius appears to me very clcai*, and 
at the same time give^ us a very just idea of the manner 
in Which' the ancients fought ; which' certainly ought to have 
its place in history, as it is an essential part of it. 

Hence appears, as Mr. Bossuctf observes after Polybius, 
the diflference between the Macedonian! phalanx formed of 
one large body, very thick on all sides, which was obliged to 
move all at once, and the Roman army divided intosinall 
bp^icS) which for that reason were nimbler, and conse- 

. * Three quarters of a league, or a» league, or perbtpt more. 

fDUcourseoQ UniversaT History, 
. I Statarius uterqae milei; ordioes scfvaoi ; sed iUa phalanx im^ 
foobiHs, et unttts geoeria ; Romaoa acie» d^inctior, cY plutilius par* 
tibttr constaot ; faciiis partitnti quacamque opus esset, facUis jon^ 
f eati. Tit. Liv. I, ix, n, 19. 

Eraot pkraque sylvestria circa, tncomoioda phalangi, maxime Ma« 
ced^otDy qas, ni»i vbi praslotigis bastis velac vallvm ante ctypeos 
rnhfoakf qood nt fiat, Ubcro caoipo opos est, cullius admodam usaa 
cat Id, i^vu^t Oi 39. 

V& nnromr or niii.i^. -Book JIFl 

^uently more aptly ^i^ond for motioM ofeveiykind^ TUe. 
phalanx caiuiot kng preserve its. natural property (these aar«^ 
l^olybuift's words ;) that is to aajy. its solidity sad tliickness,. 
^cause it requires its pecv^iar ^pots of gromd, and those«. 
as it were, made purposely for it ; and that for want of mchl 
tracts^ it incunb^or ratW breaks itself by its own viQtion». 
not to meotioDf that^.if it is once broke, the soldiers who com^ 
pose it can never rsdly again. Whereas the Roman an^r» 
oy its division into smaU bodies, takes advantaee <tf aU piac»- 
es and situations, and fuits itself to them. It is unitedot 
separated at pleasure. . It files o% or draws tegether, with* 
out the least difficulty. It can very easily deUch^ ra|]y, and 
foim every kind of evolnticn, either in whole or in ptaH, ao 
occasion may req,iiire. In fine, it has a greater variety of mo^ 
ttons, and consequently more acUvily and strcnfthttiMi tbm 

niiis eiishM I^iiihv fmiliust to gain hit cflkbntM 
tory over Perseua, He first aliiackcd the piiahnx in frovC 
But the Macedonians keepng very dose together, Mdins 
their pikes with both hands, and presenting this iron ram^ 
part to the enciny, could not be either br<i« or forced iia 
any manner, and to made a dreadfid slmf^rof the Ro^ 
jnans. But at last, th^ uKcvenness of the ground, andtho 
great extent of the front in battle, not allowiQjgp the Macodo^*- 
nians to continue in all parts that range of shields and pikes^. 
Paulus iEnulius observed, tliat the phalanx was obliged !• 
leave several. openings and iittervals. Upon this.ho at«^- 
tacked them at Uiese openings, not as before, in front, and 
ia a general onset, but oy detached bodies, and itk diflSerenft 
parts, at one and the same timo. • By tliis means the phal*- 
siDx was broke In an instant, and its whole force, which coat 
usted merely in its union, and ^e in^^ression it made b3\ at 
onee^ was cntir^y lost, and Paulus .^mitus gai)U9d Hio >»•» 

* Plottrch 111 Paul, ^nil, p. %6St t66: hw, I, ^sliv. n, 41 % 
f SfctiDds Iqri^lfnnisia diMipiidt phtlstvgem ^'Dcqne olla evM»». 
ffior c»nsa vtctoris foit, ^aam ^od molta paniai prdslia cnot»qu»« 
floAuaBtem mrbarunt primo, detnde dkjeceraot phalaogem ; cdjus. 
«oiifertae. et intcotii bcrrentis haitii, Intoiersbilmvirei nmt 81 carp* 
tim aggredieodo drcnmageM isimokUsM Ungilndiact et graviftte 
hastam cogai, coefiMa straie inplksatar ; -ti vero ab kttf e« sat sh^ 
teigo, aliqvid taoiQkot iQcrepsk,rain«medotsfb«Qtsr«^8icstt«m 
adversvt catervBCim irrneotet Romaoo** et ioterropta mnkifariaas 
acie, obviam ire cogebantur t et RoaBani» quacamqae dataioMnmlla, 
fl|seot, ioiioQabam ordinei tuot. Qgi ti aaivcrM acie is frmMeas^ 
adverfoi instru^am phalaogem concucrcnent— iodsiacBl sa hs< ti »^ 
ac^ cfuaftttsin acjcm •UKiswyaenc* Tit 1«| v». 


'■ •The same Polybitts, in the twelfth book abore dted, de- 
scribes in few words the order of battle observed by the 
cavalry. According to him, a ac^iiadron of horse consisted 
of 800, generally drawn up 100 in front, and eight deep, con- 
sequently such a squadron as this took up afurk)pg« or 100 
fotlioms, supposing the distance of one fathom, or tux feet^ 
for each horseman ; a space he must necessarily havc,te 
make his evolutions and to raUy. Ten squadrons^ or fcOOO 
horse, occupied ten times as much ground, tliat is, ten fur- 
longs, or 100^ fathoms, which makes alx)uthalf a league. 
• From what has been said, the reader may judge how much 
ground an army took up according to tlie number of voSsxl- 
Iry and cavalry of wliieh- it consisted^ 



DiscoRDt, which fomented perpetually in the Greeks 
jdispositions not very remote from an open rupjoare, broke 
out with great violence upon account of thePhccians. Those 
people, who inhabited the territories a^ljacent to Delphos, 
ploughed up certain lands tliat were sacred to Apollo, wliicli 
>vere thei'eby pvofaned. Immediately the people in the 
ineighboulrhood exclaimed against them, as guilty of sacri- 
lege, some from a spirit of sincerity, and others in order 
to cover their private revenge with the veil of religion. 
TThe' war that broke but on this occasion was called the sa- 
cred war, as undeitaken from a religious motive, and last- 
ed ten years. The people guilty of tliis profanation were 
summoned to appear before the Amphyctlons, or states- 
general of Greece : and the whole affair being duly exam- 
ined, the Phocxans were declared sacrilegious, and sen- 
fenced to pay a ^^eavy fine. ^ .. 

Philomelus, one of their chief citixens, a bold man, and 
of great authority, having proved by some verses in^ Ho* 
iner,' that the sovereignty of Delplws belonged anciently to 
tlie Phocs&ans, inflaiae& tliem against this decree, deter- 
mines them to take up arms, and is appointed their gen- 
'eral. He immediately went to Sparta, to engage the Lace- 
daemonians in his interest. They were very much dfegnsted 
at the sentence which the Amphyctions had pronounced 
against them, at the solicitation of the Thebans, by which 

• Lib, tii, p 6^ii 

+ AM 3649, Adr'j. C. %s$> I>iod I,XTi,p 4«5— 453 
4lliadJ, ii^T, 516, • 

B 2 

It vnrowr ow rmttt. JSooH XIK 

Ihejr liad fae«ft alao condnwied t» pay a fine^ lor having: 
flttzed i^Km thtt citadel of Thebes by fraud and violenioe. 
Arohidamua, ooe of the kings of Sparta, gave Fhilomelus 
a handsome reception. This inenarch, liowever, did not 
dare to declare openly in favoinr of the Phocasans, but 
promised to assist him^^^ith money, aad to funueh bm se-*- 
cretly with troops, as he accordingly did. 

Phtlomelus, at lus return heme, raises soldiers, and be-- 
gins by attacking the temple of Delphee, of which he pos-t- 
sessed himself withmitany great difficulty, the^ inhabitanta 
fkf the country making, but a weak I'esistance. . The* JLo-- 
erians, a peqile'in the neisMmrhood of Deiphos, took amm 
against him, but w«:« defeated in severalrtucooulers. Vhu 
lomelus, encouraged by these first successes, increased his 
trocps daily, and purhimsel£- in a condition to carry on 
his enterprise with vigour.- Accordingly he enters th* 
templey tears from the pillars the dect'eef of the Ati^yc^- 
tions against the Phocsans, publishes all over the country 
that he has no design to seize the riches of the tem{^ and> 
that his solb view is to restore the Phoosans ttteir ancient- 
rights and privileges, it was necessary for him to have a 
sanction from the god who presided at- Delphos, and to re-- 
eeive such an answer from the oracle as might be fsvoura- 
ble to him. The priestess at first refused to co-operate on 
this occasion ; but, being terrified by his menaces, she an*- 
fiwered that- the god permitted him to do whatever he should 
think proper ; a circumstance he took care to publish -to aU* 
the neighpounng nations. 

The a9air was now become a serious on^. The Amphyc-- 
tioos meeting a second time, a resoln^on was formed to de-- 
clare war against the Phocxans. Most of the Grecian na- 
tions engaged in thb quarrel j and sided with the one or the • 
other p.irty . The Boeotians, the Locrians, Thessalians, an4 - 
several other neighbouring people, declared in favour of the 
god ; whilst Sparta, Athens, and' some other cities ofPelq)-- 
onncBUs, joined with the Phocxans. Philomclus had not yet 
touched the treasures of the temt/le ; but being afterwai*ds 
not so scropuk)Us, he beheved that the riches of the god 
could not be better emplbyed than in his (the deity's) de-- 
fence, for he gave this ^ecibus name to this sacrilegious at- 
tempt ; and being enabled, by this fresh supply, to double 
the pay of his soldiers, he raised a very consideiDble hodf 
of troops. 

Several battles were feught, and the success for sonaue tipie 
seemed doubtfai on bot^ sides. Every body knows &ow much; 

• Or Locfi, 

nett. Ml. nwffmr or r»ttx». 

tfdigpous iraH aire tobcidrQadod ; and til 
nrhioh a £a]9e z^al^ wh«& TMled with-so voteraUe aname) is 
asgH to ^ Tine Thebaa^haYiagiii a nocoiiiitcr t^ecn aev« 
end pnsaaersy condeniMd thcAm all to die as facfites^oos 
-wrelGhe%who w^reexoamiBiiaicated.- Hna PhocamM did 
Sesame by way of r^iriaaL l^ese iMd at fint gained tev- 
eral adnmtag^es ;Jbut having beeadekated ia a great iMUtle, 
PhilomeliM, their leader^ bemg.^ofidy attacked upon as em-- 
iaonce from whidv there was no retreaUag, defended him* 
selflor along time with iariadblebravetyy which however 
not avaiBng, he threw him«eUt headldag fcem a rocliy ia ov-- 
der ti^ avoid the tormoDts he must naavoidably have ander- 
gone» had he laHeo alive jBtetlie hands of hiaeoeHues* Ob«' 
omarchus was his •ueeeawf^ and teob upon hiai the eom*- 
maod of the forces. . 

* Thb new geaeralbftd'seen lemd a fresh attny. the ad-- 
tantageotts pay he oflered procmring hisa soldiers mm all 
s4de!^« He also by dint of mopey braUglbA over several chiels 
of the other party^and prevailed upon them either to retire^ • 
of to do Uttle^or nothings fay. which he gained great advaa- 

Philip thought it most consistent with his interest to re- 
main neat<^r m this general movement of the Greeks ie fa« 
vomr either of the Phecnans <r of the Theban& It was coe*- 
ttstent wstMhe ps^cy of this arobitioiis princey who had lit- • 
lie. regard for l^eligion or the kMberest of ApoUo, but was al- 
ways mtent upon Ins own, not to engage in a vrar by which 
he OQuHd not reap the least benefit ; and to takss advaoAageof 
ft juncture^ in which all Greece^ employed and divided by a« 
great war^ gaiiv htm an opporouttty^ Mb extend liis frontiers, 
and push his conquests withoua^my apprehensisR of opposi- 
tim. 1^ was also well pleased to see both parties weaken* 
and consuaae each other, as he should thereby be enabled to- 
&11 upon thetn afterwards with greater advantage. 

t Being desirous of sul^jeetmg lluWGet» and of seeming the 
. conquest he had already madein it^ he determined to pos- 
sess himself of Methane, * small city, incapable ef 8«|)port- 
ing itself by its own str<»gth^ but which gave htm disquiet, 
and obstructed hk designs wheo^er it was in the hands of 
his enemies^ According)^ he besieged that citjr, made him- 
self master oif and jm^ed H. - t lie lest' one of hiseyca before 
Methcme;^ by arer>» stoguUr accident.. Aster of Amphipo- 
]£s had olfbred his sendee to Philips as so excellent a marks-- 
mtaa^t he ceiM hHiif df»whird9 in their moot i-a|Mffi|^ 

•^A. M: 36ji; AYit J. 0- zsr* 
fMU.^% i^atJ^C. 3/4^ SijhL p.494^. liMAttriftifv^aH 

to msTORt or FHfuP'. £dok XIV.' 

The Dlonarch made this answer, ^ well, I will take yoa int» 
.** my service when I make war upon starlings ;" which aos-? 

• wer stung the cross4x>wman to the quick. A repartee proves 
fifteu of £tal coBsequence to him who makes it, aad it is not 
a small merit to know when to hold one's tongue. After bav-^ 

-ing thrown himself into the city, he let fly an arrow, on which 
.was written, •' To Plulip's right eye," and gave him a most 
•cruel proof that he was a good marksman ; tor he hit him in 
his ri^t e> e. Philip sent him back the same arrow, with 
this inscription, '^ If Philip takes the city, he will hang up 
Aster ;" and accordingly he was as good as his word. 

• A skilful surgeon drew the arrow out of Philip's eye witk 
80 much art and dexterity that not the least scar remained ; 
aad though he could not save his eye, yet he took away the 
blemish, f But nevertheless this monarch was so weak, as 

- to be angry whenever any person happened to let slip the 
word Cyclops, or even the word eye m his presence. Men, 

' however, seldom blush for an honourable imperfection. A 
Lacedsemonian woman thought moi*e like a man, when, to 

- console her son for a gflorious w^und that had lamed him, she 
said, << now, son. every step you take will put you in mind o£ 
•*you1r valour.''^ 

% After the taking of Methone, Philip, ever studious either 
. to weaken bis enemies by new conquests, or gain new friends 

• by doing them some important service, marched into Thes- 
saly, which had implored his assistance against the tyrants. 
The liberty of that coimtrf seemed now secure, since Alex- 
ander of Phera& was bo more. Kevei'tSieless, his brothers, 
who, in concert with his wife Thebe, had murdered him, 
grown weary of having some time <'Kted the part of deliver- 

> ers, revived bis tyranny, and oppressed the Thessalians with- 

• a new yc4&e. Lycophron, the eklest of the three brothers 
who succeeded Alexander, had strengthened himself by the 
pi*otection of the Phocseans. OnomiarGlius, their leadei*, 

' Inrought him a numerous body of forces, and at first gained 
a considerabk advantage over Philip j but engaging him^ a 
second time, he was en&rely d^fi^ted, and his army routed. 
The flying troops were pursaed to the 8ea-«hoi'0. Upwards of 
6000 men were killed our the spot, among whom was Ono-- 
marchus, whose body was hung upon a gallows ; and 3000 
who were taken prisoners, were thrown into ^e sea by 

• Philip's ofder, as so many sacrUegioos wretches, the pro- 

• fessed enemies of religion. Lycophron delivered up the city 
. of Pherx, and restored Thessalf to it»lib^ty by aiAXidoBiBs; 

• Plin. 1. vii. c. 37. 

t DfOMt PbiOcf; do B|oci|t, t. ISaH | IHod. p. 43^«^43$' . 

^ By tbeHamv lacccsi oCthis cxp^ditioii, Phflfp aoqmrcd 
for ever the abjection of the Thesaatians^ whow excellent 
^vairy, joined to the Macedfmian phalaB% had alterwarda 
90 great a ihare in hia ▼ictories and Ihoee of hia son. 

Phayllus, who mcceded his hrother Onomarchoa, finding 
HxBi aame advantages he had done, from the iaunense richea 
h» &M»nd in the temple, i*ai»ed a numerous avmv ; and, siip>- 
ported bsr the troops ef the LaoedicinoDiansy Atheniass, and 
the other alUes, whom he paid v^ry largiel^^ he went into 
Boiotla ai^ invaded the Thebans. For a long timo victcair 
shifted sides ; b\it at last, Fhavlli]&beia{; atucked with a sod*- 
ien and viokot distemper, aner suffering the most cruel toiv 
mentS) end^ hisiiie In a manner worthy of hif impiedes. 
and saorilegious actions. Phakcus^jthm very young, the soo* 
of Onomarchns, was placed in his roeoi i aiid Mnaseas, a 
ntxn of great expeneace, and sitDpngly attached to hia fsnl*- 
^^ yfm app<»nted h«s connaeUor. 

The new leader treading in the 8tq» of hia predecessors^ 
^nnderod the temple as they had doncisad enriched all hit 
ttieods. At Issl the Phocs&ans opened their e^es, and 9p* 
foiiited eoanmsslQiiers to call all those to account who had 
iMQr oonoom in th^ pobUc monies^ Upon thb Phaleous was 
deposed ;, and, after an exact iiwiury, It was feund, that 
fioni the heginning of the war there had been taken out of th# 
tesni^e upwards of ia,000 talents, that is, abont l^QO^OOOL 
. PhMip^^S^^haring.^edthfiThesaaliaasyivttdb^cdLtQGBV^ 
ry his arms into Fhocia. * This is his first attempt to (|tt 
looting'ln Greece, and to have a share in the general aflbirs 
«l the Qreeks, (rom which the kings of Maoodoa had always 
beeen e^^ foreigners, in tius view, upon pa c e tc ucc 
erf gdng^over into Phocia in order to punish the secrSfgioni 
Bhoceans, he r^archea towards Thermopyllp, to jfKSssess faiin* 
adf of a ^ass xrhich gave hbn a free passage ihto Greece^ 
and espoGlally into Attica.. The Al^nians, vpon hnanng 
fif a march Mrhi^h might proTQ of the most'fatal oonseqnence 
to tbeob hastened to Th^ssopytir^ and possessed thenuidves^ 
^ry seaaonabiy of this importaat pass, lyhlcdi Philip djki not 
dare attempt to ftroe ; , so that he was obtiged to tua back; 
kito 'Macedonia., 



As wO shall soon see Philip engaged against the Athenr^ 
«&8^ and as they, by Uift strong- exheartatioiis and .prudeafc^ 


cxMinsete of Demosthenes, will become his giteatest enemies 
and the most powerfid opposers of his ambitious designs, it 
may not be improper, before we enter into that part of tii^' 
history,- to give a short account of the state of Athens, and 
•f the disposition of the citizens at that time. 

We must not JForm- a judgment ef the character of the 
Athenians,: in the age we are now speaking of, from that of 
their ancestors, in the time of the battles of Marathon and 
ef Salamin, from whose virtue they had extremely degener- 
ated. They wei-enO longer the same men, and had no lon- 
ger the same maxims^ and the same manners. I'hey no kn - 
ger discovered the same zeal for the pi)blic good, the same 
application to the aflbirs of the state, the same courage to 
support the fatiguea of war by^ sea and land ; the same caT« 
of ^e revenues, the same willmgness to hear salutary advice ; 
the same diEcemment in tiie chbice of generals of the armies, 
and of magistrates to whom they intrusted the administra- 
tion of the state. To these happy, these glorious dispositions, 
succeeded a fondness for rejMse, aAd an indolence with re- 
gard to public aiKkirs; an aversion for military fatigues, which 
3iey now left entirely to mercenary troops ; and a profusion 
of the public treasures in games and shows ; a love for th# 
flattery which their orators lavished upon them ; and an un« 
happy facility ita Oonferring public offices by intrigue and ca- 
bal ;• all which usually precede the appi-^aching ruin of statesf^ 
8uch w«$ tSie situation of Athens at the time the kibg of Ma- 
cedon began to turn his arms agafnst Greece. 

We have seen that Philip, after varibui'eonqUests, had at^ 
tempted to advance as far asPhocis, but in vain ; because the 
Athenians, justly alarmed at the impending danger, had Stop<^ 
ped him at the pass of Thermopy le . * Bern osthenes takin|; 
advantage of so fevourable a disposition of tilings, mounted 
the tribunal, in order to set before them a liv^y image of the 
impending danger to which they were exposed by the bound- 
less ambition of Philip ; and to convince them of the absolute 
necessity they were under, from hencc^ to apply the roost 
speedy remedies. Kow as the success of his arms, and the 
yapidtty of his progress, spread thix)Ugii Athens a kind of 
terror bordering very near upon despair, the oratsor, by' a 
wonderfiil artifice, first endeavours to revive their courage, 
and ascribes their calamities to their slo^h and indolence ; 
for if they hitherto had acquitted themselves of their duty^ 
and that in spite of their activity and tlieir utmost efforts, 
Philip had prevailed over them, they then, indeed, would 
Jiothave the least resource or hope left. But in this oration. 


JSfiCf. lit HISTORY or JPBIL^P. X> 

und all those which follow, Demosthenes iniMsts stroDgly , th«t 
-the grandeur of Philip is wholly owing to the supineness of the 
. Atheniail^ ; and that it is this supineness which makes him 
bold, daring, and swells hjni wit);^ such a spirit of haughtiness 
,as even insults the Athenians. 

«' See," says Demosthenes to them, speaking of Philip, 
^* to what a height the arrogance of that man rises, who will 
*' not suflFer you to choose either action or repose ; but em»- 
** ploys menaces, and, as fame says, speaks in the most inso* 
*' lent terms ; and not contented with the first conquests, but 
** incapable <!f satiating his lust of domimon, en^ges every 
•* day m some new enterprise, possibly, you wa^t till ncccji- 
^' sity reduces you Xq act ; can any onp be greater to free- 
^* bom inen than shame and infamy ? Will you then for .ever 
-^^ walk the public place with this question in your mouths, 
. " What news is tliere ?" Can there be greater news than 
** that a Macedonian has vanqiushed the Athenians, and 
** made himself the supreme arbiter of Greece ? " Philip Is 
." dead,'^ says one ; " he Is only sick," replies another." 
" His being wounded at Methone had occasioned all these 
" reports. " But whether he be sick or dead is nothing to 
*< the purpose, O Athens \ For the moment after heaven had 
^' delivered you from him, should you still behave as you now 
•*5 do, you would raise up another rhilip against yourselves; 
*' since the man in question owes his grandeur infinitely more 
*' to your indolence than to his own sti^ngth." 

But Demostherxes, not satisfied with bare remonstrances, 
or with giving his opinion iu general terms, proposed a plai), 
the execution of which he believed wwild cl>eck the attempts 
of Philip. In the first place, he advises the Athenians to fit 
out a fleet of fifty galleys, and to resolve firmly to mati them 
. themselves. Hereqij'ires tjiem to reinfoi-ce these with ten 
galleys lightly armed, which piay serve as a convoy to the 
fleet and transports. Witli regard to the land forces, as in 
his time the general, elected by th^j most powerfiil factioir, 
formed the army only of a confused asscmblagje of foreigners, 
and mercenary troops, who did little service, DemosUienes 
"Tequires them to levy no hio^e than 2000 cljospn troops, ^op 
of \Yhich s^ail be Atnenians, and the rest raised from among 
the allies ; with 200 horse, 50 of wl^ich shall alsobe Athenians. 

Tlie e3cpepce of this little army, with regard only to 

provisions and other matters independent from their pay, 

' was to amount to little more per month than 90 * talents 

(90,000 crowns,) viz, 40 talents for ten convoy galleys, at the 

'^ate of 20 minac '(1000 livres,)' per month for each galley j 

. * Bach Uloot WM worth io<>9 erownf . 

'9i insToat oy fhili»* Book XIK 

40 talents for the 2000 Infantrf) and 10 drachms (5 li vresj 
per month for each foot soldier ; which 5 livres per month 
jnake a little more than three pence farthing French money 
per diem. Finally, 12 talents for the 200 horse, at 30 drachma 
(15 livres.) per month for each horseman ; which l5 livrea 
-per month make 10 sols per diem. The reason of my relaw 
tog this so particularly is to {five the reader an idea of the ex- 
'Jpences of an army in those times. Demosthenes adds, if an^ 
one imagines, that the preparation of piDvisions is not a coa- 
isiderable step, he isTery much mistaken ; for he is persuade 
«»d, that provided the forces do not want provisions, the war 
will ftimish them with every tiling besides ; and that with- 
out doing the least wron^ to the <Sreeks or allies, they wiU 
not fail of suiticient acquisitions to make up all ileficienciea 
and amears of pay. 

But as the Athenians might be surprised at JDemos^enea* 
requiring so small a body of forces, he gives tliis reason for 
it, viz. that at present the commonwealth did not permit the 
Athenians to oppose Philip with a sufficient force in the fields 
and that it would be their business to make. excursions only:, 
.Thus his design was, that this little army should be hover- 
ing perpetuaUy about the frontiers of Macedonia, to awe, ob- 
serve, harrass, and keep dose to die enemy, in order to prQ-> 
vent them from concerting and executing such enterprises 
with case as they might think fit to attempt. 

What the success of this harangue was is not known. It 
is very probable, that as the Athenians were not attacked 
|)er8onally,they, according to the supineness natural to theni^ 
were vtry indolent with regard to the progress of Riilip's 
arms. The ^visions at this time in Greece were very fa- 
^vour^ble to that monarch . Athens and Lacedsmqnia on one 
side employed themselves wholly in reducing the strength of 
Thebea their rival ; whilst, on the othet side, the Thessalians, 
In order to free themselves from their tyrants, and the Thebr 
ans, to maintain the superiority which they had acquired by 
the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea, devoted themselves in 
the most absolute manner to Philip ; and assisted him, un- 
idcsigtiedly, in making chains for themselves. 

Philip, as an able politician, knew well how to take advan- 
tage of edl these dissensions. This king, in order to secui^ 
liis frontiers, had nothing more at heart than to enlarge them 
towards Thrace ; and this he could scarce attempt but at the 
expence of the Athenians, who since the defeat of Xerxes 
had many colonies, besides several states which were either 
their allies or tributaries in that countrj'. 

Olynthus, a city of Thrace, in the Peninsula of Paliene, 
I one of these colonies. TheOlyn^hianshad he^iat jgreai 

variance -i^hlh Amyntas, father of Philip, and had even very 

:much opposed the latter upon his accession to the croM*n. 

However, bdng net iirml>* established on his throne, he at 

iirst emp^fsed disshnnlation, and requested the alliance of 

•the Olyntihians, to Whom some time after he gave np Fotidxa, 

-an Important fortress, which he had conquered in concert 

"Rrith and ferr them, &om the Athenians. When he fonnd 

idmself able to execute his prefect, he took proper measciit;^ 

dn order tp hesie^e-lMynthns. The ii^abitants of this city, 

-who saw|he«torm ^i^hering at a ^d8taiice,^had recourse te 

.^e Atliemans, of 'Whom tli^feqvKHked immediate aid. The 

affair was debated Sn an assembly of <he people, and as it wsis 

of the utmost impcfttaiic^ a ^reat nuari^er of orators met in 

the assembly. £ach of them mounted it in his toni, wfakh 

was regulated by their ^0e. Demostheiie*, who was then 

4»it 34, dad not speajc tiB after hia s^i^rs bad discossed the 

•matter a long time, 

'* In th'is t di^cottrBe,4lie orators thebetter t««ucoeed in his 
aim, alternately tei'rifies and encourages the Athenians. For 
itfais purpose, he represents Philip in two very diflerenrligktr. 
^ jOh one side, he Is a man, whose unbounded ambitioo tiieem* 
fnre of the world cocdd not satiate ; an haughty tyrant, wh« 
•looks upon all men, and even his allies, as so many subiecta 
«r skves ; and wh<^ for dtatTeaaon, Is no less inecnsed by 
itoo slow a submis^on, than an often revolt ; ^a vigilant politic 
cian. Who, always intent to take advantage of the o^xnaghta 
^md errors of oUs^s, s^ees entery favooraUe opportunity ; 
-an inde£iktSgRh&e wignribr, whotan his activity multiplies, and 
who supports perpetually the nryost severe toiis, witheiit ailow<^ 
4ng himsetf a momenf 6 repose, or having the least regard to 
•the diflerencje of seasons; an intrepid hero, who rushes 
through dbstades^ and plunges into the mhlst of dangers ; a 
4:orruptor, who with his fmrse traflks, Ixiya, and employs 
^old not less than iroa ; a happy prinoe, on whan fbrtunfl 
lavishes her &vcKirs,'and for whom ahe se^ma to have forgot 
lier inconstancy: bat on tfie ctlier side,>this same Philip ia 
an imprudent man, who measures his vast prefects, net by 
lus ^?ren^th, but mexxily by his ambttion ; a rash man, wha 

• Olyndi. U. 

f Tbe orati(Mi whieh f>ettiosl!heee8 fttme^ztt^ sC Ihattime is ^efi* 
«tail7 looked opoo at the teeond M the ihttt Olya^ivfiS ^hicK re« 
^ 3ate to Clifs rabject. But M. de Toarreil, iblcily oa tht'stfthorky dl 
DioD'yeiat H<riesm€«Mfwif i which ataf ht Co he of great weijght 0a 
«iil« oocSMOO.^a&isw thi; a»d«r geoti^Uy obirnred ia Xledbottheoeft* 
oratiooa, aod placet this at the bead of the Olyodiiacs, Though la«l 
of this opioiou, I sbaUidaertibe «miaiia-k fekc teder they are printed, 

56 HISTORY OF fBiLir. Book XIK 

\yy his attcmptB, digs hinvself the grav£ ofl4i own gnmdeor, 
and opens precipices before bim, down which a small effort 
vouki throw him $ a knave, whose power Is raised on the 
most ruinous of all fbundations, bneach of faith and villaiay ; 
an usurper, hated universally abroad, who^by trampUngupi- 
on all lavs, human anddiyine, has^oade all najtions his ener 
mies ; a tyrant, dejLesled even in the heart of his domioiona, 
in which, by the Infamy of his manners, and other vices, he 
has tired out the patience of his captains, his spldiers, and of 
ail his subjects in general \ to con^ude, a peijured and im<r 
piGius wretch, equally abhorried by heaven and earth, and 
whom the gods are now upon the point of destroying, by any 
hand that will ;adniinifiter to their wrati), and second their 

This is the double piotureof Philip %vhich M. de Tourreil 
draws, by uniting the several detached lineaments in the pre^ 
sent oration of Demosthenes. In it is shown th^ great treer 
idom with which the Athenians spojce of so powenhl a mon^ 

Our orator, after having nepreseoted Philip one moment 
as formidable, the next very easy to be conqneml, conchideS| 
that the only certain method wut i^ucing sudi an enemy, 
.would be to iieferm the ne>v abuses^ to revive the anci^t orr 
dor and regulations, to appease, domestic dissensions, and to 
suppress tlve cabals which af% incessantly forming ; and aM 
tlus in such a manner, that every thmgmay unite in the sole 
point of the public scrvioe ; and that at a common expenoe^ 
<iver)r man according to his at^tie^, may concur to the des» 
£r.uctioD,of the common enemy^ - 

Deipades,* bribed by Philip^'s goijd, opposed yery strenn* 
ooaly tive advice of Qemosthenes, but in vain ; &ir the Athen- 
ians sent, under the conduct of .Chares the geoend, 30 gaBeys 
and Si^OO men J(o jsug»>ar the Olyntbians ; who^ in this urgent 
necessity^ which so nearly affecttsd all the Greeks in genial) 
co^id obtain avistance. only from the Athenians, . 
. However this suc(;K)ur did vsA. preymt the designs of Philip, 
or tlie progress of his arms ; for he marches mto Chalcis, 
takes several .]:^9es of stcengih, the fortress of Gira, and 
spreads terror throughout the whole country. Olynthuls be- 
ing thus in great danger of an invasion, and menaced with 
fiU^truc^pny aenjt a second embassy 4o Athens, to solicit a new 
reinforcementu Demosthenes argues veiy strongly in fa^ouv 
f)f their revest, andprovea %o the A^enians that jthey were 
equally obliged by honoured interest to have regard to it; 
This is the subject of the Ol^nthiac, generally iaken as the 
third. > ■ .. . • M- ' .' . -.- i 

if 8oi<iB«^a VMC JOkiifmUif 

fStcL IIL .xisro&r OF VHILIP. ^f 

The orator, always animated with a strong; aad lively zeal 
Ibr the safety and glory of his country > endeavoui's to uitimi« 
date the Athenians, by setting before tliem the dangers witli 
which they are threatened ; exhibiting to them a most dreads 
^ prosp^ of the fntore, if they do not rouse from their le-> 
ihargy : for that in case Philip seizes upon Ulynthus, he will 
inevitably attack Athens afterwards with all his forces. 
; The greatest difficidty was tlie means of raising sufficient 
sums for defraying the expences requisite for the sucrour of 
Ihe CMyntlmns^ because the* military funds were otherwise 
employed, viz. for the celebration of the public games. 
. When the Athenians, at the end c^ the warof /Egina, had 
eooeiuded a -thirty years peace with the Lacedsmonians, their. 
resolved topvit into their treasury, by way of reserve, 100^ 
talents ereiy year ^ at the same time prohibiting any person, 
upon pain^ of dea^, to mention the emi^oying any part of it^ 
except ior repulsing an enemy who i^ovdd lATade Attica, 
llals was aft first observed with the Warmth aad fervouB 
whicik men hate for all new institutions. Afterwards Peri*"^ 
cles^in order to .mfldLe^ his' oourt to the people, pitspoied to* 
distribute antonuf tbem in times of )>eac«,* the 1000 talenlsy 
aod to Apply it in giving to each citizen two oboli attbepi^ 
lia shows, upon conditicm however that tiiey might resume 
this fund in time of war. The proposal was approved, and. 
the restriction also. But as all concessbns of this kind de- 
geierate one time er other into UcexKe, the Athenians were' 
sa higWy pleased with this ,fii&tribution, called by Demades- 
*^,a g^ by.which the Athenians might be catched," that they 
abscitttely would not suffer it to be retrenched on any account, - 
Tihe aha«e was carried to such a height^ that j&ubulus, one of ■ 
the faction which opposed Demosthenes, prohibited any per- 
•Qo, upon pain of desCth^ so much atf to propose the restoring 
for tbe service of the war, those fundsf which Periclet had* 
transferred tathe games and public shows. ApoUodorus was 
even punished for declariaghiraaelf of a contrary optnion^- 
and £0r iioisttng upon it. 

. ^LIhs absurd profusion had very strange effects. It was 
iaapossibleHo£Qp|^y it but by imposing taxes, the inequality 
df which being^ entirely arbitrary, perpetuated strong feuds, 
tod made the military preparations so very slow, as quite 
defeated &e ctesigns^ of them without lessening the expencc- 
As the artificers and sea-faring people, who composed about 
two-thirds of the people of Atlieas,did not contribute any part 

* These gaRM»,he9f4|es the :tWQ oboli which were dlitribotodl to 
each of the per9on9 pretent, occ»8iooed a great number of other ex« 

* sisTOEY or pvxLiF. JBook XIT^ 

o£ «keirsu{»stancc, and only gave their persons, ^le weight of 
tiie taxes fell ent^pely upon tlM rich. 1 Jie«e munnured iipei». 
that account, reproacbed the others with the public mollies^ 
beiiig squander^ upon festivals, comedies, and the likesu-'^ 
perfiuities. But the pi»{^ being sensible of their superioritjr, 
paid very little regard tso ^leir compiaints, andhadno man^ 
ner of inclination, to subtract from their diversioas, merely 
tn ease people who possessed employments and dignities, fron^ 
-which they were entirely excluded. Besides, an^ person wbft- 
iimiild dare to propose this to the P^pl^ seriously and m 
&nn, wonld be in great danger of his life. 

However, Demosthenes presumed to introduce this subject 
at two difierent times ; but then he treated it with the ntnosip 
aaet and orcum^pection. After showing that the Atheraans 
were iisdispensal^ obliged to-i'aise an army in order to sto{» 
l^e enterprises oll^hilip, lie hints, bat in a distant way, that 
those fiinds urtiich were expended in theatvic repesentadens,- 
fiiight to be emploised for levying and maintaiiunf an armed' 
ferce. He demanded that conmnssiDiierft might be non^ast*^ 
€d, not to enact new laws, there bemg already hot too many 
established, but to examin* and abolish, soch aS'SiMsuld be pre-' 
jiXiiKcial. t<> the commonweakh. He did not thereby become: 
cfcnpxkmsto capital punishntent, as enacted by those 2aw&^ 
because he did apt require l^at they should be actual abol- 
ishedy but only that comnussionem might be nominated to is-« 
spect ^enu He only hinted,, how highly neceagory it. wan. 
to abdisfs a ktw which grieved ^emost zealous citizens^ and 
reduced them to this sad necessity, eithev to ruin ^aemselresi' 
in case they gave their opinion boldly and iaithfTil]y,<^r to dif*< 
stroy their country, incase they observed a fearfsl,, prevari* 
eating silence. 

These remonstrances do not seem tn have had the sneccss; 
they deiservejd^ since in the ixjiti^vi% Olynth&e,^ which ik 
CBDn»T)fionly f^^ed as the iirst, the orator was obliged ta* 
inveigh once' teorc against, the misapplication of tiwr mii« 
itary funds. The Olynthians being now vigoroasfy attado^ 
ed by Philip, and ha«idg hitherto been very zii servcd^by 
the venal suceonrs of At^en.8y required, by a third embassyy 
a body of troops, which should not consist of mercenaries and. 
fbi-eigners, as befi^re, but of troe Athenians, of men inspired 
with a sincere ardour ^ ^e interest txith of thdor- own g^o- 
ry, and the common causer The Athenians, at the earnest 
solicitation 4»l i>enK)6thenes, sentChares a second time, willv 
a reinfori^ment of 17 galleys, of 2000 foot and 300 horse, all 
citi2tes6f Athon^as^CJlynthaansreqfuested. ' 

&&W. III. . . . HISfDRT OF PnitlF. 29 

> *iliefinllowing.}nBftr PhiUppoBsessedhimfldf ofOl^ ^ 

Kelther thesoccoors nor eifot-ts df the Athenians codld defend 
it>fnmvits dooiesti&cneniies. It was betrayfld by £ath3rcrate» 
and l^asfcheaesy two of its. most; emiaent citisen% in actual 
empteyment atthat tittc* TluHiPhilip^Btei-edby the breach 
wMdi his g^ hAd.tnftde« Immediately he plunders this 
uiihAppy city, lays one part oiTtiie inhabitants ia diaiiw,.and 
sells the rest for' slaves :^and distinguishes those who had 
betrayed their city, no otherwise than by the supreme con- 
tempt he expressed for them. This hingYlike.his son Alex* 
ander, loved the tifeasaa, hut abhorred t£e traitor. And, in- 
deed, how can at prince rely upon hiai ^ho has betravcd his 
country I tEvery one, even the cotnmon soldiers of the Ma- 
cedonian, army, reproached £uth>(2rates and Lasthenes for • 
Ihoir perfidy, who^ complainmg to Philip opon that account y 
be. only made this ironical answer, inimitely more severe 
than the repvooch itself : ^^ do not mind what a paclc of vul^i 
^gaf follows say, who caU every tiling by its real name.'* 

The king was oveijoyed atliis bebg possessed of this city* 
-which was c^ tht-tiltiiost iitopoitaiice to faim^ as. its power 
might have very much cheicked his oooquests. % Some yeai'a 
before, the Olynthians had long resisted the vnited armies 
of MacedoQjuid jL.fteedsm(>oii|. ; wl^reas. Philip h^vd tai^ea 
it with very little resifitance^ M least had a^t lost many men 
io the uege« 

He now caused shows and pobMc games *ta be exhibited 
^ith the utmost magniiicctoc^ ; to thi^ he added feasts, in 
whicfi he made himsell vevy popular,^ bestowing on all the 
guests coosidleral^ gilts» ^d treating ttem with the i^aost 
marks jof his irieodshipi . 


^aiLip declaiies'tor thmes agaikst the pho* . 
. c»ans,-:-he sfi^^Es ON tUERMoprta* 
The Thebans heing .unable aloae lo. terminate the war §^ 
which they had so long carried on against the Phocteans, ad* 
dressed Philip. Hitherto^' as. we besbre mentioned, he had 
cbsei^eda.kindo£iiaitrality w^tbrei^eet to the taored war 9 
and he seemed to wait for an oppoituoityof doclanaf^ him- 
setf, that is, tHl both parses sl^Mild hav^. weakened them- 
selves hf a long ¥iait^ which equally eyhMisted them both. 
iThe Thebans had B0«r veiy much abattvi of that ha^tuiess 

^ • A, M, 3^5^ Aat J, C» ^, lirtKl. I, «v|, 4if— 45»- ; 
tBiod,l,xv,p, 341 tA,M, 36^7, Adc.J,C5,3474 

$ PUit, in Ap9|*|li. Pt.i7<» ' . .• 

c a 

3d sxsToicr *€fr rmcLtT. Book XJT^ 

and those ambKi«ugiyi e<r» wi t h vrltichitbeTTctegiies «€ Epifli^ 
inon<ias had itttfAivd thenc The Mtaot thmsfare that they 
requested the alUamsB^i l^hilip, be rcaelved fo eipouse the 
interest oE that re|nibl»y in oppiaiitioo t^ the Fhocxasift; H» 
had not lost night o£ the profect he haA lormedrof obtielnBr * 
an entrance ioto Greece, in order to make hianself nastev c# 
it. To j^ive saccesa to his design, it yn» proper &r hita tm 
declare in fumur of one of the two pasties whiehat that tine: 
divided all Greece, that is, either for the Thehans, or the: 
Athenians and %artans. 

He was not so void 6f sense astohnaj^elfllat^the Usttar 
party wouid assist his de8i|;|i^ of carrying hts^avmb iiit9» 
Greece. He tbevefore had no more to do but tn Jem the 
Thebans, ^vho ofiered Hiemseiires vohnttarilir to hin^ andb 
-who stood in need of Philip's power to support tlKms^rev 
in their declinini^ condhion. He therefore declared at once 
in tbeiv favoar. Out to nve a^specioiis-Goloiiv tsius anaSf 
besides the gratitnde he afected lk» have at heart for Tbe^ 
hes, i» whicii»he had been edttcdted,he 4tlso pTvtended to 
iviake an henovr of the seal witb wkk^hei^as ired, ^itiy 
regarrd to the violaled God! ; and w&ST« pass Jent 
a Tsligioas prinoe^ i»ho irantity espoused the canse dt thd 
god^ and of ine temple of Delphns^ ia^ order ta conciliate^ by| 
tlhaMaeanSrthe esteem and Mcnd^ip* of the GreslBs. 9ol* 
iticians apply every pretext to their views, and entauronv ta 
screen the moftt or^ atliSMpts with thts vcii. of probity, 
and sometimes even of rtliigion ; dioofh they very ^^qneaCr- 
]^ have no manner of. regard fo(P either. * . 

* Thereiwas naCtax^ Phili]^ had more at heavt than ta 
possess himself of lliermopylsB, as it^opened hsttta^passage 
into Greece ; to appropr iate i JI ' ^c honour of the sacred war 
to himself, ns if he had.heeQ-{^rineipal in that afiuir, and to 
preside In the Pythian g^mes. He was desirous of aiding 
the Thrfjarts, and by their means to posses^ himself of ftio- 
cis ; but then, in ofdfer to put this dooblfe desfgri* in execu- 
tion, it was necnwavy toi him so keep it Meret inmi the 
Athenians, wiko had actmitty declared w«r against T&ebes^ 
and who for many years hanl'been in >amancewtthtbe Pho- 
txans. Hit buftinesk^ l^crefore war to nafee tfaeia)diaa|;e 
their sseasitrel, by placing e^ep objeeu mihcic ^ssw.^ and 
en this occasion thNrpdlities of FldlipsacoecKiod to a wtmier. 
The Athenian, t^o began to growiiired ofia-wairiwluek 
was very huiliieiiGMhi^ and of )icde ^micfit «a tftuBBi, Isad 
commissioned Ctesiphon and Phrynon to sonnd the intentions 
of Pldli^ididin l^liat manner he^tdbd^dlBpoBbd wHS r^rd 

; Dcaostb, Ont, 4k lUfciLsgai, 

topeade; - TboBir Botntod Ahal Bi^didtnot ftpfkeav «fers^ 

to it^ and : tbait he vrtnpexpteafied d •f^at iife^ion for tho 

commotswctalllu. Upon tlni, tberAtetdanfirresoWcsd to sencl 

a solemn embassy, to enqu««arefitrfClly mto-Uie touth of 

tbiiigs ^tel to pr«cKito Ihe litsi oxptantttions^ fvevrawiy dc- 

cedsaDf Id so kiH>cfvtaiit * negomtiom* ^^Achines «i)d I^f 

mosUieoes wese anMo^ liieleii ambassadors) who broughi 

back three fromp Phii^, yvs>. ATftipattry ?arm«niOf and £u* 

Tylodwat. . Ail .the tien 4xe(5iitadr tbsir eotnmissien very fait)i4 

iuliljy4 «^ gliT9l%iKSif vEfodaceavQt of it^ Vyien tkjis tUey 

ippese iiwAodialeiy simt> back- withrfuU. pe>9iei:t to conclude a 

peace; >a& tadijiri^b)^ oitfW) - }l was^tben 2i>eQvoeitkeives^ 

f^bo. ki his iifsft toAwa^ lianl sftet aome. A^^^niaii captives 

kv MaeBiosd»i\BJt^bii,fa^Hiiee4 toiifjbuntaad random 

tbnai^ ^ hm own BJ^>«i9eT>»dciB««iir9 t(> «Ba<^ himself t» 

kecp^faiB mood $ fltidy ul ^» neaii- time^advises hia colleagues 

torembMic! tchb «to uOMosk eypediOcnf , as theTepublic had 

ecaansaBdfsd. f andrte wail 9a sdo» as peBsSbla ifpoiv Philip^ 

ia; vhat pbuaa soe^ev to migbt be. However, these, instead 

%£issfiMkif;9i9poGiif^f^mp9Mtif^»xh9f were deswed, go aq 

smbaasaiior'it pacis^ ipfMoeee^ to MaoedeiUfrby land, stay thr«e 

HMMiChs ittliiat^GOiMitvy,; aitd )[i^ l^b^lk^ tine to x>os&«fi& hiiii«- 

ae^of several otlMrnraMg piai^ea b^^Bgi«g> to t)]e Atheni^ 

ana ia Thrace; At laaK, meadegr y9ifik the king o^ Maaedo- 

niat,4hey a|;reewkbionpiipoi|p urtielesofpeace ;, , bet having 

luSiedthmna^cep iriththie9peei<iiispretaiice of*a treaty he 

defbvsedithe nui^calfftt e£ iLix^m day tp day^ Vhilip had 

ibiradr means to eotmpt the; aaibafifladora one alter anothea, 

by preasntsy BemnaUMiies; esflcepted^ whe beiag- bet one, 

epposed'hia oaUdagiicfs tor nc^inakmer of purpose. 

I» tbe MMTini tbney FfaiUy mader hia troop» a<Ivaiice co»» 
CimBlly. Beins: arrived at ?&ier;e ia 'JHiessafy, he at last 
Ttttifies the treaty of peace bat refiises t(^ iackide the Ph«h 
czansmit*, Wbex^ mews' W9sbroii|g*hft ta< Athens that Phil- 
ip had signed the treaty, it occasioned very great joy in that 
city, etpeeiallt' t&oe^ tliat were averse to the war, and 
4lreaded the conaeqnences of it. Among these waa Iso- 
-cxates. *fie was m ettuien very lealeua for the common- 
•WKoMaa, whoflr prosperity be had very much at heart. Tl^ 
weakiiesa of hie voice, wi^a timidity natural to bira^ had 
preveated hi» appearing ib ptibtic, and fiKNiv meimting Ut^e 
^elhciii^tiie tnbai»l cf h^aaf^et* He had evened- school in A** 
^tiiens^ in wbSch he read rhetoricai iectiire3v and taught youth 
eioqeeace wxtti grea^ reputctiioR and soceess. Jiowever 1^ 
. itild mtttOs^f teiwMBced; the care ^ public aSiuxs ^ asd 

Miocnt, Ofac, ad IiM% 

A^ d^htn- )6ti^^^XM>r'iasmiTf^t>im vocty JbthcT public as-^r 
flemblies; I^o<crate» cdnsrib^ted to it by his tvritiiigfi, Ss-which • 
he tfefiVered hft'thoi%httiy and Uw6e bdng soon* made pub-* 
kc^Weife vefiy cagprlf^adttgHt after.- j 

'0n tlift py««lbnt occia«ion fie #i46t« a pkice of condderaUe * 
length, which he addre^uieff 16 Phflip,: with whom he hdd a* 
correi^Kmdetice^ btit in such terms a^ were worthf a good aad* 
faithful citizen: He w'a^ then very f&r advanced in feArSf 
' being at least 88. Th«i£iiM^ xif Hub idfecoursb . waa to ex*: 
hort PMiip'to talce adWoiage' ofi the peace he lyadjttst be^ 
fot^ toitelhded, tit oitdeir t6 I«c6nctte aUp'the Oreekfaatioiis/ 
and tiStttwi^ «0'tiinf hns aims agaiott .(lie king'of >Feniaj 
The b^irfel^ was to ^ftgagfe hi kMn plan tar tittiiisf oh whidr 
aHtherestfdejbendedjvii^; AOiens^i^p&rta, Thebes^ atid'Ar«^ 
|gb9. Hc^-c^^^sse^ that had Bparta or Athens been as pow'^ 
eHbl as fof^efty^-hb shiMild have been &r from makingL 
SQch a pro{!»o^l, which he waa sensible thef wouhUieiBer ap*/ 
pfdve- ; and which Xhe pflde o^ those two- republics^- whSst 
austained anda^mented by scfecessyWoukli'e^cct'whii dis-^ 
dfiih. Bat that* now, as the^fno^^^powoi'ftit^ cities of Gneecey 
weaned but and e7thaii8t«d t^ Mg wars; and humbled ia^ 
their turtib i:ff- fatal tiev^r6a»'^ iM^uaef have equally- aa i&4r 
tci^est in laying- down th^ir arms^ aad livingin^ peaces poi^^ 
ant €0 '^e eatample whitb'the Athtei^na had bcgitn toae^ 
thenij thepfe^ent is the m^ fefmiraUe opporttmity l^tlip 
Could have to r^K^ncile and ufilte the several cities <tf Greece. 

in case^ he; PhfiipV should* b« so ha{>py iUt'to tecoeedm 
sath a prbject, so ^orious and beneficial a ^Success i^oidd 
^aise- him^. above whatever' had appeared, most augoiit in 
Greece. _ But this pix>ject inr itself, though it should not 
'have so happy ati effect' as he might expect from it, would 
yet infalliWy gain himthe esteem,- the aflectioo^ andbonfi^' 
denre of all the^ nations of Greece ; advantages' iniinite^ 
preferable to* the taking ei ciMesyandall the conquests ii« 
xnight hope to obtain. '• * 

Some perfeonsr iitdeed, who werts prejudiced agiUtisC' Phflipy- 
reprlesent and exclaim against him as a crafty pHnce, who 
j^ves a specious prete^^t to his march, but, at the same 
time, has in reality no oth^r object m view but tfaoeaslavisg 
of Greece. Isocrates, either' from a too great credaMty^-^cr 
'from a desire of briiigirig Philip hito hte views, supposes 
that ramours so injurious as these have no manner of'ibaii* 
dation ; it not being probable, that a prince who g^ries iia 
being descended from HerclileSy the deUver of Greece, . 
shoidd think of mvading^nd possessing himself of it. .Mt 
these very reports, which are so capable of blackening his 
name; and of sullying aB his flory^ shbuld prompt him to 

^i€L ly* IttSTIrttIr or PKILI^i %t 

dtifiodBtrAte thefdlsHf of them m tb« fivesttic« of all Gretce 
by the least aii^icidns of pfooJEi, in Ica^ving and mamtainins 
each city ib the fuU posseaaion of its laws and liberties } in 
remo^io^ irith the utioost care all suspidonB of partiality % 
IB not espousing the interest of one people against another \ 
in wianing the Confidence of all inea by a noble disinterest- 
edness and ananvaviable love of justice : ki fine, by aspiring 
to no otheir title than that of the reconciler of the £ visions of 
Greece^ a title far more glorious than that of conqueror. ' 

It IS ia the hk^ x)f Persia's domhiions he ou^t to merit 
those tei^ tiitks^ The congest of it is open and sure to Ktm^ 
in case he ccmbU succeed ia pacifying the troubles of Greece, 
He should call to. mind that Agesiiaos, witli no other fercoi 
than those of ^arta, shook the Persian throne, and would 
infidlH>ly hare 8ui)verted it, had be not been j«called into 
Greec^^ by ihe intestine divisions which then broke out. 
The si^^ victory of tlie 10^000 under Clearchas, . and 
Cfieir triumphant yetve«t in the sght of imun&erable armies, 
ptove vrhat mi^t be expected from the ymA forces of die 
Macedcttian^ and Qreeks^vfaen commanded by Philip against 
a. prince inferior in every reypect to him vrhom Cyrus had 
endeavoured, to dethrone* . 

Isoctatea concludes with dechiring that one "woilld believt 
the gods had hitherto granted Phii^ so long a tram of success 
ees, with ao other view but that he might he enabled to fmm 
Md execute the gloridus cntetprtsc; the pla»of iithiek hf 
}iad laid bcfbre hsm. ^ He reduces ihe ■ eounsel he gave to 
three heads ^i^is»k thia pvinee should govdm hft <iwn empire 
-wi^ Ytladfloi aad .^ntice ; should heal tiie divisions betweieit 
tiMi.neigbbQafrmgiiatkttsi and all Greece^ wtdioptdesirini^to 
{iQisess any part ofil lumself -^ and this being dcney that hu 
■Ifould tutra his vietorions arms against scounlsry, wMcbfroai 
all ages hud been tbe eaeniy of Greece, aad had ofteu vowecl 
their destructsQBf* It must be confisssed, tiiat this is a mo^ 
ndbfta plah^ anS liigMy ivortiMr a fpvat prince. But laociiates 
had ai very:i«lscridea oiPhOip,if he thcughfc lihis momcrtk 
vrauld ever put itio-cxscutioai.. Philifi did not xxossesa the 
equisy^ nod^aiiony oritiuiatefestedness, which inch a prO( 
ject Quired. He raali^ iutcniMr to attack Ptesia^ but waa 
persuaded that :itwKas. hts business^ to secure hiinself first of 
Gveecr, which; mdecd heiras determmcd tadoynot 1^ servi^ 
cesbut by force. He did not endeavour either to win over 
or persuade nations, bAt slifej^ct sUid* redhee them. As on 
liis side hie fiad no mamwrbf regard for idliacces and trea- 
ties he j«Rdged of others ^ himsei^r and i?as for assuring 
fcrnnelf «#tHem.b)^ tnuoH^tyoAger ties fhdtt those ctf Irkud^ 
ship, gratitude, and sincerity. ' .5 . i ..».{..•>- ;^ 

94 irxsTORr of pbzlif* BookXIf^^ 

As Demosthenes waapfoetlier adqiudnted with the state of 
affairs than Isocratcs, so he formed a truerjudgment of Phil-' 
ip's designs. Upon hisi^etui^ from his embassy, he declares 
expressly that he does not approve ei&er of the discourse or 
the conduct of the Macedonian king, but that every &hig is 
to be dreaded from him. On- the contrary, ^^schines, Tvho 
had been bribed, assures the Atiienians that he had discov-^ 
ered the greatest candour and sincerity in the promises and 
proceedings of this king. He had engaged that Thespiac and 
Platea should be ropeopled, in spite of the opposition of the 
Thebahs ^ that in case he should' proceed so fai'' as td sob-< 
ject the Phocsans, lie would |)reserve them^ and notdothem 
the least injury ; that he would restore. Thebes to the good 
order which had before been observed in it ; that. Oropum 
should be given up absolutely to the Athenians ; and that in 
lieu of Amphipolis they should be put in; possession o^ £u^ 
bcea. It Avas to'iio pttipose that Demosthenes demonatrated 
to his.^Iow citizens, that Pliilip, notwithstanding all thess 
glorious promise^ endeavoured to. possess hitnseli hraa*<ab* 
solute manner of Phocis ;. ■ and that by abandoning in to faaa 
Ihey would betray the Commonwealth^ and give'iq» all'Greecft 
into his hands. He was not heard, and the'oratian oi£^ 
ehines, who engaged, that Philip would'make good his sev* 
eralpromises, prevailed over tliat of Demoitheues. 

*These deliberatit>os g^ve tkat'^vhice-an.oppoFtuni^to> 
possess, hi rtiself of Thermopylae; xmd to ent;er Phocis. : Hitli^ 
erto th^re liad been no possibility of reducing thePhocxans; 
bul Philip. reeded. but ^appearyfor the bare souad of his name 
filled thkm witli terrol*. Upon the 'supposition' that he was 
marching againlst a herd of«acrilegiotts. wretches^ Ootagaiast 
Qommeti enemies,>He ordered all hb sbhliei'S to wear croviis 
cf laurel,' and led under the conduct of'the 
i;od himself, whbie honour thc^ revenged. The iastanl they 
appeared,' the Phocsans believed themselves overcome. Ac-^- 
coi^dingly they sue for peace, aikl yield. to Philip's .'men^y 
4d]o .gives PKalecbs their Ica^der leave to retire nrto Felf^^^ 
emiesus, with the ^8000 men in. his service. In this mkoaer * 
J^ii)ip, with very little. trottbley engrossed aU. the honour of ' 
aiang imd.blobdy war, which had cxhanbted. the fonses o^ 
both parties. fTfaia* %^tmy:gained him' ind^iblo honour 
tbroi^hout all Greece, and his glorkms exj^edition was.the* 

.; • A, M, 5^58'— Aat.' J, C, J46— Blod. 1, xti, p, 455. : 

t locrcdibife qumtam €s rep apud osmctiistiotict Pbttf^po.glmt 
Aediiu Ijlaip viDdiccm isc^egir, Ulam fileofeni r^ligiootfin-* /les* 
qoe pyt p%w^mf^% ^s|hc)i^i per ^[acm dcdram tt^jcstti v&idicata bU 
Jttftln« 1, viiij C, 2. ' . .;. .. ..... >, . «: 

Seet^ IF. K2ST0RT or rHXLiP.' 35 

topic of all^conifersatioiis \j\ that country. He w^ consider- 
ed as the avcBger of sacrilege^ and the protector of religion; 
and they almost ranked in the numbier of the gods the man 
who had defended their inajefity with so jnuchccuiagc and 

Philip, that he might not seem to do -any thing by. bis 
min private authority, ,in an afi&ir ' which contemed aU 
Oreece, assembles the council of theAmphictyoos, and ap^ 
prints them, for form saj(.e, supreme judges of the pains an4 
penalties to which the Phocsans had rendered themaeWea 
obnoxious. Under the name of these judges, who were en- 
tirely at his devotion, he deci^ees that the cities of Pbocis destroyed, that they siiail all be reduced to small 
towns of W hiHises each, ^d that tfiose towns shall be at 
a certain dfetaqce one from the other ; tliat those wretches 
whohave committed sacrilege, shall be absolutely. proscribed; 
and /that the rest sha^l not enjoy their {jossessions, but upon 
condition of paying an* annual, tribute, whi<ii shall continue 
to be levied tiU such time as the whole .sums taken out of 
th0 temple of Delphos shall be repaid. PhiUp did not for- 
get himself on .this occasion. After he had subjected the re- 
bellious Fhoc^ans, he demanded that their seat in thecoun- 
cil.of the Ampliictyons, whiph th^y had heen declared to 
have forfeited, should be transferred to him^ The Am* 
phictyons, the instrument of whose v.engeance he had now 
been* were afraid of rej&ising him, and accordingly admit- 
ted*hijn a n^ember of their body ; a pircomstance of the 
highest Impof^ance tojum, as we shall se^in the sequel, and 
of very dangerous consequence to all the rest of Greece. 
They ^so gave hiixi the superiotendence of the Pythian 
gaines,>in conjuootion with the Boeotians and Thessalians ; 
became. the Corinthiansv.who posses^d this privilege l^th- 
ertO) had rendered themselves unworthy of it, bf sharing in 
thesacrjyLegeof thePhccseans. * 

Whe.n i*ews wj|sh«xmght^ Athens of the treat^nent which 
the .Phocxans had . met w ith, the former .percei ved> b«t t«o 
Jate* the .wrimg step they had taken in refusing. to comply 
with the councils of Demosthenes ; and in abandoning thern.- 
selves blindly to the vain jind idle promises of a traitor who 
had sold his country. Besides the -;shame and grief with 
which they were seized, for having failed in the obligatioiis 
of the* ccmfederacy, they foupd that they had betrayed their 
own interests in abai^cmii^g their allies ; for Philip, by pos* 
sesaing himself of Phocis, was become master of Tliermnpy- 
)xy which opened him the gates,- and put into his hancU 

' • JKUuhe Pbocjeaiw, - ' . 

W Htsr<»iir ^07 TMiLtt* Book XIF>, 

•the keys df Greece. *The Athenians, theivfore^ beng 
alarmed upon thdrown accoont) gave orders that the wo« 
sneft and children should be brought out of the country ioto 
the city ; that the walls should be repaired and the VirtoMB 
fortified, in order to put themselves into a state of defeii09 
in case of Invasion, 

The A^enians had no share ki tke decree by vluch 
Philip had been admitted among the Amphictyons. They 
perhaps bad absented themselves purposely, that they might 
not authorise it by their presence ; or, -which is more pro* 
bable, Philip, in order to remcrre the obsUcles, and avoid 
the remoras he might meet with in the execution of his de« 
sign, assembled such of the Amphictyons only as were cn» 
tirely at his devotion. ' Id shoi^t, he conducted his intrigue 
so very artfully, that he obtained his ends. This election 
«(iig)it be disputed as clandestine and irregular ; and there* 
fone he required a confirmation of it from the people, who^ 
a6 members of that body, had a right either to reject or rat- 
ify the new choice. Athens received the circular invitation ; 
hut in an assembly of the people, whkh was called, in ordeif 
lo deliberate on Philip's demand, several were of opinion, 
that no notice should be taken of It. I^emosChenes, how- 
ever, was of a contrary x>pinion ; and though he did not ap- 
prove in any manner of the peace which had hsea concluded 
with Philipj he did not think it ^ould be lor their interest td 
infi'inge it in the present juncture ; since thlit could not 
in done without stirriag up against tlie Athenians, both 
the new Amph!ctyon, apd those who had ded^ him.r— 
His advice therefore was, that they ^ogld not expose them- 
selves nnteasonably to the dangerous consequences which 
might ensue, in case of their determinate remsaft to consent 
■to 3ie almost unanimous decree of the Aaiphlctyons ; and 
f>rotestQd that it was thdr ioterest to submit for fear of 
worse, to the present conditioned Hie ^mes ; thSktis^tb com- 
ply wi«*i what it was not in their power to prevent. This 
4s the subject of Demosthenes^ discourse^ entitled, Oration on 
the peace. ^Vc may reasonably believe that his advice was 




Atter Philip hjid settled every tiling relating to the 
•worship of the godf, and the security of the temple of Itel- 

; Demoit. dc fals. Ugit. p, $tt, fA, M, i^^o-Aot. J.C, 344- 


phos, he returned into Macedonia w ith prcat ViV.ry. nt.t! U.c 
reputation of a religious pimcc and an intrci i.t ct^ r. 
•Diodorus observes, that all those wVr> Iwtd ^ll.l^td in bi<- 
famngand plundering the temple, ptri>hcd nii*<ral>h,ah<l 
came to a tragical end. ♦ 

t PHilip* satisfied that he had opened himself a r-^'-CC 
Into Greece bv his seizure of Thi nr.op) Ix ; tint lit- 
subjected Phocis ; had cstahli>hcd himselt one of \hcjx:''yi% 
of Greece, bv his new lU^nity of Ami>hirtvon ;! th.ii he 
^ad gamed the esteem and ai>vliiiisc of a'll umi .:ts Lv lil% 
^al to revenge the honoiir of the deity ; judged vci/t.iu- 
dently, that it would be proj>er for hiro'U) .stnj, his rrrttV, in 
order to prevent all tJie states of Greece fn>in lulU^ arms 
against him, m case they sliptJd discover too sotm KiV an J.i- 
tious views wittj regard to tltat countrv. In on»t-r t!.cr« f. • *• 
to remove all susx^icion, and to soothe the disquiundcs m hu h 
arose on that occasion, he tunx-d his arm» l!h:i.u 
purposdv to extend Ws frontiers on that ri^'.e, at.d lo kii»> 
always his troops in exercise by some nt-w e>.]:t (!j- icn. * 

The same motive pron.pted him aftcrwai (S to v, cvrr 
into Thrace. In the very beginning of his rtign Iv h^d ('.iw 
possessed the Athenians of several stnm*' i']..rc.^ in thnt 
country. Philip still carried on his n.urM[\iH Uui c. fSi.l. 
das observes, tliat before he took Ohnihus. l;e h..d vmu'.v 
liimself master of .32 cities in Chalcis ^vl.u•h is part cf 
•Tnracc. Chersonesiis also was situated \ er'. c^nnm <!u nvly 
tor him. Ihis-was a very ri«h ptnir.sula/in N^hic li t]»eic- 
were a mat number of powcrfbl ciiiis and fii.e pastuic 
lands. It had formerly belonged to th«j Ath<M.iuis, Tiic 
inhabitants ofit put them?iclves under tlie protection of La* 
cedxmonia, after Lysander had destro}al Athens, but tab- 
mitted again to their first mastei-s, after Conon, the 5on of 
Timotheus,had reinstated his cf.untn . Cotvs,kii;g(.f' Hirare 
then dispossessed the Athenians of Chrrson'HJs • C bnt it 
w:»s afterwards rcstoi-ed to them bv C'herM4>]cpinVvrn <f 
Cotys,^ who findmg himself unable to'defcnd it v.y ii,ut PhiH]», 
gave It up to them the f(«rth year <ifii^eh.6tu\)lvTnpi;.d; 
reservMng however to himself Cai :Iia, ^vhich was thr movt 
considerable city of the penuisii;a. and formed, as it wert-, 
the gate and entrance of it. t;Mt. r Ihiii]) hrl deprixcd 
L^hersobleptus of his kingdom, wlr h l.;i.)pcncd the st^rrrd 
year of the 109th Olympijid**, the inhabitants of Cardii 
bemg afraid of falling into the hands of the Athenians, 

»»AM 3669-ADtJC 335 ^ ^ 


■who claimed their city, which formerly belonged to them^ 
submitted themselves to Pl^ilip, who did not £ul to take 
them under his protection. 

*Diopithes, principal of the colony which the Athenian^ 
had sent into Chersones^s, looking upon this step in Philip 
as an act of hostility against the commonwealth, without 
waiting for an ordpr, and fully persuaded that it would not 
be disavowed, marches suddenly into the dominions of that 
prince in the maritime part of Ttiriace, whilst he was 
carrying on an importai^t war in Upper Thrace \ plunders 
them before he had time to return and make head ^gainst 
hin;, and carries oflF a rich booty, all which he lodged safe 
in Chersonesus, Philip not being able to revenge himself 
in the manner hP could have fished, contented . himself 
>yith making grievous complaints to the Athenians by let- 
ters upon that apcoifnt, Sucli as received pensions froni 
him in Atl^ens served him but too efiectyally. These vcr 
rial wiretches loudly exclaimed against a conduct, which, 
if not prudent, was at l^east excusable^. Tb.ey declaim a- 
gainst Diopithes ; impeach him of involving the state in 
a war ; license him of extortion and piracy ; insist upoii 
his being recal]ie49 and pursue hfs pond|^mnati6|i fyfth the 
utmost heat and violence. 

Demflisthenes, seeing at this jtuicture that the public wel- 
fare was inseparably from that of £)iq>ithes, undertook his 
jdefeace, which is the subject of his oration of Chersonesus, 
This Diopithes was father tq M^nander, tl^e comic poetj 
whom Terence has copied so feithfully. 

Diopithes was acc^s^of oppressing the allien by his un- 
just exactions. However, Demosthenes lays the least stress 
on this, because it was personal ; be nevertheless pleads 
^is apology (transiently) from the example of alj the gene-r 
rail, to whom the islands and cities of Asia Minor paid cer* 
taii]i voluntary contribution §, by which they purchased secu? 
rity to their merchants, and procured convoys for them to 
guard them against the pirates. It is true^ indeed, tiiat a 
man may exercise oppressions, and ransom allies ycry un* 
seasonably. But in this case, a bare decreet, an accusation 
in due form, a galley appointed to bring whom the general 
recalled, all this is sufficient to put a stop to abuses. But it 
is otherwise with regard to Philip's enterprises. Thesq 
cannot be checked either by decrees or menaces ; and notlir 
ing will do this egec^ually, but raising troops and flitting out 

*A M 3^70— Ant J C 3341 Wb»n ^ Dcm«ft, p 15* 
fU was called Par b1o9 


"Your orators," says he, •< cry cat •tcmall)- to yoii that 
** we must make choice cither ot peace or war ; but Philip 
♦• does not leave this at our option, he who is daily meditat- 
^^ ing some new enterprises against us. And can we dcuht 
, ** but it was he who broke the peace, unless it is pretended 
" that we have no reason to complain of him as long as lie 
** shall fbi1)ear makiug any attempts cii Attica and the Pi* 
*^ rxus ? But it will then be too late for its to o])po£e him , 
•* audit is now we must prepare strong barriers against his 
*' ambitious designs. You ought to lay it down as a certain 
** maxim, O Athenians, that it is you he aims at ; that h« 
•* considers you as his most dangerous enemies ; that ) our 
" nihl only Can Establish his trauqijillity aftd secure his con- 
**^ quests ; and tiat whatever he is now projecting, is merely 
^ with the view of falling upon yoo, and of reduc4ng Athens 
<^ to a state of stibjection^ And indeed can any of you be so 
^( vastly simple as to imagine that Philip is so greedy of a 
•* few paltry totras*, (for what othei: hamfc can we bestow 
** on those he now attacks ?) that he submits to fatigues, ica- 
^ s<»is, and dangers, merely for the sake of gaining them ; 
^ but that as for the harbours, the arsenals, the galleys, the 
** silver mines, and thj0 imtnensfe revtoues of the Atlienians; 
^'that he, I say. Considers these with indifierence, docs not 
^ covet them in the least, but will suffer you to remain in 
**^ qtiiet possession of them ? 

" What conclusioiv are we to draw from all tliat has been 
<* said ? Why, that so far from cashiering the army we have 
•* in Thrace, it must be considerably reinforced and strength- 
** ened by new levies, iu order, that as Philip has always 
*^one in readiness to opprfess and fehslave^thc Greeks, we on 
** our Sid6 may always have one on foot to defend and pre- 
*' serve them.*' There is reason to believe that Demos- 
thenes* advice -Was followed, 

t The same year that this oration was spoke, Arymbas, 
king of Molossils, or Epirus, died. He was son of Alcctas, 
and had a brother called Neoptolemus, whose daughter 
Olympias was married to Philip. This Neoptolemus, by 
the credit and authority of his son-in-law, was raised so 
high as to share the regal power with his elder brother, to 
•whom only it lawfully belonged. This first unjust action 
^as followed by a greater ; for after the death of Ar}'mbas,J 
Philip played his part so well, either by his intrigues, or his 
menaces, Uiat the Molossians expelled i£lacidas, son and lau- 

• la Thrace* . f Died. T, otvi, p, 46$, 

I JaftiR. b viiit cb, vi, curtail* the gcDcalogjr of tfii» princei apd 
confottodi thii fucceffioQi 

-40 HISTORY or ipiiLiR. J5oo^ XIV ^ 

ful successor to Arvmbas, and established Alexander, eon of 
Neoptolemiis, sole king of Epinw. Tliis prince was not on** 
ly brother-in-law, but son InUw to Philip, whose daugjiter^ 
Cleopatra, he had married, as will be observed in the sequel^ 
carried his arnw into Italy, and there died. After this, 
/Eacidas reascended the ihrone^of his ancestors, reigned 
alone in Epirus, and transmitted the crown to his son, the 
famous Pyrrhus, so famous in the Roman history, and sec> 
ond coQsin to AlexanSer the Great. Alcetas behig grands 
father to both these monarchs, 

Philip, after his expedition io Hlyria and Tlirace, turned 
his views towards Peloponnesus. •Terr8>le commotions pre- 
▼ailed at this time in this pait of Greece. Lacedsemonia 
assumed the sovereignty of it, with no other right tnan of 
"being the strongest. Argos and Messene being oppressedf. 
had recourse to Philip. He had just befo^ concluded % 
* peace with the Athenians, who, on the faith of tjieir ora^ 
tors, who had been bribed by this prince, imagined he was 
going to break with the Thebans. However, so far froia 
that, after having subdued Phocls, he divided the conquest 
>vith them. The Thebans embraced with joy the favoura. 
ble oppoi^tunity which presented itself of opening him a gate 
through which he might pass into Peloponnesus, in which' 
country, the inveterate hatred they bore to Sparta, made 
them foment divisions perpetually, and continue the war. 
They therefore solicited Philip to join with them, the Mes-*> 
senians and Argives, ia order to hUmble in concert the 
power of Lacedaemonia. 

This prince readily came into an alliance which suited 
with his views. He proposed to the Amphictyons, or rather 
dictated to them, the decree which ordained that Laceda** 
>nonia should permit Argos and iWTesserve to enjoy an entire 
Independence, pursoant to the tenor of a treaty lately coni-^ 
eluded ;.and upon pretence of hot exposing the authority of 
the states-general of Greece, he ordered at the same time 
' a large body af troops to march that way* Lacedsraonia 
being justly alarnled, requested the Athenian^ to succour 
them'; and by "an. em1>assy, pressed earnestly for the coa«» 
eluding of such >u alliance as their. common safety might re^. 
tjuire. The several fioVers, wlipse lntei;est it wa^ to pre-^ 
vent this alttatxce from being cjort eluded, used their utmost 
endeavours to gain their ends. Pliilip represented by lus 
nmbassadors to the 'Athenians th^t it would be very wrong 
in them to declare war agakistlilm ; that ifhe did hot break 
with the Thebans, his nqf doing so was no infractio^^ of the 

^' ' * Dtmofth in Philip ii, Xil>ai|;i ia XklOoiUl^ 

S^cf, r. SHSTOKy or pniwp. 4i 

treaties ; that before he could have broke his word In this 
particular he must first have given it ; and that the treaties 
themselves proved manifestly that he had not made any 
promise to that purpose. Pliilip indeed said time, urith re- 
gard to the written ai-ticles, and the public stipulations ; but 
.£schines had made this promise by word of mouth in his 
name. On the other side, the ambassadors of Thebes, of 
Argos, and Messene, were also very urgent with the Athe- 
nians ; and reproached them with having already secretly 
.fevoured the JLaccdsemomans but too much, who were the 
professed enemies to the Tliebans^ and the tyrants of Pelo- 

* But JDefnostliencs, insensible to all these solicitation*, 
And mindful of nothing but tlie real interest of his country, 
ascended the tribunal, in order to enforce the negociation 
of the Lacedemonians. He reproached the Athenifvns,ac- 
cofdmg to his usual cttstom, with supinencss and Indolence. 
He exposes the ambitious designs of Philip, which he still 
pursues ; and declares that they aim at no less than the 
conquest 6f riU Greece. "You excel," says he to them, 
" botil you and he, in that circumstance which is the object 
** of your application and your cares. You speak in a bct- 
<*ter manner than him, and he acts better than you. The 
<* experience of the past ought at least to open jour C}'es, 
•* and make you more suspiQicus and circumspect with rc- 
•* gard to him : but this serves to no other purpose than to 
•* kill )^u asleep. At this time his troops are marching to- 
•* wards Peloponnesus ; he is sending money to it, and his 
♦* arrival in person, at the head of a powerml army, i^ exn 
•* pccted eveiy moment. Do you think that you wiU be se- 
** cure, after he shall have possessed himself of the territo. 
^ ries around yen ? Art has invented for the security of ci- 
Tties various methods of defence, as ramparts, walls, 
^ditches, and the like works ; but nature surrounds the 
** wise with a Common btxlwark, which covers them on all 
••tides, and provides for the security of states. What is 
^ tills bulwark!^ It is diffidence." He concludes with ex- 
horting the Athenians to rouse from their IcUxargy ; to 
send immediate succour to Uie Lacedaemonians ; and above 
all) to ptmish directly all such domestic traitors as have de- 
ceived the people, and brought their present calamities up- 
on tiiem, by 8|)teading false reports, and employing captious 

The Athenians and Philip did not yet come to an open 
rspture i whence we may conjecture, that the latter dekiy* 

>%mp. a. 


ed bis invasion of PelopKiDnesuSf in order that he vii^ not 
have too many enemies Upon his bands at tlie same time. 
However, he did not sit still, but turned his views another 
-way. Philip bad a long time coasidered Eubosa as pix>per> 
from its situation, to favour the designs he meditated a^inst 
Qreece ; and, in the vcrv beginning of his rewn, had at- 
tempted to possess himselj of it. He indeed set every en- 
gine at work at that time> in order to seize upon that isir 
and) wlucli he called the shackles of Greece. But it near- 
ly concerned the Athenians, on the other side, not to su^r 
it to fall into the b:^nds of an enem^ ; especially as it might 
lie joined to the continent of Attica by a bridge. However, 
that people, agcptding tatbeiir usual custom, contiBued indo- 
lent whilst Philip pursued his conquests. The latter* who 
was continiually attenUve and vigilant over lus interest, .ea« 
deavoured to cairy on an intelligence in the island, aijd by 
dint of presents bribed those who liad the gi'eatest. authori- 
ty in it. ^At the request of certain of the iahabitantji, }m 
scut some troops privately tlwther ; possessed himself of 
several strong plapes ; dismantled Porthmosf a v^rjripipor* 
Vut fortress in £ub(£;a, and established three tyrants i» 
tlngVover the country. Hfe also seized uj)oa Oreuia, ona 
of the strongest cities of E^bcea, of which it possessed tbt 
fourth part ; and' established live tyi^ants over it, whA e)&er« 
cised ah absolute authority there in hi^ naijne. . . - - 

* t Upon thi??,. Plutarch of £retria sent a deputation Jatht 
Atheniaiw, conjuring' them to come and deliyec tliat idioad^ 
every part of \yhich Tvas upon ^he point of submit^iog ent 
tirely to the Macedonians, The Athenians, upon thisj^feBt 
soplie troops, upder tlie command of Pljocion. ^That 'eeue? 
ral had ali^eady acquired great reputatian,. and win havc^ 
in t^e se^ueltf a great share in the administration of a£gur% 
both foreign a^id aomestic. He had ^tudie4 U^ thej^adi^mir 
Vnder Pkto, and aftetwards uxuler XenQQBates,.an4in>thai 
school had formed, hifi morals and his life, upoi^ ih» 4;nodil 
of thq B?ost austere vij^tue. We arje told that tio Athenian 
eyerM^ him laugH, weep, or go ta the public bat}i«» WIm|ii» 
ever he went into the country, or was in the army, he alt 
ways walked ||barefoot, a«d without' a cloak, unless tie 
•weather happened to b.e insupportable gold ; so that tiic 
soldiers used to say laughing : '^ see I 'PhlociQa.haSfgot.^ 
** cloak on \ it is a sign of a hard winter*." » .... • . \, 

•P<a»orth..PWyp.ia,*p,93. f RJ«-.i» Bb«<. f^74^,<7^." ' 

• tlti<I-P. 743— 745^. -. »^ ♦.' '- r» "^ /: 
(I Socrates used ofcco to walk in tl^t i 

He Juiew tbat ttloq^cnee is a necessary quality ki a states* 
man; for ei]at>lH»g him to execute kiapiuiy Uie gi C4t dekij^n:* 
lie inay wuleftajiiie daring bi» adauomFation. He tbcrcfoie 
a^plifd hiipsfU {^rtkukrly to tl)Q ^Uakmeirt of it, an<l 
with tr^at $iicc«9ft» ^«faiiatei that k -waa with words as 
lirith coip^, of /wl^ch tlic most eatotarued ar« tHo«e that with 
loss weight have most intrinaie nUwO) FhoeioH haci (brined 
biins^f to a lively, clota, concise styto» wliich t^cpresbod a 
great iDaay ideag ia few worda. Ap|>earmg one day aUciU 
in an assembly, where ha wat preti^ng to speak, he wua 
a«l$Led the reaisoB ^ \\\ ^^ I am coi|»kkrhig,** says he, 
^ whether it i» i»ot posBible for y^% to rttrtmch any part of 
<< of the disccmri^ I am to aiake/' ,He ^way a strong i va« 
Aoaer, and by t2»M 9)^af)$ carried ^v^^f tiiJl^g agaiaat .the 
most sahliree eloqaooe^ whieii mado JOomostheoM who ba4 
oftienexperiei)cedthidwhia»eyer. he appeared to hanngue 
the public, say, ^' there is Uie, axe whKh cut» away tha ef- 
*( feotaof my words.'^ Oue/wonid imagine that thi» kind 
of olo^aence ia absolmt^y contrary to the geniua of the vul- 
gar, who req^iro the satne. things to bo <rftea re|>e2|tcdf and 
vith greater extent, in order to their bung th« ntore intoiU- 
gii»le. Boi iC waa not so witit the Atheaiaaa : lively peat- 
tratj^g, a»d lovers of a hiddfe^o sense^ they yakied themseliies 
Mpoft imderstaiidlng an oratov at half a word, and roalj^^im- 
deratood. hisn.. FhociOft adapted himfloll I0 their taste, 
and id thia p<^itt wrpKaftodevea Demoatheiiot, whiebif fiaj- 
ing a great d^eaL ... 

' Phadon oin^ervwg that, those persons, who 4t this time 
were cencornod la the adnomistratiea^ had divide^ it into 
^tnilitaryao^ civil ; that ode part as Euhmus, Arii^tophcb, 
Domostheaos^ Lyeurgo*^ and Hypendea, confiaed them- 
34lTe» |nere%^ tO;harangaiiig the paoplef and praposii>g d«- 
«i^a; that the other patt, asDiopithes, X^eoemienes, add 
Cbaj^s^advsk^kced themeehres by aoihtary esoiplo^ mt^ta % he 
chose rather tojmltate the conduct of Solon, Aristides, and 
'Feri(i|emitho'h0d known how to tiaite both talents, th^^vts 
-of g<yv»nUiifint;Mtii lailttary valourw Wiultt he was in aB« 
p)oyS9eDt,i.p«af« and tranquillity were alwaya his object, 
AS bcmig thetiodof eVet y wise govemiQent ; aad yet he com- 
Hiandod. in metre ei^pedttions, not only thmi aB the^nerals 
of hi»time».but<.c\:ea than all hia predecessors. He was 
: jMMMnrod with the «i|Mmne command 45 tjine.% wiUicut hai . 
imgivioe ^aked or made intereat for it ; and waa alwaya ap^ 
.3^mi^ ta Qcnpiqafad thik armieaia hia thernce. The woiid 
was astonished, that being of so severe a turn of raind, and 
.so great an CAteyrt^ iB^ttci^jrcfevtei^khldll how it was pos- 
sible for him> »•» oniaiiiiev. tp fi^i(liui^ovni|^vour thenatur- 


al ktritf and votxmsXsatcf of Ihe Athemans» though &e frc« 
quently used to oppose very strenuously their wUl and cap-» 
rice, wMuxit regard to their captioustiess aad delicacy . The 
idea they had iormed to themselves of his probi^ and zeal 
Ibr the pubUc good^xtinguished every other opinion of him ; 
and that, according to Pkitarcliy gjanerally made his eloquence 
to efieaeious aad triumplifaBt. 

I thought it necessary to give ther«adef this idea of Pho^ 
ciof/s charfteter, because froquent mention will be made of 
him hi the sequels II was to him the Athenians gave the 
command of the forces they sent to the aid of Plutarch of 
Eretria. But this traitor repaid his bene&etors with ingrat-- 
itude, set up tiie standard against them^ and endeavoured 
openly to repulse Wf very arfny he had requested. Howev* 
er, Phocion was tkWvk a loss how to a<^ upon this unfor^eeii 
perfidy; for he pursued his enterprise, won^ a battle, and 
drove Plutarch from Ef etria,- 

After tWs great success, Phocion rfetumedto Athfens ; but 
he was no sooner gonc^ than all the allies regretted the ab*^ 
sence of his- goodness and justice. Though the professed en- 
emy of every kind of oppression and extortion, he knew ho^ 
to insinuate himself mto the Hiinds of men with art ; and at 
tihe same time he made others fear him, he had the rare tal« 
ent of malung them lote him still more. He one day made 
Chabrias a me answer, who appointed him to go wiUi tea 
light vessels to raise the tribute whiolr cerUin cities, in alli- 
ance with Athens, paid every year. « To what purpose,^ 
says he, "is 8«ch a squadron? Too strong, if I am only to 
« visit alVes ; but too weak, if I am to fight enemies." Thfe 
Athenians knew very well by tlie consequences, the signaT 
service which Phocion's great capacity, valour, and experi- 
txiot^ had done them iiv the expedition of Eubosa ; for Mo^ 
lossus, who succeeded him^ and who took upon lumself the 
command of the tnxHiS after that general, was so ittituccess-^ 
£al, that he fell into the hands of the enemy. 

» Philip, who did not lay aside the design he had formed 
of conquering all Greece, changed the attadc, and sought for 
an opportunity of distressing Athens another way. Heknew 
that this city from the barrenness of Attica, stood in gnater 
want of foreign com than any other.f To ^pos% at discre- 
tion of their transports, and by that means Dtanx Athens, he 
marches towards Thrace, from whence that city imported 
the great^t part of its provisions, witik an intention to bc« 
siege Perinthus and Byzantium* To keep his ?cingi|^ffl> i^ 

* Demoidi. pro Ctet. p. 4S6, 487. 
t A. if* 3664. Aot. J. a340. 


obedience dming bja absence, he left bis son Alexander in it» 
-with sovereign authority) though he -was but fifteen ycBm 
old. This young.prince gave, even at that time, some proofe 
of his courage ; having defeated certaia neigHhouring states 
r^ubject to Macedonia) who had considered the hmg^sab* 
sence as a .very proper tiine fior executiog^ the design they 
had formed of revolting. This happy snccess of Alexander's 
first es^peditions ivas highly agreeable to his. father, and at 
the same time an earnest of What m^ht be expected from 
him. But fearing lest, allured by this dangerous bait, he 
should abandon himself inconsiderately to hn vivacity and 
fire, he sent for him, in order to become his masteiryaadiDm 
himjn person for the trade of war. 

Demosthenes stUl continued his invettiires against the in- 
dolence of the Athenians, whom nothing could roose froifr 
their lethargy ; and also again^the avacice of the orators, 
"who, bril)ed by Pldlip, amused the people upon the specic«a 
pretence of a peace ne had sworn to,.^id however violated 
openly every day, by the enterpriEes he formed aj;aanst the 
«pramonwealth« This is the sabject of his orations calMl 
the phippplcs. . » 

* « yvhenee comes it/* sayt he, " that aH the Greeks 
^^^tbrmerl^ panted so strongly after liberty, and now run lo 
'^ ea^rly into seivitude ? The reason is, because there pr^- 
<< vailed at that time among the people what prevails no 
<' longer among as ; that which triumphed over the riches ef 
<* the Persians ; which maihtamed the freedv^ of Greece 4 
^^ which never acted incqnsistently on any oceasicBi either by 
^^ sea or by land ; hiit which, being now extipguifihed in ev^ 
^ery heart, has entirely ruined our afikirs, and subverted 
/^ the constitution of Greece. It is that common hatred, that 
'^' general detestation, in which they held every person who 
<( had a soul abject enough to sell himself to. any man who 
"■'desired either to enslave, or even corrupt Greece. I^k 
'^ ^ose times, to accept of a present was a capital crime, 
^ which net^er &iled of being punished with 4eatA. Keithe^ 
^^ their orators nor their generals exercised the scandalous 
[^ trafEie, now become so copimon in Athens, where a price 
^ is ^t vposi every thing, and where all things are sold to the 
*' highest bidden 

f "In those happy times, the Greel;s J[i vod in a perfect uiv 
^ ion, fbnnde(J[ on the love of the pubUe good, and the desire 
<< of preserving and defending the'commeiv liberty. But in 
^ this age, the states abandon one another, iand gi^e tliem- 
« selves up to reciprocal distrust's slna jealousies. All of 

4$ nXSTOHY OF ?BXLIF. J^Ook tif. 

« tlicm, without eXcieptioh, AiigivtfS, Ttebans, Corinthian^ 
*< Lacedsmonhms, Arcardians, and ourselves no ieiss than oth-^ 
*' crs : all, all, I say, form a separate interest ; and this it 
** is that retiders the common enemy so poweffiiL 

♦ " Thte safety of G^recce consits therefore in uniting to- 
" gcther against this common enemy, if that be possible. 
^' fint at least, as to what concerhs each of us in particular, 
** this inconteitible maxim it is absolutely neeeissaiy to hold, 
** that Philip attacks yoU actually at this time ; that he hai 
^ infringed the peace ; thutby seizing upon all the fortresses 
^ around you he opens and prepares the way for attacking 
*• you yourselves ; and that he ccmsiders us as his mortal cn- 
" emies, because he knows that we only are able to oppose 
*^ the ambitiotts designs he entertaihfl ot grasping univti^sal^ 
•* power. 

t ^ These eonseqnlently we mu^toppose whH all iniagina- 
^ ble vigour i and for that purpose must ship off, without loss 
<^ of time, the necessary aids for Chersonesns and Byzantium ; 
*' yoa must provide instantly whatever neci^ssaries your gen- 
•* crtfli may reijlnre' i In fihei yotfmust concert together on 
*' such means as are most pi(;opec to save Greece, vi^hich i^ 
*' now threatened* with' the utmost danger. % Though all tLe^ 
^ rest of the Greeks, O Athenians, should bow their neeks 
^ to the yoke, ytt yoU oujg^ht to persist in fighting always for 
*^ the cause of liberty. After such preparations, made ii^ 
** presence of aH Greece, let us excite all other states to seo- 
•• ond OS ; let us acquaint every people with out* resolutions, 
*' and send ambassadors to Peloponnesus, Rhodes, Ohio, and 
** especially to thcf king of Persia ; for. it is his intere^ af 
** well as our's,- to- check thie career of that man .*^ 

The sequel will show that Demosthenes* advice was fol- 
lowed almost exactly. At the time \£t #as declaiming in this 
manner, Philip was marching towards Cher&onesus. H^ 
opened the campaign with the aege of Perihthus, a consid- 
crable city of ThrSice. $ The Athenians having prepared a 
body of troops to strcCour that place, the orators prevailed so 
far by their speeches, that Chares was appointed command- 
er of the fleet. This gcnerat Wa^ uhiversalty despised, for 
his manners, oppressions, and mean capaci^; but interest 
and credit supplied the place of merit on this occa^on, and 
faction prevailed ftgainst the counsels of the most prudenf 
and virtuous men, as happens but too oiften. The success 
answered the rashnes of the choice which had been made : 
l|But what could be expected from a general, whose abilities 

• Philippic iti, p, 97. f Ibid, Jii, p. 88. } Il>i4. p, 5^4. 95» 
% PhiCsrcE io Fhoc* p, 747* I Athco. I«xii« p. 530. 

8ect. K ^SToav of pRitiF> 4$ 

were as small ds lits voki|»tuoiBDess was gnat ; wbo took 
along with him, in his roilitary expecUtions, a band of inuai* 
cianS) both vocal and instrumental, who were in his pay, 
which was levied ont of the monies appcnntedfor the service 
of the fleet ! In short, the cities themselves, to whose suc- 
cour he was sent, would not su&r him to come into their 
haiix>urs ; so that his^dehty being joniv^prs^ly su^ected, he 
was obliged to sail from coast to coast, buying the aUieSi and 
contemned by the enemy. 

* In the mean Ume Philip was caivytng on the siege of Fe» 
nnthus with great vigour. He had 30,000 cho^n troops, and 
xnilitaiy engines of s^ kinds i^iUiout number. ]EIe had raised 
towers. BP cubits high, which far outrtcpped those of the Pe- 
rinthiass. He ti^ere^re had a great advantage in battering 
their walls. On one side he shook the founcUtions of them 
by subterraneous mines ; and on the other, he beat down 
wl;iole angles of it, with his battering rams t nor did the be- 
sieged ma*k;e a less vigorous resistance ; for as soon as one 
i>reach was made, l^iUp was surprised to see another wall 
behiqddt, just raised. The inhabitants of il^zantiiim sent 
them all the succours necessary^ The Asiatic satrapa&, oe 
governors, by the king 9f Persia's order, whose assistance w« 
observed the Athenians had requested, likewise threw forces 
into the place. Philip, in order to deprive the besieged of 
the succours the Byzantines gave them^ went in person to 
form \hc siege of that important cj^, leaving half his army 
to carry oni that of Ferinthus. 

He was desirous to appear, in outward show, very tender 
of giving umbrage to the Athenians, whose power he dread- 
ed, and whom he jQideayoured to amuse with fine words. At 
the times Ve now speak of, PhiKp, by way of precaution 
against ^eir disgust of his measures, wrotea letter to them, 
in which he endeavours to take off the edge of their rescntt 
ments, by reproaching theni in ^he strongest terms for their 
infraction of the several treaties^ which he boasts he had 6b« 
served very religicu^y. This piece he interspersed very 
art&dly (for he was 9 gr^ master of eloquence) with such 
complaints and menaces as ai^ best calculated to restrain 
mankind, epither from a principle of fear or shame. This 
letter is a master-piece in ^ original. A majestic and per-* 
suasive vivaeity shines in ev^ry part of it ; a strength and 
justness of reasoning fiustainedUiroughout ; a plain and unaf» 
fected declaration of f^ctSi .each of which is followed by its 
natural consequence; a delicate irony ; in fine, that nobl« 
and coQCSse style so proper for crowned heads. Wp might 

4« atSTOftY OF FHILIP;. JBoik JtTP', 

fccrc mery jusHy aipply to Pliillp what was sadd of Caesar,* 
** that he handled the pea as well as he did the sword." 

This letter is so kmg, fuid besides is. filed wRh so gi>eat a 
BumbeF of private fecto, though each of these ar^ important, 
that It will IK* admit of being reduced to extracts, ortohave 
a cainected abridgment made of it. I shall therefore cite 
biH one passage, by which the reader may form a judgment 
of the rest. 

" At the time of our most open niptures,** says Philip to 
the Athenians, **you went no further than to fit out priva- 
«* teers against me ; to seize and ^U the merdiants that came 
^ to trade in my dominions ; to favour any party that oppos- 
<< ed my measures $ and to infest t^ places subject to me by 
o your hostilities : but now yow carry hatred and injustice to 
w such prodigious lengtha as even to send ambassadours to 
<* the Persian, in order to excite him to declare war against; 
*< me; This nrast appear a most astonishing cireumstance ; 
<* for before he had made himself master of Egypt and 
** Phoenicia, you had resolved, in the most sc^emn manner. 
« that in case he should attempt any new Enterprise, you 
"then would invite me, in common with the test of the 
« Creeks, to unite oui* force's against him. And neverthe* 
« less, at this time you carry your hatred to such an height 
i*asto negoclate an alliance with him against me. I have 
« been told, that formerly yottr fathers imputed to P^stra* 
« tus, as an unpardonable crime, his having requested tiie 
« succour of the Persians against the Greeks, and yet you 
« do not Wush to commit a thing which you were perpetual* 
*♦ ly condemning in the parson of your tyrants.** 

• Philip^s letter did him as much service as a good mani^ 
f^cto, and gave hi^ pensioners in A4ii«ns a fine opportunity 
of jwjtifying him to the people, who were very desirous of 
easing themselves of political inqaieCudes, and greater ene« 
mies tocxpence wid labour than to n$ui«pation and tyranny. 
The boundless ambition of Philip, and the eloquent zeal of 
I)emo8the!i«8, were perpetually clashing. There was neither 
a peace nor a tnice between them. The one covered very 
Industriously with a specious pretence his enterprises and 
Infections of treaty ; and the other endeavoured as strong- 
ly to reveal the true motives of Ifiem te a people whose res* 
clutions h«td a great Influence with respect to the fete of 
Greece. On this occaMon Demosthenes was sensible how 
vastly necessary it was to erase, as- soon as possible, the first 
impression! which the perusal of this letter might make on 
the minds of die Athenians. Accordingly, that ze;alous pat» 

1^* EQdem ^nimo di»t, qao hriUflt. q^inti.' I. %, ^, it 

'9^t immediately ascends the tribunal, fie 9± first speaks 
In aB zdHrmatiye tone of voice, which is often more than half, 
;and sometimes the whole proof in the -eyes of the miltitude. 
He affixes to the heavy complaints of Philip the idea of an 
express fteclaratioa of war ; then, to animate his fellow cit« 
izens^ to fill them with confidence in the resolution with 
which he insures them, he assures them that all things pov* 
tend the rum of PMlip ; gods, Greeks, Peraans, Macedoni- 
ans, andeven.PhiHp himself. Demosthenes doe&ilot bbservc 
in t^s harangue the exact rules of refutation ; he avoids 
ccontestingfacts, which might have been disadvantageoos, so 
happily had Philip disposed them, and so well had he sup* 
ported them by proofs that seemed unanswerable. 

* The conclusion which this orator draws from aJl his ar« 
gumcnts is this : ** Convinced by these truths, O Athemans, 
*^ and strongly persuaded, that we longer be allowed 
<*' to affirm that we enjoy peace (for Philip has now declare 
^' ed war against u^ by his letter, and has long done the. same 
** by \his conduct,) you ought »ot to spare either the public 
** treaaire, or the possessions of private persons ;but when 
** occasion shall require, kaaCe to your respective standards, 
^^ and set abler generals at your head than those vou have 
** hitherto employed* For no one among you ov^ht to lro» 
*^ agine that the same men who hav« mined yoqr affairs, 
** will have abilities to restore them to their former happy 
^ situation . Think' how liifamoua it ;s, that a man from M ^-. 
•*^ ccdon should contemn dangers to such a degree, tbat,^ 
^'Tmereljr to aggrandize his empire, he should ru^ into the 
" midst of coiAbats, and return from battle cov^ered witU 
*^ wounds; and that Athenians, whose hereditary right it is 
^ to obey no man, but to Impose laws on others sword in handj 
^' that Athenians, Lsay, merely through dejection of spirit ana 
^' mdolence, should degenerate from the glory of their ancci< 
<** tors, and abandon the interest of their country i'* 

At the very time they were examining this affeir, bcwi 
was brought of the shameliil reception Chares had, m^t with* 
from the allies, wM6h raised a! general m>irmur among tlie 
people, who now, fired with. indignation, gi-eatly repented 
their having sent aid to the Byzantines. Fhocion then rose^ 
«p and told the pec^le, " that they ought not to be j^J^asperatr 
^* ed at the diffidence of the allies, hut at the xonducti of ths^ 
** generals who had occasioned it^ For it is these,'* continf 
«cd he, "i*ho render you odious, and fbiTnidable ev^ to 
>' those who cannot save theipselves frqnv destruction with^ 
^^. ^t ymv assflstatice.^^ And indeed Chaiv^^^ j^. havir fl^ 

f Ptet. in ^hbci p. 742. 

M aisTORT or ^JKXLXB. Book XJF, 

ready observed, was 4 general without valour or military 
)L&owIedge. His whole paerit coii»6ted in having gained a 
great ascendant oyer the people by the haughty and bM air 
he assumed. His presumption concealed hia iRcapapity from 
himself ; and 4 sordid principle of avarice ^ade him conmiit 
as many blunders as enterprises. 

* The people, struck with this discourse^ immediately 
changed their opinion, and appointed Phocion himsfclf to 
command a body of .tresh troops, in order to succopr the al- 
lies in the IJelleroont. This choice contributed cliiefly to the 
presei*vation of ^^antium. Phocion had already acqttire4 
great reputation, no^ only for his valour and ability in the art 
of war, bnt much more tor his probity and disinterestedness. 
The Byzantines on his arrival opened their gates to hiin with 
joy, and lodged his soldiers }n their houses, as their ownbro- 
thers and children. The Athenian officers and soldiers, 
f^ruck with the con^dehce repQSpd in them, behaved with 
the utmost prudence and modesty, and were entirely irrci 
proachable in thejr conduct. Nor were they less admired 
for their courage ; and in all the attacks they sustained, dl&« 
covered the utmost intrepidity^ which danger seemed only 
to improve, f Phocion's prudence, seco^id^ by the bravery 
of his troops, soon forced Philip to abandon his design upou 
Byzantium and Perjnthus. He ijrasbcat out of the Hdlpspont, 
which diminished yefy mtjch hisfamp and glory, for he hith- 
erto had been thought invincible, and notWn^ been able to 
oppose him . Phocion took son^e of his ships, recovered ma-? 
ny .fortresses wli|ch he had garrisoned,; and haying made 
several desceijts into dififerfent parts of his territories, he 
plundered all the open countiy, till a body of forces asspm- 
bUug to check his progress, he was obliged tQ retire^ fifter 
having been "pounded r 

^ f The Byzantines and Perinthians tpstified their gratitude 
to the people of Athens by a very honourable decree, pre-, 
served by Demosthenes in one ofhis orations, the substance 
of which I shall repeat here : " Under BosjS^oricesihe pon^ 
** tiflj'pamagetusjj after haying desired leave of the senate 
^f to speak', said, lii a full assembly :, Inasmuch as in times 
** past the continual bpnevdence of the people of Athens. to- 
** wards the By^aptines and Perinth}an8, luiited l^ alliance 
** and their commoi) brigin, has never failed upon any occa- 
^ sion ; that this benevolence, so often jignalised, has lately 
f* displkyed itself, when Philip of Macedon, who .had takeii 

- * A. M. )66s. Ant J, C, 339^ f Diod L xti, jf. 4^1. 

-iDeiiUMth.p1r0Ctes.t^.4S7, 48?.' - - ^— * 

§ He probably was the ^15^ n>p9tr«t9. ^ 

Seci, V; Distort of ituhilP. rt 

^ np arms to destroy Byzantium and Ferintiias, battered x/at 
" wsdis, tnimed our country, cut down our forests ; that in a 
" season of so great calamity, this beneficent people succour- 
*^ ed us with a fieet of 120 sail, ftimidhed with provisions, 
" arms, and forces ; that ^ey Saved as from the greatest 
'< daager ; in fine, that they restored us to the ^ uiet posses -> 
^^ sion of our government, oiir laws, and o«r tonIbB : the By-* 
** zantines and Permthiafts grant by decree, the Athenians 
^ to settle m the countries beionghig to Petinthus and B^zan- 
^ tium ; to marry in them, to purdmse temdsj and to enjoy 
*' all the prerbgatires of citizens ; they also grant them a dis- 
*< tinguished place at public shows, and the right of sitting 
'< both in the senate and the assembly of the people, neict to 
^ the pontic : and further^ that e^try Athenian who shall 
*< think proper te settfe in either of the two cities above mep- 
*^ tioned, shall b6 cfxempted f^m taxes of any kind : that iii 
" the harbours, thrdfe statues of 16 cubits each shall be Set tip, 
" which statues sliall represent the p^ple of Athens crown- 
** ed by those of Byzantium atidPeiinthus : and besides, that 
<* presents shall be sent to the lour solemn games of Greece^ 
^ and that the cf own we have decreed to the Atheuanft 
<* shall there be proclaimed ; so that the same ceremony 
** may: acquaint all the Greeks, both wHh the magnanimity 
^ of the Athenian^ and ^e gratitude of the PfcrkthioiM flnd 
« ByssdaUiies/' 

The inhabftaiits of Chfersonesiis made a like decr^, tdci 
tetK>r of which is as follows : **> Among the nations huhahit-* 
^ ing the ChersonesOs, the people of Sestos, of JElia, off Ma« 
^ dyds, uid df Alopeconnesus, decree the people and senate 

* of Athens, a crown of gold of 6e talents j* and erect twd 
^ altars, the one to the goddess of gfatitdde, and the oUiev 
" to tfie Atheaians^ for their having, by the most glorioas of 
^ all bfetiela^Sons, treed from the yoke of Philip Che pcopM of 
^ Chers(Kiesu», and restored them to the possession of ^eir 
*• country, their laws, their liberty, and ther temples : an act 

* ef bebeficence which they shallfix eternally in their mem^^ 
^ ories, and fc^rer cease to acknowledge to the utmost of their 
•* power. AH which they have .resolved in full senate/' 

t Philips after having been fdrced to raise the siege of 
ByEantium, matched against the AtSieas, king of Scythia, 
from wllom he had received some persdaal cause of dis- 
eontent, and took his son with him« in this expedition. 
ITiough tlfe Scythfems had a 'very «tiuimer6a8 army, he de- 
feated them wj^5ut' toy difl^ul^. .He got ft very great 
booty, which consisted not in gold or silver, the use and 

f 6000 French crowfif . f J^lMc* !• *>* ^' ^» 3» 

$t uisrouT or nv^t^. Book X^TP^* 

value of wliklx the ScythlaDs were not at^ y^t 00 unhappy 
9ts to know, but in cattle, in horaes,. and a great nntikber 
•f women and children. 

At hk return from Scytbja^ the Triballir a people of 
Mcesia, di4>uted tlie pass with> him^ layrihg t^laim to part- 
of the phmder he -vas carrying off. Philip was- forced tor 
come to a battle, and a veiy bloody one was ibnght, m 
which great numbers on each side were killed en the spotw 
The king himself was wounded in the thigh, and with the 
same tlmist had hh horse killed under him. Alexander 
flew to hM fiafher't aid) andy covering htm with hi» fhlddy 
kiUed or put to fli^t all who attacJied hkur 



The Athenians had considered the siege of ByBantiw» 
a«:a9. a}>ielute nipture,' and an open declaratioir <if war. 
^ H^ king of Macedon) who was apprehensive of the con-' 
aeqoenees of it, and dreaded- very mncb the ])ower of the' 
Ad^ianaj whose hatred he haddrawn upon htmsc^, made 
t^edsores of f^ace,. in order to soften their menMotfiitft. 
Fhocion, a little suspicious, and" apprehensive 'of the uncer-* 
tahity of militaty eveatts was-of i^nien that the Athene 
ians should accept his o#ers. B«)t Donosthenes, who ha^^ 
studied more iSvan Phbcion the genius and chmcter oB 
£hilipt ^iid WAS persuaded that, according tcr his usual cus^ 
torn, hiS'^mly ^lew was to amuse and impose upon the^ 
Athenians, prevented theiir listening ta his packie prc^osals^ 
' t It was very Bnich> the intei^est of this- prince to termi-* 
^te immediately a war which gave him greal; cause 5>f dis^ 
^ieb» and particularly dstreased him. by the freq^nlMle^ 
predations of the AtiheniaA pidvateersy who ihfealed the 9ea» 
bordering, upon his domintons. Th^ entirely intem^M itlfr 
eemmeree, imd prevenioed his subjects from eiEporting any o0 
the products y>f Mucedonia into other countries ; or foreig^^ 
ers from importing into ht9 kiagdoni* the merchandi^ it 
wanted. PhiHp was sensible that it would be impossfole feir 
him to put an end to tht» war, and free himself from' the in-* 
conveniences attending it, but by excStfng tlie Thes8a|ian» 
and Thebana tabreafc with Atheua. He coidd Biot yet at-- 
tack that-city with any advaiitag;e either by sea er lan4» 

• A, M, 3666. Ant. J, C, 338. Plat, ta Phoc, *pt 7 A 
t DcnoHk; pro. Qst. ^1 497k.A^v 

Sett.jTL DISTORT. OF fBIXiPf ^^ 

Iffe i^vaj fcrc^ 'Were at thU time inferior to those of that 
republic;; and the passage by land to Attica would be shut 
against him, as ^ong as the Fhessalians should refuse to join 
hun, and the Thebans should oppose his passag^. «, with 
'the view of prompting them to declare war against Athens, 
ht should ascribe no othet motive for it liian lus private en- 
tity, he was very.sensible that it would have no effect with 
either of the states : but that in case he could once prevail 
with them to appoint him their chief^ upon the specious pre- 
tence of espousing their common cause, he then hoped it 
-youldbe easier for him to make them acquiesce with his 
^esiresy either by persuasion or deceit. 

This was his ai^, the smallest traces of which it higWy 
poncexiied him to conceal, in order not to give the least op- 
portunity Uir aoy one to siKpect the design he meditated, 
fa every city he retained pensioners, who sent hin^ notice 
of whatever passed, and by that means were of great use to 
him ; and were accordingly well paid. By their machina* 
tions he raised divisions among the OzoUe of Locris, other- 
t^ise called tl\e Locrians of Amplussa, from their capital 
^ity ; their country was situated between ^tolia a9d rho* 
cis ; and they were accus^ of having profaned a spot of sa- 
pred ground, by ploughing up ^ Cirrhean field, which lay 
irery near the temple of Delphoy. The reader has seen Chat 
a like cause of complaint occasioned the first sacred wan 
The affair was to be heard before the Amphietyoas* Had 
Phihp employed in his own favour any known or suspicious 
^a^ent, heplainly saw that the Thd^ans and the Thessalians 
.would infaUiby suspect Ins desi^, in which case all parties 
A¥Ould not fail to stand upon their guard. - 

But Philip acted more artfully, by carrying on-his design^ 
by persons in the x|ark^ which entirely prevented their tak« 
}ng air. By the assiduity of his pensioners io Athf^% he had 
cause4 iBschines, who was entirely devoted to him, to be ap- 
pointed one of the pylagori, by whiqh name those were call- 
•cd who were seat by the st»eral Greek cities to the assem«* 
bly of Am^iOyoDS. • The instant he came into it he acted 
the wore eflfcctually in favoiit of Philip, as a citizen of Athens, 
which )iad declared openly against this prince, was less sus- 
{^^. Upon his remom^rances, a deputation was appoint«- 
ed, b order to visit the spot of ground^ of which the Am« 
phissians had hitherto been considered as the lawful pos- 
.sessors, but which they now were accused of usurping, by a 
most sacrilegious act. 

Whilst the Amphictyoi^s were visiting the spot of groun(l 
in question, the L^ocrians fall upon them unawares, pour in 
fi {jho^eir of darts, ho^ ebligie theaa to fly, S9 opei* ^ gui- 
£ 2 

St RisfoRT or PHILIP. Book XIP'n 

.rage drew resentment and wat upon these Locrians. Cot- 
typlm?, one of the Amphictyori?,tookthe field with tke army 
intended to punish the i-ebds ; btit many not comiing to the 
rendezvous, the army retired without acting. In the follow- 
ing assembly of the Ami^hictyons, theafTdr was debatedveiy 
seriously . It was there ^schincs exerted all his cloqnencCi 
and, by a studied oration, proved to the deputies, or repre- 
sentatives, either that they must assess themselves to support 
foreign soldiers and punish the rebels, or else elect Philip for 
their general. The deputies, to save their commonwealth 
the expdice, and secure them from the dangers and fatigues 
of a war, resolved the latter. Upon which, by a public de- 
cree, " ajmbassadors were sent to Philip of Macedon, wfeo, 
" In the name of Apollo and the Ampliictyons, implore his 
** assistance ; beseech him not to neglect the cause of that 
*< god, which the impious Amphissians make their sport ; 
" and notify to him, that for this purpose all the Greeks, of 
" the council of the Amphictyons, elect him for their gener- 
*• al, with fidl power to act as he shall think proper.** 

This was the honour to which Philip had long aspired, the 
aim of all his views, and end of all the engines he had set at 
work till that time. He therefore did not lose a moment, 
but immediately assembles^ his forces, and marches, by a- 
feint, towards the Cirrhaean field, forgetting now both the 
Cirrhxens and Locrians, who had only scrvol as a specious 
pretext for his journey, and for whom he had not the least 
regard ; he possessed himself of Elatsea, the greatest city in 
Phocis, s^^ndi^g on the river Cephissus, and the most hap- 
pily situated for the design he meditated, of awing the Tbe- 
bans, who now began to open their eyes and to perceive the 
danger they were in. 

* This news being brought to Athens in the evening", 
spread a terror through eveiy part of it. Tlie next morn* 
iag an assembly was summoned, when the herald, as was the 
tisual custom, cries with a loud vbice, " who among yon wifl 
" ascend tlie tribunal ?*' t Ho#ever, no person appears for 
that purpose ; upon which he repeated the invitation seveiTil 
times, but still no one rose up, though all the generals and 
orators were present ; and although the common voice of 
the country, with repeated cries, conjured somebody to pro- 
pose a salutary counsel : for, says Demosthenes, from whom 
these particulars are taken, whenever tlie vx)ice of the her- 
cld speaks in the nan>e of the laws, it ought to be considered 
as the voice of the country. During this general silence, oc- 
casioned by the universal alarm with which the minds of the 

• D^moBth. pro. Ct€i. p. 50X— J04. t Diod- 1. xti. p. 4M— 477^ 

fjT tl^^t^at^an^i* hife fellow <!iti^sefi^ W<|««iifi^ acocnds- tb^" 
Cfi^hM fdt^ harang^ies'/ £»)d: ettd^vmn*^*^ revive the droop v 
ing Athetiahs^ a«yi' iiispiT^ ihenv wkh^ seBj^enti snitablejtcy 
the pi^eiit timjun^ttf^itfn^^tlie Aeces»iticBOf the states Ex^^ 
t€i\vri^ equallf in ^poiftit]^ ^kiU eloqaence, by tile extent of* hifl^ 
s»^ridf gefiius^ he.lMmediat^y forms a coancil,- which' inv 
elates aU that wa^ necessaiy ibrthe Athenian* to actbojthr 
athom&-aiid<abP(>ad, by la'adNaa wen as by^isea.' 

THe'pclQple bf Athens wwe ainttfcp a dciible error with re^ 
gavd to tl^Th<AiaHs^Mnai«hihef therefcrre endeavors to show; 
'fTiey I'rrtagined UWit pifeoJ>W were Jiavidlably attached, both 
^rotn hitek-est and iticlitrtition,'t6 Philip ; but he proves to 
theoiiy that this inajdrity'of th^ Thcbans waited on)y ao op^ 
piMtUf^^todecIareo^gainsrtfiatmoDarth ; and that the conw 
quest of Elataea has apprised them of what they are to ex* 
pect fronf* him. tto the -other side, they looked opon the 
^rhebans as^eir most ancient and pftost dangerons ^emies^ 
and therefore Gould not prevail, with themselves to afford 
thdni the least aid ih the extreme danger, with which they 
siieire tivfeatened.^ It^niast be confessed, that there had alw 
'Ways. .be«n a dedarwl emitity between tlie Thebam and 
Athenians, r\f^hlc^i) rose so high, that Pindar was sentenced 
by the Thiebansto pay a considerable' fine for having »api. 
plauded- thei city c^ Atiiens in one of his poems. Demosdienes, 
notwltlistahdiifg that- prejudice had taken such deep root tH 
the TttiiKis'of the people, yet declares iiv their favour ; and 
proves to the Athenians^ that thrir own interest lies at stake ; 
and* that thciy cotdd not please Philip more tiian in leaving 
ThebQS to hit miercy, the ruin of which would open him a 
frert passage to Athens. i- . - - 

, Dwiosti*ehes afterwards discovers to them the views of 
Phil^ in taking that city. '^ What then is his design, and 
•' wherefore did he possess' himself of Elatxa I He is desir- 
^' 0U3, Oft one side^ to encourage those of his faction in The- 
" bes, and to inspffe them^with greater boldnessi, by appeaf^ 
" ing at the head of his army, and advancing his powfef and 
^ forces around that city. On the other side, he would 
'^ strike uoexpeki^dly the (^posite faction, and stun them th 
** such a toamier as may jcnablchim to get the better of it 
•*<i«ither by torroror fcJrce. Philip/* says he, **r prescribes 
' *^ the niasmer in whkh yout oivght to act^ by th« example he 

- * He hsd called Athens a Ikfmhhin^ bixI rendviwd ci'iy, ehe 
bulwark of Greece. ' Ltparcl hai JhUmn, Elimbi^ruma, klmai Atittmi 

. Bbc >.tbe Athcotaiis^noc anly indomDified tbf^poet, and Km jhim 
mosej to pay his fiaci bPt evca crc^cd a ftatac in honoar of bin* 

^ftkuMtfwUirm. AimvkHi^.tmif^ IQmhr^^o^ otA^. 
«itk«iiott% oC«i4MAi for MH^ke ^ 4nd. tuppQ^i ihcs^ b|e 

¥vthat yott sre reKt^f ariSirdi ^» defei^ yo^ncly^i ft»A k- 
« spiiT yasT pavtkHJM in Tli«N» wi«K «^ r^^seliitioi^ as^ 
¥ mty cmfate tkeoBt both to. ftifffpuDft their, reas^iift and toF. 
^sutluB head agamsl the oppqsit«p9l^^ \^beiithey shaa^ 
¥ perceive^ that as those wKo «ell theur country to. PkiUp. 
«« have forces in Blatii raady tQ aaaist thenL ^p^ poca&ion, 
i- n Woe niamicr thoae lrlM> iwre MrtiUng tQ fight for tfie 
«« preaervation of their 01m lihsrties. have you at theif- 
¥ gateSf rewty to defend themtiv case of an i^jv?sion,** De^ 
mostheiefi added, that it woiHd be preper fof thejn: to seoA 
ambftsaadors immediately to th« di^erent elates of Qireec^, 
and to the Theb^na In^rticular) to engage them ia acoio^ 
■ion league again&t Philip* 

> This prudent and salotary counael ^a9 foltoifed ia eTery 
particular; and in coBsequence thereof a decree was forsa*' 
ed,!^ which, after enumerating th^ several eivterpiises by 
which Philip had infringed the peaoe, It coathiHes thi9 I 
«« For this reaacia the senate aoid peQp^ o| Athens, caiUsig 
f < to aaind the magnanmsty of thw MKestors, who prtfer- 
"^ yed the liberty of Gredre to the safety of their ovn eeoiH 
.i< try, have resdvcdt that after offesiiig up prayers and sac* 
^ nnces,to call down the assistance m the tutelaf ^odaaiid 
M demi'^gods of Athens and Attica, toct »all of ships shall bia 
.<« put to sea. That the admiral of tlietr fleet sh4ill go, as 
^^ soon as poasSile, and cruise on the other aide of the paas of 
;<( 'fhermopylx ; at the same time that the lan^ general%«i 
/^tke head of a considerable body of Wse and iboty ^all 
*' march and encamp in the neighborhood of Eleusis, That 
"^^ ambassadors shall likewise he jsent to the other Greeks ; 
«( but first to the Thebana, as these arc most threatened by 
.« Philip. Let them be exhorted not to dread Philip m any 
M manner, but to maintain courageously their particular in- 
** dependence, and the common liberty of aU Greece. And 
« let it be declared to them, that though formerly some mo- 
« tives of discontent might have cooled the recipixKal friend- 
<* ship between them and us, tiie Athenians howerer, oblit« 
<<eratingthe reqiembrance of past transactions,. wilL now 
^ assist tjieip with men, money, darts, and all kinds cf mili- 
<< tary weapaas ; persnaded, that soch as are natives of 
M Greece may, very honorably, dispute with one anotl^r 
■« for pre-cmineude ; but thatlhey can never, without sully- 
^ .ing the glory of the Greeks, and derogating from the vir- 
4( tue of their aacestorsj suffer a forei^r to despoil them of 

^ that-pre-emiiieBe^ nor coaieiil to go igoominiioua a ilaT- 

* iiemoBthents, who was at the head of this embassf 9 ins* 
immediately set out fbir Thebes ^ a«l inclefd). he* had ao time 
to lose, since Philip might reach Attica in two days. Thia 
Jinnc^ aho sent ambassadors to Thebes* Among- these 
f Python wa« theohief» who disUnguisbed himself greatljr \xp 
his lively persuasive elo(|«enGe) which it was saaree possibki 
to withstand' ; so that the rest of the depntiea w%ra mere 
novices ki eemparison to him t however, he here met witk 
a-superior, % And indeed, DemotthentS) in an oration, where 
be relates the services he had iloae the connaonwealtht ex^ 
patiates very strongly on this, and places the hu)py sncoeaa 
fkf soimpenantani^^iatiOA at m haad of Bbs pditioal 
e^ploiU. . . 

. \ 1% wa»:<^' the Qtmost impotta^ae Ibr the Atheniaiia tar 
draw the Thebaissiato the alhaiKse^ at ^Miy were aeighboam 
to Attica, and eov^ired it ; had troops eKcsUemly weU disei*" 
plined, andhad beei% iCon^detftd from the. facnoiia victociet 
of Luotra and Mantinea, among the seyeraUtateaof Greece^ 
as those nt^ho held the first ranl& for yabwr and ability in 
tmr. Toe^ctthts wa$ no very cafy matter v not only be^ 
cause of the great service Philip had l4tel>t done.them dttrt 
va^ the war qf. Phoeis^ btit likewise because of ^ ancient 
bveteratc^^tipathy of Thebes and Alhena, . 
/ Philip V deputies 9pake trst. Th^se displafadhi thds 
^t«mg^ fight^ the khiddesiea with ^vhiehlPhil}p bad ioadedi 
the 'Hiebs^ and the fonumerable ^i38<whith the iAUteni!* 
HiiS had ma^them. suffer, tliey repradei^d to thft uti* 
most advanta^9^tht great, ben^ they ml^t reap^milayH 
ing Attica- waste, the. flocka, gpod% and. power :of whiflhr 
Irouldbe carried into. theh» <ii^ ; whereas by jc^mng^ im 
league mth theAthiBiiiaos^.BQBotia ^(mU thereby beeoiDette 
seat oi war, and woaldjsileQO sufier the loises^ dtoced^^ot^ 
harmn8t;and aU.tJie olhe^<mlaTxi^9a 'tiiK^ ai« tlie ifiewtast 
ble consequences of: it. Th^ coiie|9<kd wi^ ttme9tina|r 
citiier the Thidaas woeld; yAn their feroes !srt^,thoie;of 
^lUip against the Athenian^ ; en,, at li^ast, pearmit.hijn tor 
pass throi^h their tetritoties te^entef Attka. ' ^ t • t 

•Platjnbeamcbrp, ^5J>^54«> • i 

t Thiv Python wts of Bysantism* T6e Atlmnaas \aA p»«eate4 

liiai viiii tbefnoedott oli.didr city % sftttwladt.ha mat oicr te 

Fbilip. BemsSth; p* 193, 74;. . ^ 

4 Ji<mniitluiB:«8ac^Sfta£eroeirP|^9» ' v .. j 

II Ibid.' 

^ tf STOAT «F flrtLI#. BodJcXtV. 

The love of liis coiiiitr3r, and a jast indisiAtion at the* 
breach of &ith and usurpations of Philip, had already suf- 
ficiently animated Demostheifes^ but the sight of an orator, 
who seemod to dispute witk him the B«periori«y of doqueneer 
ii^Oamed his atal, and heightened Ms vivacity stfll more.— 
To Che captious anrgmnenta of Pythian, he opposed the actions 
themselves of Philip, and particidaily die laie ts&ingof EJa- 
tiea, which evidendy discovered bis desi^s. He represent-t 
ed hhn as a restless, entefprising> anibhiouS) Crafty, periid- 
ioos prince, who had formed the design of enslaving all 
Greece ; but who, to succeed the better hi his schemes, was 
determined to attack the different states of it singly : s 
prince whose pretended baniikenlce was only a snare for the 
creduli^ of those Wbo did Mt know lum, in oiPder to disarnr 
those whose zeal for the public liberty might be an obsta^e 
to his enterprises: He pvovied to ' them that the conquest of 
Attioa, so' far from saAiatm^ the inantasufable avidity of thi» 
usarper, would only give him an cp*^rtanity of subjecting 
Thebes, and the rest of the cities of Gi'eece. That there 
fore, the interests of the two commonwealths being hencefor* 
ward inseparable, they oujght to erase entirely^ the rememb-' 
ranee of their former cUvistons, and unite their forces to re*' 
pel the common ^nexAy. 

' *^The Thdbans wefe'nStt long in detettnming. The strong^^ 
eloaucnce of DeiAosthenes says an historian^ blowing into 
tiietr souls like aih imfietuoos wkid, rekiodied thiere soli^arm 
a zeA for thehr country, aend so m%hty a passion for liberty,' 
thatbMii^faittg fvatti their minds every kl^'of fou*^ of pru- 
deacei o^ grktltotde, his dt^ourse trartspofted 9n^ ravished 
them, like' a fit d enthufiiasro', and inflamed them solely 
vrtth the love of tnife ^ry. Here we? have a proof of the 
nighty ascendant which doquence has over the mindiB of 
IBCQ,' atpecla^fy wheii it is hetghtened by a lo^-e and xeal 
for the cnAflic .good. Ontr'shi^le maty tfvirayed all things at 
ki^ wifi icr l3ie Assemblies of Athens and Thebes, where he^ 
wsM e^[Qaai)r loved, respected ahd fear«d* 

Pkihp, <f«lt^d9»cdncei*tedr by theunion^ of tlieeetxfoiia^ 
tiens^ iientamba^adoi^ to^the Atheniaite, to re(|uest them 
Ikot to levy aif atinedl fbreOr hut to Ijfve in harmony witlc 
him. However they w6re too justly alarmed and exaspe« 
rated to listen to any apcommoaatioii, and -w^ouJd tio longer 
depend eb- ihe woH of 'sC prkice whose wh(^ aitb> was- to 
deceive J .hi conleoueBC^^ preparations for war i^ere mad^ 
with the utmost diligence, and the soldiery discovered in* 
oredible ardour. HoweV^) }nuiy evHjdisposed persons pa-' 

f Tbeopotti. aptid PIat« k> vit, ]!)cmosth. p, 854^ 

4eayoured to extingmsli cr da^p ^t, by relating&tftl omena 
and teirible predictions, which tl^e priestess of i)e^hoB was 
^id to have uttered : but Demostt^eixes, confidiiig firmly in 
.the arms of Greece^and encouraged i^onderfi^Uy by the num« 
ber and bravery of ^le troops, who desired onty to march 
jagainst the enemy, would not suffer them to be amused with 
these oracles and frivolous predictions. It was on this 0Cf> 
casion he said, the priestess philippized,* XQieaning, Ihat it 
was Philip^s moi^^ ^hat inspired the priestiess, c^iraied her 
;nouth, axui jnade the go4 ^^peak wh^atevicr she thought prop- 
er. He bade the T^vebans remember their £paminonda% 
and the Ath^ians their F.eric\es, who co^s^dered thesfc or* 
>icles and predictions as idle scarecrows, and consulted only 
their reason. The Athenian army set out immedijately, and 
marched to Eleusis ; and the Theban^ s^iprised at the di]i« 
gence of their confederates, joined them, a^ ^raited th» ap« 
proach of th^ enemy, 

Philip, on the other side, not having been able to prevent 
the Thebans from muting with Athens, nor to draw ihe lat* 
|;er into a;n ai;i^^an^i$ w^th l^na, assembles all his forces, and 
enters Boeotia.' His army consisted of SO,p€iO foot and 2000^ 
horse ; that of his enemy was not auite so aumerons. The 
valour of the troq)s might have been /said to have been 
.equal on boUi sides ; .but the merit of the chiefs was not so. 
And indeed, what warrior was «(miparable to Pliilip at that 
time ? Iterates, .Chabrias, Timotheus, all £imous Atheni* 
an captsgins, w:ere hojL his ^periors. Phocion, indeed, might 
}iave opposed him ; but ;^ot .to mentioD that this war had 
been undertaken agfunst his advice, the contrary faction had 
excluded him' the command, and had appointed generals, 
Chares, universally despised, an.d LysicUs, distmginshed for 
pothing but his rash and dajring a,udacity,. It is the choice 
9f such leaders as these, by the means of cabal alone, that 
paves the way to the ruin of states. 

The two armies encamped near Chseronea, a cityof B^o- 
tiai PhiVip gaye the jcommand of his left wing to his son 
Alexander, who was then but 16 or 17 years old, having 
posted his ablest officers near him ; and took th^ cominand 
of the right wing upon himself. . In the opposite army the 
Thebans fc^-n^ed the right wing, and Uve Athenians the left. 

At son-rise, tlie signal was given on both sides. The 
battle was blclody, a,nd the victoiy a long time dubious, both 
sides e:;prting ftemselves with astonishing valour and bravi 
ery. Alexander at that time, animated with a nob^e ar* 
diour, for ^ory, and endeavouring to signalise himself, in or, 
^er to answer the confidence his father had reposed in him, 
|Mider whose eye he fought, in quality xif a coi^auuider,. fop 


M ffrsYMT OF >diwF. Bmk JOm 

tiie 'first tifli^, discQffered, in this battle, aU Ike otpaci^ 
Vhichcdvlid have ^een expected from a reteran general, 
with all the intrepidit^r <tf a yo«iBg warrior. It iras he who 
Jiroke, after a long and vig^roiit rewstanoe, the sacred bat- 
taniwof the Thebans, Which was the flower of their armr. 
The rest of the-troeps who were found Alexander, bemg en- 
couraged by his example, enth^y routed them, • 

On the right wing, PhiUp, who was determined not. to 
5rieldtohis son, charged the Athenians with great vi^onr, 
and began to mike them give way. However thpy swSi- 
resumed'<heir courage, and recovered then* first post. *Lyr 
aides, one of the two generals, Imving broke into^ some 
iToops which formed the centre of the Macedoniaqs, imag^ 
ined himself already yictorioMs, and in thatrash coi*dcnce 
cried out, «^ come on, my lads, let us pursue them into Mace* 

doma.^ Phil4p,'perceivmg ^hat the Athenians, instead of 
seizing the advanUge of Jtalj^ing his phalanx in fiank, pur^ 
sued his troops too vigorously, cried O^t >rith a calm tone of 
voice, *• the Athenians do not know how to conquer.** Im.. 
mediately he commanded his phalanx to wheel about to a 
Kttle eminence ; and perceiving that the Athenians, in dis, 
xjrder, were wholly intent on pursuing those they had broke, 
he charged them with his phalanx,and attacking them both 
in tiattk and rear,- entirely routed them. Demosthenes who 
was a greater statesman than a wanlor, and more capable 
ef givmg wholesome counsel Hi- his harangues, than of supr 
port jg them by an intrepfd courage, threw down his arms, 
and fled with the rest, fit is even said, that in his flight his 
robe being catched by a bramble, he imagined that some of 
the cnenjy had laid hold of him, and cried out, "spare my 
life. More than 1000 Athenians were left upon the field of 
^ttle, and above 2000 taken prisoners, among whom was 
I^ades the <^tor, Jhe loss )yas as great on tiie Thebaa 

-PhiMp, ^ter having wt up a trophy, and oflered to the 
F^ods a sacrifice of thanksgiving for his ^^cto^y, distributed 
rewards, to th.e officers and sddijers, each according to his 
inent and the rank he heJd. ^t«5 »»/ ui» 

His conduct after this victory shows, th^t it is mndi easier 
Ko overcome an enemy, than to .conquer one's seff and tri^ 
»mph over one's own passions, Upon his coming from a 
grand entertainment, which he had given his t^cers, beine 
^uaHy transported with joy and the fumes tif wine,*ie hur- 
rie.1 to the spot where the battle had been fbtifeht, arid there, 
tdsuiring the dea^d bodies with which the field was covered) 

• • Po}f9»nv8emag. % Sy. ' ^ pjut, iiLtiti dtf em, ortt, p, ft^;, - 

Sect. VL . HI6T0RT or p^ilif, 61 

lie turned into a song the beginning of the decree which De* 
ntosthenev had pnqiared to excite tlie Gvecks to this war ; 
and sun|; thus, himself 'beating time, '^ Demosthenes the Pc- 
^ atiian, son of Demosthenes, has saod.^' Every body was 
locked to see the king dishoncur himself by this behaviour^ 
and sully has glory by an action so iiivworthy a king and a 
conqueror ; but no one -opened his lips about .it. Demades, 
the orator, whose soul was free, though his body was a pris* 
oner, was the only person who ventured to ma^e him aensi* 
ble of t^e indecency of his conduct, idling Inm, " ah, sir, since 
^' fortune has given you tlie part of Agamemnon, are you not 
** ashamed 'to act that of Thersites ?*• These words, 4>poke 
with so generous a liberty, opened bis e>.es, and made him 
•turn them inward ; and so f^r from being displeased with 
Deroades, he esteeiaed hira i^ more for them, tneated Iiim 
witli the utmost respect and friendship, and confen^ all 
fx)8sible honours upcm him. 

^rom this moment Philip seemed quite changed, both ia 
tiis dispositicm and behaviiK^r, as if, *says an historian, the 
4x»n versation of Dem&des 6ad softened his temper, and intro- 
duced him to a ^^m^iar acquaintance with the. Atticgraces. 
He dismissed all the Athenian x^aptiv^s without any ransom^ 
and gave Ae greatest part of them jclothes ; with the view -of 
acquiring the confidence of so powerful a commonwealth, as 
Athens Xsy that kind treatment : in which, says Pdybliis,t 
he gained a ^second trium|lh, more glorious for himself, and 
even moire advantageous than the first ; for in the battle, his 
courage had prevailed over none but those who.s«^re present 
in it ; but on this occasion, his kindness and clemency ac- 

Sur^ him a whde city, aad' subjected every heart to hun« 
e renewed with the Athenians th^e ancient treaty of friefid« 
ship and alliance, and granted th^ Bceotians a peace, after 
having left a strong garrison in Tbebes. 

t We are told that Isocrates, the most celebrated rhetori- 
cian qf that age, who lov^d his country with the utmost ien- 
demess, could not survly« the loss and ignominy with which 
it was covered, by jChe loss of the battle ^ Chaeronea^ The 
instant he received the news <rf it, being uncertain what use 
PhiHp woul4 wake of his victory^ and determined to die a 
freeman, he hastened his end by abstaining from food. He 
was 98 yeai*s of age. I shaft have occasion to spe^k flss- 
where of his style and of his works. • ' 

Demosthenes seenoed to have been the principal cause of 
the terrible f^ock which Atliens received at this time, and 

* Upcm touDeoMdoa, KattliomiUchontasitaiV AttikattC htriti. Dioil. 
f JPpIyb^ I. T. p. ^$^, JPlut.. in Uocr. p, X%u 



•which gave its power such & wound as it neyer recovered. 

* Bttt at the very iiuitant that the Athenians heard of tliis 
bloody overthrtiw, which affected so great a number of 
f&mihcs^when it would have been no wonder, had the mul- 
titude seized with teiTor and atttrro, given way to an emo- 
tion of blind zeal against the man whom they might have 
considered in some measure as the author of this dread- 
ful calamity ; even at this very instant, I say, the people 
submitted to the counsels of Demosthenes. The precau- 
tions that were taken to post guards, to raise the walls, 
and to repair the fosses, were all in consequence of his 
advice. He himself was appointed to supply the city with 
provisions, and to repair the walls ; wliich latter conunis-v 
sion he executed with so much generosity that it acquir- 
ed him the greatest honour ; and for which, at the request 
of Ctesiphon, a crown of goldv^as decreed him, as a re- 
ward for his having presented the commonwealth with a 
sum of money, out of his own estate, sufficient to defray 
what was wanting of the sums for repairing the walls. 

On the present occasion, that is, after the battle of Chx- 
ronea, such orators as op^>oscd Demosthenes, having all 
risen up in concert against him, and having cited to him 
to tal^c his* trial according to law, the people not only de- . 
dared him innocent of the several accusations laid to his 
charge, but conferred' more honours upon him than he had 
enjoyed before ; so strongly did the veneration they had 
for his zeal ^d fidelity overbalance Uie e^rts of calum-f 
ny and i^flj^ 

The At^Hms, ' a ftdkie, wavering people, and apt to 
punish their own errors and iMriisailihs in the person of those 
whose projects were often- rendered abortive, for no ether 
reason but because tliey had executed them too slowly, in - 
thu^ crowning Demosthenes, in the "midst of a public ca«»' 
lamity which he alone seemed to have brought upon them, 
pay the most glorious homage to his abilities and integrity. 
By this wise and brave conduct, they seem in some mea- 
sure to confess their own error, in not having followed his 
counsel neither fully nor early fenough ; and to comfess 
themselves alone guilty of all the evils which had befallr 
en them. 

t But- the people did not stop here. The hones of such ' 
as had been killed in the battle of Gharonea, having been •' 
brought to Athens to be interred, they appointed Demos-* 
thenes to compose the eulogium of those brave <- men* ; a^ 

• Dettosth. pro Ctcs. p. 5x4. Plat, in j>emo8th. p, tss* 

f Piut. iirOeimith. pr %SS* Pemoith. pro Cter. p^ jf xpi S%^* ^ 

Sett: VI, . HISTORY or paiup.. ^ 

: manifest proof that they did not ascribe to him the ill fcuc- 
' cess of the battle, but to Providence only, who disposes of 
human events at pleasure ; a circumstance which was ex- 
pressly mentioned in the inscription engraven on the mai- 
ument of those illustrious deceased warrior^. 

TMa earth entombs those victhn9 to the state 

Who fell a glorious sacrifice to zeal, 

Greece on the point of v>eai ing tyrant ^chains^ 

Did^ by their deaths alone ^ escape the yoke. 

This Ju/iiter decreed :. tw effort^ mortals^ 

Can .save you fr<^m the mighty will of fate » 

To g^da alone belongs the attribute 

Of being free fram crimesy with never-ending joy » 

* Demosthenes ojiposed ^schines, who was perpetually 
teproachin^ him with .having occasioned the loss of the bat- 
.He in Questionvisritih this.soUd answer : " Censure me," sa^ s 
he, " tor the counsels I give ; but do not calumniate mc tor 
;« tiie ill sQQcess of them ; for it is the supreme Being who 
,« conducts, and teiminatea all things ;« whereas it is from 
.<< the nature of thsi counsel itself tliat we are to judge of 
*< the intention of him who ofiers it. If therefore the event 
:*< has declared, in ft your of Philip, impute it not. to mc as 
.*< a crime, since it is God, and not myself, who disposed 
,« of the victory^. But if you can prove that I did»not ex- 
M ert myself with, probity, vigilance^ and an activity inde- 
/* fatigable, and superior to my strength: if with these I 
** did not seek,. I did not empk)y cvfery method which hu- 
** man prudence could- suggest : and did not inspire the 
** most necessary and noble resolutions, such as were truly 
" worthy of Athenians : show me this, and thtn give what 
;" scope you please to yonr accusations." 
: t lie afterwards uses the bold sublime figure following, 
which is looked upon- as the most beautiful passage in his 
oration, and is so highly applauded by Longinus.^ Demos- 
thenes endeavoiirs to justify his own conduct, and prove to 
;the Athenians, that they did not do wrong in giving Philip 
.battle. ' He is not satisfied with merely citing in a frigid man- 
ner the example of the great men who had fought for the 
same cause in the plains of Marathon, at Salainin, and before 
Platxa ; nOj he makes a quite different tise of them, says this 
' .Thetorician ; and on a sudden, as if inspired by some gcxl, and 
possessed with the spirit of Apollo himself, cries out, swear- 

• Denosth. pro Ctei. p. 505. f Ibid, p. iol.t 

\ Loogin. de tublii^c* ziv. 



ing by thole brave defenders of Greece, " no, Athenians Z 
*' you have not eiTed. I swear by those illustrious roen who^ 
*^ fought on land at Maratiion and Platxa ; at sea t>efo^e 
^ Salamin and Artemismm f and all those who have been 
*' honoured by the commtniwealth with the solemn rites of 
" burial ; and not those only who have been crowned with 
** success, and came off victorious." \Vo«ld not one con- 
clude, adds I^nginus, that by changing the natural air of the 
proof, in this grand and pathetic manner of affirming by 
oaths of so extraordinary a nature, he deifies in some mea* 
sure, those ancient citizens ; and makes all who die in the 
same glorious ;nanner so many gods, by whose names it is 
proper to swear ? 

I have already observed in another ]dace, how natorally 
ai>t these * orations, spoken in a most solemn manner, to the 
^lor}' of those who' lost their lives in fight fbr the cause of 
libertv, were to inspire the Athenian youth with an ardent 
zeal for their country, and a warm desire to signalise them- 
selves in battle. 

t Another ceremony dbserved with regard to the ch3direh 
of those whose €Eithei*s died tn the bed of honour^ was no less 
efficacious to inspire them with the love of virtue . In a cel- 
ebrated festival, m which shows were esdiihited to the wholfe 
people, an herald came upon the stage, and producing tht 
young orphans, dressed in complete armour, he said, with k 
loud voice, ^ these young orphans, whom anuntimely death ih 
*« the midst of dangers has deprived of Uieh* illHstrion^iath- 
*« ers, have found in the peopk a parent, who has takefi 
^ care of them till no longer m a state of infancy. And noi^ 
^^ they send them back, .armed cap-a-pee, to follow, undeir 
** the most happy auspices, tlieir own affitlts; and invitb 
.** each of them to emulate each other in deserving the chief 
" employments of the stilte." By such methods martisd 
bravery, the love of One's country, and a taste for virtue and 
solid glory, are perpetuated in a state. 

It was the very year of the battle of Chxronea, and two 
years before the death of Philip, that iEschines drew up ah 
acctisaticn against Ctcsiphon, orrather against DemosChenes: 
but the cause was not pleaded till seven or eight years after, 
about the fifth pr sixtlx year of the reign of Alexander. ^ I 

* Demostheoet, tn his eratioo agsioM Leptines, p. 56a, obtervtt^ 
that the Athenians were the only people who caused faoeral orations 
to be spoken in hoooiir of such pccsoot at had kit thcic lives in de- 
fence of their country. 

t JEschia. contra Ctesiph. p; as%. 

•&ff. Vt. AtSTOttY OF PHIL!?. •S 

^aH. relate ftie erVcnt of it in tWs place, ttavtnd breaking in 
Upon tlie history of the life and aetiox\s of that prince. 

No cause ever excited to much dxltiosity, nor was pleaded 
with so much pomp* * People flocked to it from all parts, 
Says Cicero, and they had great reason for so doing j for 
"What sight cotdd be noblrr than a conflict between tw6 ora- 
tors, each of them excellent in his way j both formed bv na- 
turcj itfiproved by art, and animated by pernetual dssen- 
tidns, and an implacatble animosity against eacn other*? 

These two' orations have always been considereA as the 
inaisterjpieces of antiquity, especially that of Demosthenes, 
-t Cicero had translated the latter, a strong proof of the high 
opinion he entertained of it, Uiihappilj for us, the pream- 
Ble'oiily to that performance is now extant, which suffices to 
Aiafce us vei7 much rcgffet the loss of the rest. 

Amidst the numberless beauties which' are c«i8picuous in 
every part of these two oratio«i«> roethinbe there appears (if 
I may be allowed to censure the writings of such great men) 
a considerable error that very much lessens their pcrfec- 
tipB,: and vAasAi appears to me directly ^Ugnant to the rv\t% 
of solid iost eloquence ; and that Is, the grofts injurieas terms 
in w^cn the two orators reproach cHie another. TTlie same 
objectjoh has been made to Cicero,; with regard to {us era* 
ticnis against' Aptony. ' 1 have already declared, that this 
tfianner of writing^ this kind of gross opprobrious esmres- 
sionsi were the Very ^verse of solid eloquent ; and indeed, 
'every spfeecji wtiich is dictated by pasapn and revcuge,nev- 
fcr fails of being suspected by those who judge, of it \, where* 
as an. oration ^at is Stroing and invincible from vcascm and 
Argument, and which at the same time is eondpcted. with 
rcserye and moderation, wins Uie heart, whilst it informs 
the understanding ; and persoades no le$s by the e9tecm it 
inspii^sfqr the orator than by the force of his arguments. 

The juncture seemed to favour .^schines very much ^ for 
the Macedonian party, wliom be had always befriended, was 
very powerful in Athens, especially alter the iniin of Thebes. 
Nevertheless, yEschihes lost his cause, and wa^ JMSUy sen- 
tenced to banishment for his rash accusation* He thereupon 
went and tettled hfmself in Rhodes, where he op^ned-As^liool 
of elOi^ufence, the fame and glory of! whi<^h coqtinuedfor ma- 
ny ages. He began his lectures with the^two grations that 

^ Ad ^nod judiciQjn ^soocnfiu jdici^nr ceoti^ Oraeicts fiictas ene* 
Qmd e^nr'aat Mm viseodttoiy aut uin audicfdiiin futt» quam ram* 
tiionimt>ratbrtiar,fn gravitfima causa, accnrata ciiftiovcititiinieBn^ 
cootcntio ? Cicero de opt. gen^ ori^t. B« Mt 
tX)io^t;gw. oral. 

F Z 


bad occmdoned his bajiidunent Great eiicomiiinis weix 
given to that of ^schines ; but when tjicy heard that of De- 
mosthenes, the plaudits and acclamations MTere redoubled ; 
and it was then he spoke these words, so greatly laudable 
in the mouth of an enemy and a rival : ^^Bnt -lyhs^t applauses 
*^, would you not have bestowed* had you heard Demosthenes 
"speak it himself r 

To conclude, the victor made a good use of his conquest : 
for the instant .^schiues left Athens, in order to embark for 
Ehodes, Demosthenes ran after him, and forced him to ac- 
cept of a purse of money ; which must have obliged himito 
much the more,' a^ he had less rodn to expect such an cfier. 
On this occasion, iEschines cried o«t, • "How willit be pos- 
*^ sible for roe not to regret a conntiy, in which I leave an 
*^ enemy more generous than I can hope to find friends m 
*' any other part of the world ?" 

SECTION yn. , 


• The battle of Ch«ronca f may bh said to have enslave4 
Greece, ^acedon at that time, with no more than 30,000 
•oldiers, gainted a point which Persia, with millions of men, 
had attempted unsuccessfully at Plataea, at Salamih, and at 
Marathon. Philip, m the first years of his reign, had re*- 
pulsed, divided, aHid disarmed his enemies. In the succeed- 
ing: ones, he had subjected, by artifice or force, the most 
J)owcrful states of Greece, and had made himself its arbiter '• 
but now he prcrpares to revenge the faijuries which the 
Greeks had received from the barbarians, and meditates no 
less a design than the destruction of their empire. 1 The 
greatest advantage he gained by his last victory (and this 
-was the object he lone had in view, and never lost sight 
^) was to get himself appointed, in the assembly of the 
Greeks, their generafissimo against the Persians. In this 
quality he made preparations, in order to invade that 
mighty empire. He nominated, as leaders of part of his 
forces, Attains- and Parmenio, two of his captains, on whose 
valour and wisdom he chiefly reUedi ^^ made them set 
out for Asia Mindr. - . ' 

• Solfte autbdn ^tlVt thew Vofdfs to ^ctaMthcnei; wken: tto« 
yesrt after, ht met with thd sake fati at -ffiachirici, and wai alto ban* 

t A, M, 3^^7, An{. J, g. 537. t Diod. Uvi,'p. 479. 


« "^ w&ikt evev^ thing abroad wais gldriMt' and hapj^ 
Ibr philips he faiu>d the utmost tmeftBinesg at home ; dtrisioik 
and trouble reigning in every part of hia £eimily. The HI 
teipper of Olympias, who waa nafcaraUy jealooa, choleri<2» 
and vtadicUve» .raising dissentioDa perpetually in k, which 
made PhiUp almost out of love with Use. Not to mentioAt 
that as he himself had defikd the marriage bed ; it is said 
that his consort ha4 repaid faSs infidelity in kind. • But 
whether \a had a just ^object «f complaint, or waa grown 
weary of Oiympias, it is certain he proceeded so fiiv aa tb 
dlvoTi:e her. Alexander, who had been disgnsted npon %Kt» 
er^l other, accounts, was. highfy; offended at this treatmeitt 
of hisjnoth^n.: . . ;•: • ' ' 

f Philip, after dtvordag Olympiaa, married Cfeopatra, nie^ 
to Attains, a very y0un|; Jady; whose beaut)r was so exqol* 
site that he could not resist its charms. In the midst of their 
rejoicings upon occasion of the nuptials, and in the heat of 
wine, Attains, who was unele to the new queen by the moth* 
er's side, todi it into his head to say, that the Macedonians 
ought to beseech the gods to give them a laii^ftd successor Xo 
their king. Upon this, Alexander, who was naturailly chol* 
eric, exasperated at these Injurious words, cried out, "wretch 
that thoQ art, dost thou then take me for a bastard ?" And 
at the same timo flung the cup at his head. Attains return* 
ed the compliment, upon which the quarrel grew warmer. 
Philip, who sat at a:n6ther table, was very much offended to 
see the feast interrupted In this manner; and not recollect- 
i&g that he was lame, drew his sword, and ran directly at hia 
tfon. Happily the £»ther fell, so that the guests had an op- 
portunity of stepping in between d\em. The greatest dilS^ 
culty was, to keep Alexander from rushing uponliis ruiA, 
i^aspex^ted at a sutcesaon of such heinous affronts, in spite 
of all the guests covld say concerting the ^oQ^ he owed to 
Philip as hi^ fiather and his sovereign, he vented his resent- 
ments in the bitter words following : " The Macedonians 
<< indeed have a captain there, vastly able to cross froi|» 
*^ Europe into Asia ; hej who cknnot step from one table to 
<^ another wiUiout running die hazard of breaking his neck t" 
After these words he left the hall, and taking Olympiaa 
h^s mother, along with hiro> who had been so highly at 
£ronted9 he candncted her to £pir08, and hihiself Went over 
to the lUyrians. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

In the mean time, Demaratu^ of Cor&ith^^ who was^^en- 
Ka|f^ «6 Philip by the ti^s'of friendship and ho^itolity, and 
was very free iand famCliar witfcf hhn, arrived, at hit pourt. 


ۤ airrotr or vmttf. JSoU irf^ 

-^tt fbtt fint dvaitkflr anid carestes wefe dv%)^^ Fhifip- alk- 

ed him whether the Ok^u were te ftstity ? ^^ It indeed be- 

** comes yatky Sir/' replied Demamttifs, << to be ccxK^rhed 

^ about Greece, who hive filled yotfr (e#ti hoHse with feuds 

iand dissentioiis/' The |>rmce, setisit^ affecled at thfe re-« 

TOOach^ came to himaei^ acknowSedeed hb error, and sent 

I>Bmaratus to Alexander^ to persuade him' to retam home. 

* Pl^didnofc{^elth«CQMiq«e6tof Asia. ' FuU 

of the mig^ty^ prqjett be revived, he cons\dts the gods to 

know wh«t would belhelevent of k. The priestefe fepli*- 

«d, ^ the Tktim is atoadjr crowned, hisend drawd high^ anii 

:'f he will soon be iacrificed.'* Philip hearing this, did not 

hesitate a moment, but interpreted the oracle in his ownfa^ 

•voMr, the amblgoi^ of which' ^od^he«t least to hiave kept 

him insuspenser to order therefore that he might be in li 

condition to apply entirely to hi4 expedition against €he Per--^ 

aians, and devote himself solely to the conquest of Asia, he 

. dispatches^ wiik all possible diligcncey liis domestic aiiair«. 

; After this he oilers up a solemn sacififice to the gods ; and 

, prepares te celebrate with imcredible magnificenee, in'Egs^ 

.a city of Macedonia, the nuptials 6iCleopatra his daughter; 

•whom he j^Ve to Alexander, king of H^jinug, and brother to 

:Ol4|[nt^ia9 his queen. He hlid invited to it the moM consld* 

. eraMe ptrsoDS of Greece, and heaped upon them friendships 

and honours of erery kkid, by way of gratitude for electing 

. hinv geueralissimo of the Greeks. The cities made their 

,co«rt }e Inm in emulation of each «ther, by sending him gold 

, crowns ;. and Athens distinguished its zeal above idl the rest^ 

.Keoptolemus the poet had written ■ pur^sely for tliat festi^ 

. val, a tragedyt, entitled GinyraSy inr which under borrowed 

names,. he represented,, this pdnce as ^ready victor over 

.Darius, -and master of Asia. . Philip listened to the ha;^ 

, presages with joy ;. and comparing them with the answers 

, of the oracle, assured himselfof conquest. The day affcer the 

. nuptials, games and shows were solemnized. As theae formed* 

,part of the religious worship, there were carried in itjwith 

. great pomp and ceremony, 1-2 statueaof the god$, carved with 

inimitable art. A 13th, that surpassed them all-in magaifi^ 

. cence, was tiiat of Pbihp, which represented him as a god. 

. The hour U>r his leaving the palace arrinsd, and he went 

. forth in a white .rqbe, .and advjmced with/aaah" of majestjy 

. . • AM, ^6^Am.i yz%-x . ' ;\ ^ " 

t SuetoiiiiM, among th< preTigef of Csrigela-*tjd»tir/wlie£ol'1b' 
flaach the /ame manner ^» Philip,. pbfirTeii, that Mndler,jtbe pM- 
tomihe, eihibited die fame pirce which Kcoptolcmus lad repre« 
Icoicdthe very day ?hilip warnar^fd. ? « 

Sect. Vtl. flisroRt oJ' pititrf. ^ 

in the midst of acclamations towanis the theaCfe, where an 
infinite rotiltitudeof MacedoniMiSi asifrell as fbreignersy wail* 
ed his eomln^ with impatience. His guards marched before 
and behind him, leaving by his order, a considerable ^>ace 
between themselves and him, to give the ^ectators a better 
opportunity of surveying him ; and also to show that heccm- 
sidered the affections which the Grecians bore him as his 
safest gdard. 

But all the festivity and pomp of these nuptials ended in 
the murder of Philip ; and It was his refbsal to do an act «f 
.justice that occasioned his death. Some time before, Atta^ 
- talus, inflamed with wme at an entertainment, had insulted 
in the most shocking maimer, Pausanias, a young Macedo« 
• nian nobleman. The latter had Jong endeavoured to re« 
venge the cruel affront, and was perpottiaUy impioring the 
)^hvg*s justice. But Philip, raiwfilmg to :di6gU5t Attalus, un- 
cle to Cleopatra, whom, as was before observed, he h^ 
married after his divorcing Olympias, his first queen, would 
never Bsten to Pausanias* complamts. However, to console 
. him in some measure, and to express the high esteem he 
had^lbr, and the great confidence he reposed in him, he made 
him one of the chief ofEcers of hia life-guard. But this wsBi 
not what theyoung Macedonjan required, whose anger now 
swelling to fury against his judge, he forms the design of 
wiping out his shame^ t»y en^rumg his hands ia the most 
iuurid naurder. 

Wh^B once a man is determined, to die, he is vastly strong 
an(3 {ormidable. Pausanias, the better to put his bloody de- 
sign in Execution, chose the instant of that pompous cere- 
' mdny, When the eyes of tfie wliole mnltitude were fixed cii 
the prince \ doid>tless to make his vengeance more conspi<j- 
uous, and proportion it to the injury for which he conceived 
' he had a right to make the king responsible, as he had long 
solicited that prince in vain, for the satisfaction due to him* 
Seeing him therefore alone, in the great space which hia 
guar£ left round him, he advances forward, stabs him with 
a dagger, arid lays him dend at his feet. Diodoms observes,, 
that he was assassinated the very instant hfe statue enter- 
ed the theatre. The assassin had prepared horses ready 
for his escape, and wouM have gQt o£^ h^d not an aeciUtot 
happened which stopped him, and gave tifie pnrsuers time 
to overtake him. Pausanias was immediatiely torn to pfec* 
es i^KMi ^e spot. Thus died Philip, at 47 years of age, after 
having reigned 24,» ArtaxerxesXjchus^ kiipg of Persia, di-^ 
-ed also tlie same yeaK 

^ hn 3l5^ ABt 7 c J36 jBfchia cootrsi i;tefl)^'p 440 

fTO tiisTOftV^? PHiLi?. Book Xiy. 

. Demosthenesj ha^ private notice sent him of PhiUp's death 
.and in order to prepare tW'^tbenianBto resume their coar- 
age, he went to the council ^ith an air of joy^ and s&id, tiiat 
the night before he had a dream, which promised some 
great felicity to the Athenians. A Uttie after, couriera ar- 
rived with the hews of Philip's death, o& -which occasion the 
c pe^le abandoned themselves to the transports of immoderate 
joy, which far exceeded all bounds of decency. Demosthe- 
'Aes,had particularly inspired them with these sentiments ; 
' for he himself appeared in public crowns with a wreath of 
.flowers, and dressed with the utmost magnificence, though 
*his daughter had been dead but seven days. He also en^ 
gaged' the Athenians to olfer' sacrifices, to' thank the gods for 
the good news ; and by a decree, ordained a crown to Pau* 
•.6ania/H w^o had committed the murder. . ^ 

On this occasion iDemosthenes' and the Athenians acted 
guite out of character ; and we can scarce conceive how it 
^came to pass, that in so detest able a crime* as the murder of 
•a king, policy at l^st did not inddcethem tb dissethble such 
•sentiments as. reflects dishonour on them, without bemgat 
•all to their advantage ;and which showed that honour and 
probity were utterly extinet in their mmds. 

. SECTIO?^ Vlri. 


There are, in the lives of great men, certain facts a|id ex- 
pressions whiiA often ^ive us a better idea of ti)eii: charac* 
"ter than their most shining actions; because, in the latter, 
they generally study their conduct, act a borrowed part^aiid 
propose themselves to the view of the world ; whereas in 
the former, as they speak and act from nature, th^y exhihie 
themselves such as they really are, without art and disguise. 
M. de Tourreil has collected with sufficient industry ftiost of 
the memorable actions and 'sayings of Philip ; and he has 
been particularly careful, to , draw the character pf this 
prince.. The reader is not to expect much order and con- 
Oiection in the reciul of these detached actions and sayings. 

ITioMgh Philip loved flattery, so far as to reward the ad- 
ulatioji of Thrasideus >vith the title of king in ThessaW, he 
however at some intervals loved truth. He permitted ♦Aris- 
totle to give him precepts on the art of reignmg. He de- 
clared, that he was obliged to the Athenian oratws for hav- 

•Arift, Epift*PtotrfB^Apophp i77*.jBlja9j lihi ?m|<a« 


ing corrected him of his errors, by frequently reproaching', 
him with them. He kept a man in his service to tell him 
every day before he gave audience, /^Philip, remember 
thou art mortal." 

' * He t discovered great moderation, even when he was 
spoken to in shocking and injmious terms ; and also, which is 
no less worthy of admiration, .when trutli was told him ; a 
great quality, says Seneca, in kings, and highly conducive, 
to the happiness of their reign.. At the close of anaudiencci r 
which he gave. to some Athenian^ ambassadors who were 
come to comp)ain of* some act of hostility, he asked, whe- 
ther he could do them any service ?. *'The greatest service 
jtho^ couldst do us," said Demochares,.*^^ would be to hang, 
thyself." Philip, though he perceived all the j>ersafis.pre* 
sent wer-e highly offended at these words^ however jnade the 
following answer, with the utmost calmness of temper : 
"Qd, tell your superiots, that those who .dare make use of 
^ such insolent language, are more baKighty^ and less pea** 
•*' ceably inclined, than they who can forgive tjiem." 

% Being present, in an indecent posture, at the sale of 
some captives, one of them going up to him, whispered in 
his ear, "le^ down the lappet of your robe ;" upon which 
Philip replied, "sej the man at liberty ; I did not know till 
now that *'he was one of my friends,** 

S The whole court soliciting him to punish the ingr^ti« 
tude of the Peloponnesians, who had hissed him publicly in 
the Olympic games : "What won't they attempt," replied* 
Philip, «*shouldJ[ do them any injury, since they latigb at 
^* roe aftfa»i4wrving received so many f avoui'^t my hand V* 
- Jfiiis courtiers advising him to drW^ frcwSlm a certain 
f^rson'who spake ill ofliim : "Yes, iuaeed7^s:iyihe, "and 
^sb he \vill go and speak injuriously <^4p ^v«l?f- where,** 
Another time that they advised him to (fflRlrir^sifcin of pro# 
bity, whohad reproached him t **Let us , ' ^ cfu*c,*' 

says he., <^tKat%f e?iWfi&Jibt given him any r. i . 1.I0 s^j/' 

Hearing afterwards that the person in question was but in 
poor circumstances, and in no favour witU the courtiers^ Ug 
was Vfery bountiful to him ; on which occasion, his reproachr 
es were changed into applauses, that occasioned another 
fine saying of this princess : <*It is in the power of kings to 
inake ^Hhemselves beloved or hated." ' / 

** Being urged to assist, with the credit and authority he' 

*Senecidc Ira. I^ ju. c««3. 

t St qus alia in Philippo virtQ9, fait et cooliimeHani» patieatla« 
logent ioftrttipe&tum ad tuUlam regni. 
tPlitf, JIW* (I Plut* in iH^oph. . -JJNiPlut. 

iH BISTORT ^r PBIL19/ Mook XIV". 

lud witk the judges, a persoii whose reputation would be 
quite lost by the sentence which was going to be proneunced 
against him : *^I had rather," says he, ^'he should lose his 
«< reputation, than I mine/* 

* Philip rittng from an entertainment, at which he had 
sat several hours, was addressed by a woman, who begged 
him to examine her cause, and to hear several reasons ^e 
had to aUedge which were not pleasing to him. He accord- 
ingly heard it, and gave sentence against her ; upon which 
she replied very calmly *«! appeal."—«*How !" says Philip, 
" from your king ? to whom tiien ?"— ♦to Philip when fiat- 
ingv' replied Che woman. The manner in which he recdved 
this answer would do honour to the most sober pripce. He 
afterwanls gave the cause a second healing, found the in* 
jastioe of his sentence, and con(|emned himself to make it 

t A poor woman used to appear often before him, to sue 
f«r audience, and to beseech him to put an end to her la w- 
fluit ; but Philip always told her he had no time. Exaspe* 
rated at these refusals, which had been so olten repeated, 
she replied one day with emotion, ♦^f you have not time to 
^^ do me justice, be no longer king." Philip was strong^ af^ 
fected with this rebuke, which a just indignation had ex* 
torted fi'om this poor woman ; and so far from being of- 
fended at it, he satisfied her that instant, and afterwards be- 
came exact in giving aucUence. He indeed was sensible, 
that a king and a judge are the same thin|; ; tliat the throne 
is a tribunal ; \hat the sovereign authoritv is a supreme 
power, and at the same time an indispensable obligation to 
do justice ; tlatjto distribute it to his subjects, and to grant 
them tn^ time &cessary for that purpose, was not a favour, 
but a dutv^u^ a debt ; that he ought to appoint persons to 
assist hiinjV|flus function, but not to discharge himself abso- 
liitely. froflml^; and that he was no less obliged to be a judge 
than a kinf r All these circumstances are included in this 
natural, unaffected, and very wise expression : ^^Be no long*. 
er king} ;'' and Philip comprehended all its force. 

{ He understood raillery, was very fond of smart sayings, 
and very happy at them himself. Having received a wound 
near the throat, and his surgeon importuning him daily with 
some new request : 'Take what thou wilt,' says he, ^^ior 
*tthou haat me by the thw«t." 

II It is also Related, that after hearing two villains, who ac« 
cused each other of various crimes, he banish^ the one, and 
^ikttityeeA the other to follow him, 

•Mit. f%id. 1 Ksi aie Batilcm* 

ffUt' I Ibid 

^M. m^. vxstoftT tF tmvtt. ft 

iikmeif lut^iter, wi«te4i> PhU^ as follows ; ««Mcrcnitwliii> 

•*«.pitev, %ft l^kflip greotteg;" PlMlip nmmKed : ** Philip tft 

^« MeiMcfaiesy healtii and reason.t'' But Hie kmr aid nut 

«lop heve*; .-far he hit opon apleasant remedy for hu viaioB* 

Wef corve^pcnCteat. PhiKp invited linm to « grand entertam^ 

met. Menecyaftesliad a separate table at it, where nothinf 

mstt^snpfmA nptohifft hot incense and perfome, whilst al 

nhe ether gjaeste f«d lapMi themost exquWte dnintxes. llie 

festtransporu of joy wkh which lie wasadsed, when he 

fbUndhis divtoiity a^oiDwledged made him forget that he 

was a nlan^ twt changer aHorwards forcing him to reool'- 

lect liiti b^ng~90f he wan qtrite ■ fined frith the character of 

Jupiter, and took leave of the company abruptly. 

f^KsiipimMtmt^ aMWMR* wbidi redOQ«|ed'highty to the 
ikonoar of his pH^ne minuter^ ^liat pnaoe^ bdng one day 
ro^pfroadiid wr^ doroitltigloo manv honvs to steep : ** I in* 
^ «teed. tieep^'^ sayslie, ** 1»t AntifSter wakes?* 

^i^iifroi^^lMsairiBg tHe Ambassadbts df all Oreece mtn'- 
mhrj^ioiie dV^^^^^''^^^'^^'^ ^^<><^^o>H; *n ^^ "nd did 
iMa«.gm thqBMMnfooce : ^Sb-aat vonder/' ,|Ays he ^ if be 
«2«efp9 mMA fmoivrnkH ; for he srahcd wihiist yea slept/* 
By Shfslie wrtwy ■ wpi i oaiA iii i then for- then' ai^neness, in 
nesleettng their fatoaeillSj.^ri^l^*mi^il'|t was very vigilant m 

.^Ervcfy eqo^vf liidtf^tiiteK^^Uheasite^ 
^neral ev ery y ear. These dl4liiehr dnty hy tarns and ev<^ 
eiy. gisnueaLmii Ihe- day ^ettmn^nided .sis. tgeneeafiashno. Bm 
FhMip joieed tqxyn dds.«ni1ti^fiei^ «f tSleft, and saU; ^.ik 
^*mfMk€it %tb 4 esnld |M«ei^ find hnt one.general p^arme* 
<<»<!)) wh«f«i»«ie^AaieBlate can.Jhid tpn every year, at 
«;the vei-f inska«I^My,#aMdicrov** 

"l^iesletter whvdffliHiis iMtnetoAvislotle on theUA of 
his .son^ pfToreiiiilie Hgsm^thm. priwce paid to learned TX»hi, 
«id. aft the.8ani0Cm»the taalrtellim^lf had .for thepd&te 
at^^^^and sdenceB« fHie odker frtters of his, which are s^l 
^Kl»it,.do him nxr^esa^hen^r. Bnt bis great talent was that 
off«*artai9i ipoilcy, in . >whklhrlie.was eq^uJRed hy few ; and .it 
istimiet to fcoaeider htm viiAen ^u» do^le character. I beg 
therrtaderjIoTeniefflbsf^^at'M. deTbonml is the anihot' 
of tnOitof Hhe 35iA7flet]iinilJ paiticvSaff^, and tiiiat It is.te. wlio 
is igohig tb^lt^llSiMh ^^iMCtmctf kini; i%U 


t The Ofccfc ward «rMMAi Mfiet hodi thefe diingt. 

«nai. jitir . H^w£i«wl;^»f^.^i,t7^ 

74 HIST0RT OF rsiLip, - fi^k XIK 

* It w€uld be difficidt to determine whether this prince were 
more oonspiebous as a w%irriar or a «tatesroau. Snrrouoded 
from the very bc^nniog of his reiga, both at hooic and a«> 
broad, with powerful' enemieS) he empUnxd astifice and 
liorce alternately to defeat tliem. He uses his endeavors 
with BUGcess to divide his opponents ; to strike the surety 
he eludes aiid diverts the Uows wliich were aimed at hiaw 
self ; equally prudent in good and ill fortune, he does noira* 
buse victory ; as ready to pursue or wait fnr it, . he either 
hastens his pace or slackens it, as necessity requires ; he 
leaves nothuig to the caprice of chance, but What cannot be 
directed by wisdom ; in fine, he is ever imnov^able, ever 
^cd in the just bounds whicl| d^yi^ boidneas irom temeri** 

In PhUip we perceive a king who commands his alliea as 
much as his own subjects, and is as formidable in treaties as 
in battles ; a vigOant and active monarch,- who is his own 
siuperintendant, his own prime minister aiid generalissimo: 
We see him fired with an insatiaUe thirst ef glory^ aeac^di* 
ing for it where it is sold at the dearest price ; making £»• 
tigoe and danger his dearest delights ; fermhiK ikiccssanUf 
that just, that speedy harmony of reilectionk and action which 
military expeditions require ; and with all these adtuicageft 
turning thefiuyof bis arms against commonwealths, ex^ 
hausted by long wars, torn by intestine divisions, sold by 
their own citizens, served by a. body of mercenary orundi»f 
cipKned troo|)s, obsthiatdy ^eaf to good advice, and seeming 
ly det^roined on their ram. •* 

He. united in himself two quatities which <are commonly 
Ibund incompatible, vie. a steadiness and calmness of soul 
thet enabled him to weigh all Aings, in order to take ad-t 
iraqftage of every juncture, and toMse the fevourable mo'^ 
ment \vithout being distxmcerted by disappointlnenfts ; this 
ealttmess I say, was united wsth a recess activity, ardour, 
and- vivacity, which were regardless of the difiereace of sea- 
sons, or the greatest of dangers. No warrior was ever bold 
tor, or more intrepid in figl^. Demosthenes, who cannot ,t)e 
snspected to have flattered him, gives a glorious testimony^ 
of him on thitf fie^ ; for which reason I wilh cite- his own 
words. *^^ I saVr,'<' says diis oriblor, (< this vefy Philip witk 
** whom we disputed the sovereignty, and empire ; I saw 
H him, thoitgh doycrcd widi wounds, bis eye struck out, hij 
^< collar^xme brok^ maimed both -in his han^ and feet ^ 
" still resolutely rush into the midst of dangers, and ready 
f < to deliver up toi fortune any other part tid hb body She 

f Z>cmoith,^Cyt.p,4^>. ' ^ ; 

Sttt, fill. flISTORY OF -JHILXPi 7S 

^ might desire^ provided he might live honourablf and f to* 
** riously with the rest of il." 

Philip was not only brave hinisei^ but inspired his whole 
arnvy witKthc same valour. able masters in 
the science of war, as the reader has seen, he had broiij^ht 
his troops to the most exact regular discipline ;. and trained 
iipnien capable of seconding^ him in his great 'enterprises. 
He had the art, withent lessening his own authority, to fa-< 
miltarise hitnself with his soUMers ; and coramRnded rather 
as the father of a family, than as the general of an army, 
whenever consistent with cHsciptine «: and indeed, from his 
affability, which merited so mucli the greater submission and 
fespect, as he requii*^ less, and seemed to di^ense with it, 
hi« soldiers wel^ always teady to. follow him to the greatest 
dangers, and paid him the mostimpiiat obedience. 

No general ever made a greater use of militaiy strata^' 
jgems than Philip. The dan^rs to which he had been ex- 
posed in his youth, had taught him the necessity of precau- 
tionsy land the art of resources* A wise difi^eiice, which n 
of service, as it shoi^s danger in its true iig^t, made him not 
fearfikl and irresohite, bat cautious and pnident. What rea<* 
son soever he mig^t have to flatter himself with tlie hope of 
success,^ he never depended upon it ; and thought himself 
Superior to the enemy only in vigilance. Ever just in his 
projects, and inexhaustible in expedients ; his views were 
tknbounded ; his genius yna wcnderfbl in fiidrig.upon proper 
junctures for the execution of his designs ; and his dexterity 
in actings in an imperceptible manner no less admirable. 
Impenetrable as to his secrets, even to his best friends, he 
Iras capable of attempting or concealing any thing. Tlie 
Tcadcr may have cibserved, that he strenuously endeavoured 
to lull the Athenians asleep, by a-specious outside of peaoe, 
and to lay silently ^Jte foundations of his grandeur in their 
eredtdous securi^ and blind indolence. 

But these exahed Qualities were not without imperfections. 
Kot to mention his excess in eating and carousing, to which 
he abandoned himsdif with the utmost intemperance, he also 
has been reproached with the most dissolute abandoned 
manners.. We may form a judgment of this from those who 
were most intimate with him, and the company which u<* 
sually frequented his'pfchkce. A s^ of proA^ate debauchees, 
buiRxxis, pantomimes, iai4 wretches worse than these, flat* 
ti^rs I mean, * whom avarice and anri>ition draw in crowds 
«*und- the: great and powerful ; such were the people who 
had the greatest share in his confidence and bount^. De- 
mosthenes is not the only person who reproaches PhiUp wiUx 

"DieopoiDpus*, a fiimovs hittoriw, wb»iiM) writlt»ttac Ma- 
inly of Mt pimu m »lM«U»iifwkMfcwihiiP|^Uy«*w 

iharaotetofUtiu «'Pliiilp»'^Mr»t«h8» "^^^q^BodoMMtealr 

<<^lkcntloosM6Sb Hn wa» f kdmA lo •wf flte co m ga n i n a ii ^ 
« htftpleaateresegKtl a^lcvs lA lh# abomlM^Mfo aM ^ fa^^KK 
^^tkscandmaligmty t1ian»tkMi^tciMiea«f 4ite)Ub^ A«^ 
^lut t^haviMdeaofkiuifyWlMt loitcffcfkQia^thir 
Maotcommit rfco* • 

But a orciimalaa«a» m W9 ofM»» wbkbi ?«8<fila Hn^ 
Mtatflsi duKonottr o» Pbttip^ ii that vca^ «i* i»v wfiic^ liv 
IS ohiefl J eBteemad t)^ maay pcmns ; I m^aii: Im f^Hi^cm^ 
lie Ml esasUtoredftBapmeesf ttepmUsCaiilUtiaa iatkb. 
afi tlMM^ e«»r UfM » anl» Midtt4» tiMrread^amy liava «Ik 
i^rvadyl^ IM^ liiiiacy cf . Idt teiioai, Ihiit, a»4«iwrfik^ 
pMkm of hia r^tc^ Jia hiki laU 4Mn^ a Dta«,fiM«».w|uol^ 
1# BaMr4fiviatod»aadthitfwaala vaiMbluiaMlftatkaaa^ 
iipticnty «€Gffa«ce. W)i«a staroa atatad m Im tlifooayfl^ 
iHrtcNitfiM wi#vwry >fale wkit pfl>warfiil enw » ia i, wlMapf»> 
kMMky v» 01096 Oiit 1|« CW14 iaria» at 1^ 
«aic^ai l«cH a |»r(^KI aa tki^ I tl^w^vcr^hadid aak^acai 
liia«|Mq^i^ .Wariii liaMe% Uraatias oCpaacc, aUteiia^i^ 
aasCiAaraciaa; in Bhorti AH tUnyi tarnOaatcd time. E^ 
'waa veiy lavi«k of bia ji^d aii4 tslvor, marekr to ci^E^pp 
Gf«ati|t«ft in )m tfrvka. Ha^ carriacl oi» a privata iate)lv« 
foace wit|LaUtte ckiaaof Oivece ; and l^y. %» a^wUnco 
ofpmsioiier^ on wluna he lia4 saliUad ¥ary large stipaiid% 
be vas Inform^'vtiy emoAf of aU the resabititot iaJusn hk 
thaoh and gtaarally gave them tUe tura li» Uia ow^g^jmf < 
S{y^ thlf tneavs ha deoet v^ Oieprudcia^etodcyi tiv^epf>Btii; 
aad lulled asleep ttxt vigUaacepf at^tegyjw^kOU tM^ihad. 
t»ta»fe4Eea iip» as t1^ Boo^t ac;M ve» (h^ wiseit» aad na>t pen^ 
atfatiag of all Greece. lo tveadiog in tli^sev ftqpa fcr S|^ 
years together, we see hlfl» proceedi&g wUh great Qi9lsr,an4 
advancing regularly towards liie ^nark oa whifiti kiSrcye waa 
ijGed ; bat always by, vri^a^utg;^ aad cUH^rranfpus passage^, 
tbe oafletsof whkkoi% duco^^arthedesigGi,. .< 

I Poly^nus shows u^ evid^tly .the iii^ttvQd» ^l^^i^ b^ 
subjected Tl^essaly ; which waa g# great advantage to tte^ 
completing of his other designs*. <fHa difd not,*' says b% 
^ carry on an open yifiv againat tk^ Tbassalians ; vhnt. tock 

/l>iod,Sic,l.avi,p.4oS. ■ 
tThcopom apad Atben, 1» vi, p. so^ *N|aB9. b W« «• S9» 

9itf. VJIi. mmT or milk^. 

^Mvtals^ 0f ^Smt diiciml tttst tttld^ A^ ciOtf flid the 

toed fcr hit tesiatiacr ; and whtimi» Im Had eon- 
HMnred, lie did 1101; cMifClf niia the VMtt^^ 

«*wutvi tlieift) nor raae iMir walh 9 1» tiM toAcrerjr, he 
'♦yyeted tbe we«k«t> eeilepdwwt ai ai to n^eeken tod 
^irti|e(t tlw BtiroDSOrt ^ is er t^n^dy he wilted ftefievted then 
^ M weMe d their «yMoei, hhetoe Id evetr eleee eretort iii 
Hhb i^y^iliDM evtiflctn ef dlkcenl, than ftt^heendt of 
<«eani«ioewcBlth«. And li was he dKte Mfaumiii. net hy 
M-araey-thet NMi^Mbdued Thmaalf ."^ 
: ^Antidi feiaMaiierJ«>ieee»aMfMilehipohderpQnito. 
Boi what eegiiReidoaB' IMS art idi^, eAiat eiediedt dne^ It 
eiaplDr ^ ec a y aifc its detjgei f ijeceity erift» fraed< fiJie- 
hook^ P^^i^ff *»i perjurv. Are these d^e wespans of 
ehteef^ see Ih dds ^itoee e heendiM anddti^oTcM- 
deoMlr hy an setM, hetoeathie^ edbtle gudes : hut we do 
dJtdedhtojpo to Mw fl efthe ^iiid id M erhkh fcreithe tmdy 
dweat lena. Hittlp hnd netther fithh^ eat honoer ; every 
thhiwthat oodhlGsatriietete the qmMdhrih( of hH power 
wasln his eease)iist and lawAd. He gate hit word, whh a 
dfmeiMtotfon^ht«ekkveiil ihade pftotlfeis tiffiidihe 
have been vecysdrrytdhM. HethoerfitMBiseS 

AIM ia ^rapm^ ts he wtl |NBi^^ 

eohiliifaidaeeiehiiiallwitbwtaiheti^ted. t>le< 
' htdi to say, «Hhat chUdrcd. WtM aMdMd with plty.thin£H 
DddiMWltheaths.'* ^^ ^ 

ntoer shaioelhl was If ftr h Mnor td he diaiiofuSdied by 

hiiad dMve anftd^ a grsater dftkediUtf , diofv ptodmad in 
maMBfeiafldhMreafciuiee than any othtrjpenonsfhkafesi 
aaid to leaee m hi£Mnobs ed Idea dt himteute aO posterity f 
^I^Fhet idtm Itooeld e^e fom te immmK^ ai the eoninici ce ef 
the World) ef n euuv who ehdidd vahdl hitoself tot trlcUa^ 
oOMii ttad tank hu h a^ eii t f and ftMd hfiMhi; virtaes ? Sech 
a duurtetdr hi prieate ddi k detalsd ds tne hand and nun of 
edhtey. HdwthedGHk bseoffiean ohjectof esteemand 
a d dOifalhi htprtdcgaandadniitoWflf ttate, persons whe 
erdbodadhy strmmr ties diaadidreftef nien,bdcaaidof 
UK ehdddooeef thttr.sttitkmiy aikl thdMA|ierttti6eof die em- 
fftofteemt they dll, to revere Mooefity, justleey aad^ abofo 
ali^ the sanetRyof tifatlas endoadn ; to bhid whteh they 
kiin^M the aantd and ntdjesiy efa god, the faiexorable aven« 
«fcf of fteffld/ andSmplety f A bare pi^ftilie^aniortg private 
IfeMoee Odi^to bdiaeffdd and hitlolable, ITtheyliftve the 
kait sense of honour ; biithow much move eei^t k tobe se 

<ttaMiUt<M|fttti. Up. s^ tJkiiaB,l^fu,.c, »%» 


78 HtSTOftT or FRtLiPi Book XIV,'" 

amonf^ princes ! «Wc arc bound/' sap a celebrated writer*, • 
^' to speak truth to our neighbour ; tor the use and appUca-* 
<^tion of speech ioil^s a tacit promise of truth ; speeds* 
^ having been given us for no other purpose. It b not a 
^^ compact betifteen one privatf man with another ; it is. a* 
' ^ common compact of mankind in general^ and a kind of- . 
*' right of nations^ or rather a law of nature. Now, whoever - 
^' tells an untruth, violates this law and comaion compact.'* 
How greatly is the . enormity of .violating the sanctity of an 
oath increased, when we call upon the name of God to wit- 
ness it, as is the custom always in treaties i<" fWere sin-^ 
" cerity and truth banished from every other part of the 
'^ e.\rth," said John L kiug of France, upon' his being solici-' 
ted to violate a treaty, 'Hhey ought to be SmomI in tbeiiearCs 
and in the mouths of kings.'* . . - : 

The circumstance whkh fmimpts poUticbns to act in this 
manner, is, their being persuaded that it is the only means. 
to make a negociatkM * 6«cceed. But though this were the 
case, yet can it ever be lawful to purchase such success at 
tlie expence of probit}*, honour snd religion ? *^|If your Cither- 
^^ iu-law," (Ferdinand the catholic,). said Lewis XII. to Phil- 
ip, archduke of Austria, ^has acted perfidiously, I am de- 
^ termined not to imitate him ; and I am much more pleas-- 
'^edin having lost a kingdom (Naples) which l-am able t» 
** recover, than I should have dccn had I lost my henour, 
" which can never be recovered.". 

But those politicians who have neither honoueaar rdigioD^ 
deceive themselves even in this very particular. I shall aot 
have recourse to the Christian world for princes end mhiis* 
tors, whose notions of policy were very different from theie« 
1 o go no farther than our Greek history, bow mai^ gTQ&t 
men have we seen perfectly successful, ia the adrofaiistratioii 
of public affairs, in treaties of peace and war ; in a word« 
in the most important negociations, without once aiaking iise 
of artifice and deceit I An Aristides, a Cimon, a PhocidH 
and so many more ; some of whom were so very scrupulgps 
ill matters relathig to truth,, as to believe they were notvul- 
lowed to tell a falsehood, even laughhsg and in sports Qy- 
rus, the most famous conpueror of the east, thou^ aethmg 
was more unworthy of a prmce, nor more capable of draw- 
ing upon him the contempt snd hatred of his subjects, tlxaa- 
lying and deceit. It therefore ought to be looked upon as a 
truth, that no success, how sbinmg soever, can, or ought ta 
cc^er the shame and ignominy w^h arise from breach tat 
faith and perjuty. 

•M. Nicole, OB the epift. of tfie lotb fondsj iter WhltfiintidCt 
tMcscrsi, Jlbid, 




LJ ^ ^.., ' 


/ Aove already obnrvcdf t^Mt the hiH^ry ^if Mexmdir^ 
comprUed in the fottowing book^ emumiu the 9fi4e€'tJ^ 
ttvehft yeare and tight months'. 



ALEXANDER * eame into the world the fimyesr of the 
106th Olfinpiad. 
The very day he came into the world the celebrated tem- 
ple of Diana in Epheims was bumtd. The reader knowi, 
without doubt, that it was one of the teven wonden of the 
world. Ithad been bnilt in the name^ and at the expence of 
all Asia Minor. A great nnmber of yean t were employer! 
in building it. lU length was 425 ieet, and its breadth XIO. 
It was iopparted by 137 eohimns, 60 feet high, which to ma* 
ny % kingsr had cavsed to be wrought at a great expence, and 
by the most excellent artists, who endeavoured to excel one 
another on this occasion. . The rest of the temple was equal 
to the columns in magnificence. 

* SHe^bs llofAftf^esia, according to Phitarcht eays, 
^< that it was no wonder the temple was bm*ned, because 
<< Diana was that day employed at the delivery of Olympus, 
«< to facilitate the tnrth of Alexander.*' A redection, says 
our author, so very If cold, that it might have extinguished 

• A« M« 364S. Aac. J.C, J56. Plio. 1. xnvi* c 14* 
f PUay tsyt sao ycsrt, which it not probmblc.^ 

4 Aocientlj moH cilict4irere govsiaed by ibcir partjcabr kS^* * 

5 Plaurch m Alex. p. 66j. 

I He wst to hiatoriso, sod lived ia the time of Ptolcay, loa «f 

\ I don't kaow wbsthsr Platarcb*a rtilt^so be net itiQ cold^. 

Ett^Mv pr ALZJunzm. BodkXr^ 

dartt it a vcpv smart onei at i^chr I am vcvy wmch ni*^ 
prised. Fofidbly thefoiidii«iftheliad[forjokW| iMd» him 
tot very dftUcaU m thiogfr of tbbkiiid. 

t One Uerostratos ^^ Ired tbftC tnii^ copnrpoie. B«' 
iagiMlttoth«toitim,ib order Ca £dvob hia to coolcsa his 
wtive fer «D«uwttiBg uk infapieH^ ai^ actyx)* lup roifihwr-d 
t1i0i k ^raa. *t 2i^w.<>f tiuUMr )»mc^ lJV»#ii^|a 
and u^tnunortauae his iiaine,fydeatroxiiig,to«ial»e a stnc* 
tare. Tlie«mes-MMW9(MftlmA9^ 
vast tbc saccettof bis virn^ li^ ociblbbiog adacrea to prc^ 
bilblt th^ maatioQ of hia iiaaae. Aa«Faver» tkair jirgliibitiQa 
ttM^ a«0iid iugraatar^oiioritv ^l«^acar«e«lii^ 
l^$iya«CtiWitaiateaajllUl*dtpaiiaiilic«i 80.iAfliiitca«iaii 
«3ttra«ia|^c«, and at ite aapa ti>i» tovm tolA w itenaaae 
^ih#erimloak . ^ 

I'tha paaiioa vfaicli' praifkWd most ia Alcaaoder, ev«ii> 
fcon kU tender y»ars» waM»aUtiQQ|* aad an ardent de^i« 
ef dory ; bin not for every niedei cfn^oiy,, Pliilipy like a 

iMi style, and hftd the vai^y tb have e oya »ede< i Ms coins 
thft irmal ^nO»xk»^ had wa».atlha €%imifc flnoes jp 
the chariot'«ace. But k waanotto this hiaaan aspfrad* m 
friaiMfeaaUnKbka <w day#iwh«yiarh«ftW0iilda«!t4ifriiMae&t 
sAthetswaaa abaf a me^KMnad, i»^r<torto dispuie the pria» 
taHQvad 4a> that oacaiaom (lor ha w^ Ytfy aitift43f liot«}:' 
f9aa»nMred> "^thatha voald cecitoidia ttMI» |irofida«^ 
^ Jilii»g» ware to ba bta aiita|^iata«!* 

Evaiy tmie aewawaa bn]iifhthim4lM^.hlafatharhadtah«' 
efraonae dcy^ or fahw^aanie gmt» baltli» Aks w ad a r yaafey 
frav»ahanngiat)iagaQeffalje|siisadtaaayi uira^fdaiiitivt 
Hsne of tlia jroaag parsons that wera-brenilA^irUlii 
}khM* ««frieiid% lay fitihev wiU possess hMAsai^itfevavy Mag^. 
" and leave noHiing for as to 40.**^ 

Om #ay aelie a mba ssa rtnt s fraas the hihr«CPhimhdnr 
vffflaed as eoait darkly; Philip's ab8aM% Atatoder ea^ 
)aiei» aa Jdbd aad sh paSia a veq^^tioa^ aof I reeOad, them III 
laaobfetadgSBiroutaiaaatoarf aaahartnaatMrtaB; b«l 
tbiHwindr moai sttfinrised thana awrthe |;aad«dose and 
jildgmeat he discovered In the sei^eral ixaiTersations they 

• Cooi4Aae, at taalti, fidiWt fsl, c^an fa-bhiaHil dfjrfMt, 'qor 
aacte oatus Aiesadtr^f ifMtf, eid«to I>Maa t^btftfhi caafptam ddH- 
grivtAc, «rf]«titti s atiaiaie Utm Mm^&m, fiad iMsui»i rani io^ 

frca Oty mpiadtt sdc«e uplahset, sblftMstdaiaaw De MM. DtaR 
1. n. «5r. 

f r»ler. Mta. I, viB. c, t4» 


liip|li|iiios«j^«Di|i)« aft xmc^ U)Mt«d Mrcka^flaqpoHM ill 
the air^.tbt ykwaadnMlg p i Stgn c g ^t^ yilace and cauiS 
ci£^hia liiM^I'Scsmy. "wlusli excited tlue aiJaoiraticai of A« 
jwl>dia iwd ; th<r fwima goltoi piantanr tree ; ^aad that 
g^tv-v»e,4u3i ipyefrAf wJiicb. watt 9f «ineraUa» cartani* 
€k»yiFirfiie% aqdSUaDEt^oCprc^loiiaalQHa^aii^ wliicli tlm 
I^eisiaaiiMmvdiKSiaiiaklfrtquen^ Alcsii- 

aia4a]ry.{ aa^jT, aafcad t^aiai ^fHitiinsm*: of a q^ diftaaofc na* 
ture ; inqmnng wfUckwaatbe road to Upper Aaifk ; tte4ia» 
Iwi^ce el tba aevwH^plMaa ^ In. whatlhr fttaBct)k aad ptwer 
«r t&e luoi; of PewMinaiattd ^ l» lahot pfot ftf ^^ 
ftii|||it ; how be belia¥Cil tDWJMvia ya cMnlcai aad in 1 ' 
jnaaoflrliiBgyimBedhiaflibJecta* Thaaia aaiAmaadgw 
iz)ired him alltbie utrbUe; moAfewdvk^i^rtm: aitkat t 
fKW gx:«at bcr Jiii^ ow day iKtpme, tk^ 
yas^ ^b€ d # ii ti i ca t|gy imapd b^tayfaaa Ak ai a ad rf aaii^ Ag» 
■U yfrytBi; , &fsa|[|D|.oitaUka<ifiiher, *^ | tlua jtonqg pcHMw 
^ ia^jffvail, and «ttirf i& tkkJ* TUiaA. msm moat te itngily imi 
S^lglScaiii^ wh^ii^ na oUiei; nanlHnaii Vi» r¥A^^ I > 

. £{a p^ » jlidgp^eDtiu ti^a fOMBg pm€«, waa aw&ig. a» 
WK^&tp t&a yoad g d ii c at j QB wnkhbad beei» gpyea Iftm Hi 
y9^^e)u4;>piiuMa^«fltta.Batttr8i|»cta^ Sevagiil .|>r>ffyt<m 
yikx» t^mm^tAUi it»t^^ hivvaU aadfc avu a^kd acijmira ^ 
wwad%^Jill^]t<^afFeal]ubfdani; andrtii^ckM^ 
thas^,3r^ l*Cfa ?i i «va.| y w R^ U»cioasta(B^^ 
^.iresIajtibivQCti^avieeu* Akxapfey fijhi a iff irQane ate»f 

vp^V^WT (kAMM.i|i^.th£ tri4¥||s wtierelHa )if)AawQla^ 

iffiE.W wUC9£y ascluyiic^u - 

ftit Hui L 'cjitriit ifinrirr Tnillti itt(| lifi >iiiii^ amaaiffiatim' 
ilj;i6i(QU«£k pa«o9]^tor, O^^j u n ar f h a Mw M^tev^at laaaiwi 
«4£fuao|oa^^ of ma 9cer«;hoiahefQitr«iiM villi Ukc wM» 
€a^oflus,€4oc9Lt|q«L fC^afUteraaiQi^vMl^fiimiipIti 
ini3%\ ^ixbPM&^Ufi a laastieinaf aa; famyfcucaia ai aeprtiti a^ 
«Q^ I»erit.iar,a9» 4i;s ^ bimsetf WU «% • ^m% Na aofb fslfbl 
^Ycud ooaiay tX|E^ a gy^aaw^ ^n|too(i|Wc|iitMlMmdC 
Iftd ns^ g^ilty» ^. .*• 

^ P{4Up vajf aeosSble fto^jgrtajt* tramntia j^o^maei ill 
Qieperaoa of Aristotle ^Ibr wMcli raaaon he acttted a i^ery 

• Ath<9«l 3iiL p. 1^9^ t AilMMnna QAitw 

S Ftat. ia i^^«|b. p. 42^ 

M HllTOET Of AhtXAJfDtti Boik tf^^ 

ooDudeniblt ttipciid upon bini) and afterwards rewarded hl^ 
paim and care m an m&utelf more glorious manner ^ for 
having destroyed and laid waste the titjr of •Stagira, the 
native place of that philosopher, h« rdyfidt it, pikr^ly oot of 
afiection for him } reinstated the uthaBifants who had fied 
from it, or were made slaves jf and gave them a fine park in 
the neighbourhood of Stagira, as a place for their studies and 
assemblies. Even hi Plutarch's time, the stone seats which 
Aristotle had placed there were standing ; aS ah6 spadous 
vistoa, under which those" who walked were shaded from the 

* Akx^uider likewise discotered no less esteem for his mas- 
ter, whom he believed himself bound to love ds mtidi as if 
he had been his father ; declaring, f "that he' was indebted 
«* to tlie one for living, and to the other for living well.** The 
progress or the pupil was equal to the care and ahiUtiea o£ 
the preceptor. \nt, grew vastly fond of philosophy ; and 
learned the several parts of it, but in a manner suitable to 
his birth. Aristotle endeavoured to improve his judgment,* 
b^ laying; down sure and certain rules, by ^hlch he mig^t 
distinguish just and solid reasoning from what is but spe-' 
eioudy so ; and by accustoming hfm to separate ih discourse 
til such parts as only dazzle, froni those which are truly sol-' 
id, and ttiould constitute its whole value. He also exercised 
him in metaphysics, which may be df great benefit to a 
prince, provided he ap;»lies himself to them with modera- 
Ikn, as they explain t& him the nature of the human mind ; 
how greatly it diftra from matter ; in what tnanner he p^- 
cdives spiritual things *, how he is sensible of tjie impre^Aon 
«f those that stmround him, and many other questions of ^e 
Hke import. The reader will naturally suppose, that he did 
ii6t omit either Uw mathematics, which give the mind so 
just a turn of thinking ; qr the wonders of nature, tAe study 
if which, brides a great many other advantages, shows him. 
how very incapable the mind of man is to discover the secret 
tnrinciples of the things to which he is daily an eye-witness. 
But Alexander applied himself chiefy to morality, which is 
properly the science of kings, because it is the knowled^ of 
mankind, and of all thefr duties. This he made his senous 
and profound study ; and eansldcred it, eteh at that time, a^ 
the foundation of prudence and wise, policy. How much'' 
Aust'such an educatlon^ccxcitrlbote'to the good conduct of % 

* A cit^ of M«ceddB| near tbe sca-tbore. 

^-Kaiiwut ti mfh mh noMfi, IWtt 

^Ct^ J^ H|ST^T OF. Al.EXAJIJiKJ|# 9$ 

prince witli regard ta h^-^^n joiterea^ and tl)e fprenmecjk 
of his people J 

* TUe greatest mastsr of jr^etdi*ic that anti^Dij:}' c<>uld ty^f 
er boast) and who has l^ft so excellent ia treatise oii th^it tub^ 
ject, took care to make that science partbChis p|j[jil's edu« 
pation ^ and we find that Ale^cander^ eyen}n the mid^i of his 
conquests,, was often very urg^t with Aristotle U ■ ^dh^m 
a treatise oh tliat subject. 1 o this we owe Jlhe >— j*^ «iti» 
tied Alexandjer's Rh^ric ; in the beginning of which, Aria* 
totle proves 'to hina the yastv advantages a pr^c^ ma)r reap 
from eloquensce, as it ^v^ ])kif^ the grea^st. ascendant ovet 
the minds of meii^ .which he o^ht to.acqviire as well byhU 
^isdipm as authority^, Soxa^ aaswerjt and letters of Alexan-* 
der, which are stiW extant, show that he pos&e^sisjd^ in its 

, i;reatest perfectipi|,.that stro^, that manly pkx^uen'ce, which 
abounds with sense and ickas^; and w|uch is so eptirely ht^ 
from S|Uperfiuous expressions, th%i( every ^gle word has its 
meaning i wh^C^, properly^ speal^ng, is the ^oouence o| 
itings,t ^ : . 

His esteem, or rather his p^isdon for Hoiner, shows, not 
only witj^ what vigour and ^itccess he t^plied himself to po» 
lite literature, Wt the judiciouk use he made of it, and the 
solid advantage^ he propo^ to jiuinself ^m it. He was 
not prompted to pen^e thjs po^t merely out of curiosity, or 
to unbend bis mind, or from a great fondness for poiesy ; but 
his view in studying this admirable writer was, in .order to 
l?orrow «ich sentiments from him as are wortlxy a great 
king i^nd . conqueror, courage, intrepidity, maaiapiqiityy 
temperance, pr^ence, the art of cominanding well in war. 
and peace. And, indeed, the v^rse which pleased him most 
in JHromer,^: was that verse Vlj^ere Agamemnon is rxjpresent- 
ed a^ " a good king,^ and a brav^ warrior.'* 

A.iter this it i^ no wonder th^t Ale:^nder sho^ukj haye so^ 
higia an ^teem for this po^. Thus, yih^^ after £h<e battle! 
of A^rbela,the Maoedonians had found amongst the spoils of* 
X^arius" a gold bpx, enriched with precious stones, in which 
the excellent perfumes ^s^d by that prince were pfit ; Alex« 
ander, who was ouite cov^er^d with dust, and regardljsss o^ 
essences and perfumes, ordered that this box should be em* 
pk>ved tp no other use than to hold Pender's poems, which 
he.believeNlthemostper&c^ the most precious {production. 
(^ the hui^a^ mind^ He admired particularly the Iuad»wi4cl) i 

• Aristotle in rhetorrc. ad Akf. f. 4ot» 6o^. ' " ' ' 
f Imperatoria breyitate* Tacit. .*»'-' 

' \ jimfikotero9j SahHeit9 t*agatho9^ krater^^y t*aiefmttH. 
Iliad, iii* V. 172. 
^ PtetiofiflSwMim bviiiMii antei oput^ Plis. l, v^ e. 99. 

rt l il ' jrf ^ AVfe»in»sm;' Sdet. 71 

»c qiiiea;'« * < ^% c i t fm#h i un to i^^tftfor.^ /tie ia%»«y¥ 
ftad vHk him «utt ec&tiQii oT Hmer which ^AiriMtks hauf 

^rthtf-MTiM t;h«n;<ttdbefa(ia^^«iWihlBilw6fd,««eiy 
QBsnnedl'tu 1I08K9B onjt | iMl d^di'irtTlic Cufie j^w cttw ii^n 

cofD^ftiitis 'vjmt 'thMt vcfiy i c ccm rtil t 'AttMBMof ft^'Si •Wj 

ttet'^^f hii4i9d iMuJi i^Obi <iiip|MnBtiyt itB^tof-mcii'fe'ite 
'''IcQOfwte^^^ itf'fitilMMie sQa ^sxcnfcfitt 'thitigB tlMMl 'in 'vatf 
•gftiiiiess ^Md cXteitf tDnli'tt#wer.** ' -Ife) m "fikmiMfUiuciy 
fcgviBitesd ') 'Atiitiotfe 'fidt 'tv wn&w Ovd ti'MtUc! w ifKtofic 
^Mmivc* iiif!iiuoii6ll't& vny .p6ftoiiiMMr hitni^f. *! ffffl CQufeaM^ 
Ifcsit'tfwtv 'If Eyejjxdti' in ' thii siPiii} diJkiPc w ^oty^ whi^ti 
pronmU him to siygpron the merit ef others, in order tfeaf 
wottlyTimy'ggfea t ; bi» tf yiryeatteii<»miiateeitfe»,gtat 
It disccyfen'Sii^'ft |pftsjluiij fof fceilyfts is -v^eiy'lMkltlbie itt'e 
pntiee, ftiiQ the^veiy fev'ewe'tJlf'tiiatiiroiBwiiJifiCjThtet v&wtLY 
eoitteift^ atOuAveTsion^ * wfnat ttiost» y^ociff|^ pencils *tK hish 
Mftfi- express fbr'tdV- thii|^ tlWtliwSste^te 1jb4fiiifi^tt|iA stady . 
'PletGiFiiKtftllffTiif Ttk'ttfcw v^ifS^'^fie irtAixite 'MHteitHf^' tliftt 
Aiexainjhef 'Fcaffed xfOfh'^Ms ^tsslet wHh* wWch't^ nmstery 
ttizn wifoiH'iio ikicin' jf hsxter tsdei^ts ttaf^ f^tt educft- 
tion'of yoiith,'ii20d hittpn%d~hHvn^'nt'licf niostt tciMler niforiey* 
^He lov^;* aiiM that atothor, **tb xmii <e» 8e wWi leatrtW* 
^'ttien, to i mpr ov e htmscff in |n i w * ! < Jflge', endto-stttdy^l;;** 
tht^ce Mwrces or'ai:Tnoniii^c^i~1iapiwt^^ ttticf 'iWiicn (¥ukh|e 
him to secure iiiimteff from nurtifiiKrlesi ■ dMcMM' i (liiec/ 
cei'tAiii suid iafkWxAti tkiertiodf of^Mliruiiill.COiF^^lM #Hiluut 
dteassfstance df'ctfiers. "ttie coii<^efi < i iUo rt iif:pmaA9igft» 
•ewe fitttfttcti rprinccby-a W M y d tAm t uM u ^ uft^ eiirf te ^ A ea 
Him a thoimnd eiiffoixir t«4 tlMM'ttrin^-^hoot -cosliii^ 
hhff the least trohUe. TtHe lestotis^WieltAMp i m a ge r s f ate 
him, OQ'the iao«t,exaItSGrt:itiekuie«, ^ip&ftktafhHy^opon 

^TtiffkMu tttUi Mk0m. ^Sb t»M^. irn^ \*%Kft Mr «M 
■me xp r^iiucr PCiicrfTsnivissi nvE itv^nrsrtiis^iiiMr wtmcvfrrv* 

hitcttd-thrm-iy w sr s ti d U h b ^rtiiftfer^ si^eMMi^ iiH»ii^M<^ stl- 
liiqct Mccflar^ to ISffMI piU tSMMNr. 
f Asl. OeL 1, n, c 5. 

4iQpr^ A>M/QMi«iu0iidm^hcn' i^msm ^w^ifW* ttm 
dunametn dia/thereiM. $Arist. ixr#09. 

Sect, .1^ j0t«i^crR7 or ALEjr Ai»»Kiii M 

'poiiticsf impronre his iiiiiid iroiide»fidly,«a^ ibmithiitm witH 
^ules- toigo^sem bi»fiul9§«etfr with wisdom. In &ie, study, es* 
peoiiiUy tiMt of .hiiUir}^.ctowns aU the rest, and is to him 
a pittoeptor ibr aU seafiODt, and ^r aH hsnr^j who, without 
ever growing tiroitblefloine, acquaints hiin with trtiths which 
BO meelse woukkdaTeto tell hin^and^ tinder fictiiiotts names, 
e^ibit's .the prhice'toliims^ teaches him to know himself 
jas weU as nanMnd, who. are the same ia all ages. Alexa n* 
der owed aU these ad/faniaces to the excellent education 

«yk haal alao a taste ier the whole <drcle of arts, but ht 
«ich a. maimer :as^ibecaI«e& prince ; that is, he knewtl^ 
vaioe ead useAilaess of 4h«n. Mii4k^ painting, scalpture, 
architecture) doorishedin ius reigb, beciMise they t found in 
him both a skilful judge fpoda'^penerQUB- proteet9r,.if^io was 

I Biitheidespiaed'cert&itt tnilng.leats of desctsrity, that 
-weteof-nDtase. "Some Mapci&Qaiftiia ddmired very nmdi 
ia man, who employed Idmaelfvenr attentively m throwing 
small pease* thvuugh *tbe e^e ef a j^needle, wluoh he wookl a«oMsiderahks.distaBee, ahd wttho«l once missing, 
jyexander.sefemg^imvat^.thh'eiccrcise, ordered- him, as we 
a^ told, a.presenfisattahte;to his es^ymenCi vie. a basket 
^f pease, 

Ahsdcahder iWsiA of « sprightly dispo^itlfii ; was tesi^te, 
anctd^ineyy 'teAjasioas-ofhwopiaiai)^ which nerer. gave way to 
€Qi£e,rhcit JUithe nametiime wwild-^Ubimt tmmediaiteiy. to rea« 
jMa ^and^goed Basie« <Jtv«smry^diftiaak to treat with persons 
^this}tuni:af mini. PhiKp' a^^eordingly, notwithftanding 
fiis Jdoiible anthmtyrtof kmg-and^Uiar^ heliev«^ 
' tO't»pipQf;pca»aAsi0ii^>rather thsfLlsn^with pespect to hia 
MQ,;ajKi «adea?ettntd?to ; malielkimsetf "bebvod irath^^ than 
jfeand^ litm, 

Afr accldeBt^ritfidelum/entort^in >a ^ry adwantageous 
'C^inicm of A^xander. T^re, bad heea sent from Tlie^a) v 
•^V}HSkgi^'ai*'mtkT^hi»aCj-»^^ beast, 

4;aUe4 tiBaigephakis. The owner .Uroald sdl-him for is-ta>^ 
«»ts,atoit:l9iWl. stieMittg. . rfhe JBtaig.wcat into^he pUins, 
4itte(id6d ibf his CQartievs,' in .wder to view^tke perlectiotui df 

•JMia:^4iiHMB<jy»H«mmrf'n^ p. ^^ 

i Qflia^.. lih. |i«j>c«|x SI* 

I $oBi« diiak he wai xaUed lb bcesofe hia head wu Hke thj^t of 
*a «»r . ^ 


it HfSTOfty OF' ALEXANDER. BqjUc .XK^ 

this liorsfe'; but upon trial lie appeared so verj fienoe^ and 
pranced about ia so forioos a manner, that noaoe darud to 
mount him. Phiiip, being aogry th4t so furious and onitiao.. 
ageable a creature had been sent him» gave orders for tbeir 
carrying him back i^sain. Akxander, who was present at 
that time, cried out, ^hat a xidbH Hoise thi^^ are goini^ to 
lose, for '.<want of address and hokki^ss tot^ack him !" Philip 
at first a>i»ridered these vQcds as die efiect 6flbH)r imd rash- 
ness, so c^ofomon to young men : but as.AlexaiMiHflinststed 
stxU more upon what l^e had said, and was very m^Kft Vexed 
to see so noble a creature, just going to be seat home again, 
llis fsLther gave him leave to try what he cotdd do.. The 
young prince, oveijMd at this pevmissian, goes up to Buce* 
phahu, takes hold of the bridle, and turns his head to the 
sun ; having observed that tlye thing vhicl) frighted him was 
his own diadow, he sedng it dance about, or sink down, ia- 
proportion as he moved. He t h er e for e first stroked him 
gently with I^a l^ai^ aod soothed him with his voice ; theii 
sedng his mettle abate, and artfiUfy taking his opportimi^r^ 
he let faU his cloak, and springing swiftly upon his back,- 
first slatkens the rein, without once striking or vcxmg him f 
and when lie perceived that his fire was <;ooled, that he was 
no longer ib (nrious ai^ vioient,4ind wanted only to move 
forward, he gave lum the rein, and spurring him' with great 
vigour, animated h(m withhis voice to his mllnie^. While 
this was doing, Philip and Itis whole court trembled forfoar,^ 
and did not once open their lips^ but wti«|.the pdnc^ after 
having rmi his first heat, ret u rned iWhii ja% aadpride, atjiis 
having brc9c<e a horse which waa^ judged absoiuteiy i|ngDv«i 
emablc, all the courtiers' in geneml ehdeavoored toioatvie 
one another in their applauses and coog ra to l ati fln s^^^ndjwe 
are tobi Philip shed tears of joy on this oocasioo,. dsaa emhra«» 
cing Alexander after he was alighted, and kissing hishead^ 
he said to him, ^my 'son, seek a kuigdbm nvore ihvorthy of 
thee, for Mac^don is l^ow thy merit.'f 

' We are told a great many suprising partioularsx^ this Buv 
cephahis ; for whatevet^ had atiy relation to- Alexander was 
to be of the marvellms kind. *Wlien ^is creature was sad«> 
^ed and equippM for battle; he would suffer no one to bade 
him but hb master ; and it would not have been safe for any 
other person to go near him. 'Whenever Alexander watoCed 
to mount him, he would kneel down upkm his two-fore 'feet. 
According to somie historians; inlhe battle agsunst Poros; 
where Alexander had plunged too imprudently-aiilidst a bo- 
dy of tl^e fenomy, his hori?^, though wounded in eveiy parf^f 

; All. Gel,l,V|C|S. 

Sect. Is ansToxT of AltxAwois. 9T 

Lis bod^J^d howevier tx&ft himself iti » vjgoroiw a man- 
tier, that he saved his master^s ^ ; imd notwithstanding the 
deep wotinds^he had received, and though almost s])cnt thi-o* 
the great ofl^ion of blood, he brdaght off Alexander fix)m 
amoiig:thc ^ihb^atatits, atid carried him with inexpressible 
vSgcJur to a place 6f security ; where perceiving tthe kinjj 
was no lodjger 'in danger^ and ofver^ofed in dome measure at 
the sertic^ he had dcfnehim, he exited. This indeed is a 
very noble end fot a horse. Othei*s aay, that Bucephalus, 
quite worn oUt, died at 30 years <yf age. Al^xander^bewailed 
bis death bitterly, believing thit he had lost in him a most 
ftilth^jl and afTectlohate fnCnd, and ailerwards built a city 
on the vfefyijwt whej*e he wa« btiried, near the river Hydas- 
pesj and called It Biicephalia in honour of him. 

I have related elsewftert*, fliat Alexandn*, at JW yeari of 
age, was appcmited regent of Macedonia, arid invested with 
absoldte aitthorHy daring hift father's ibaetace ; that he be« 
hatred with great prudence and bravery ; and that he after« • 
wards d^stmguished hJitt$eLf In a most sigtial maaaer «t Um 
ilattie of Chiero&ea. ' 


itiXA-sbtn ASCfilfDS TBK TfiROK£:.-^I>ECLAKtJD GUV'* 


. Darius and AlgKaader| began to reign the same year i 
Hkl^latterwaabttt 20 :when be succeeded to the crowR. Hta 
firs^ care was to soiemniRe the foniscad obsequies of his faih-* 
ei*. with the utmost pomp, and to revenge his death, 
v^ Upon his acc«l8ioa to the. throne^ he «aw himself sur- 
roadded with extreme dangers* The baibarons hatipna 
asaipst nhom PhiMp bad fought dttving lua whole reign, and 
from whom he had made several conquestsj which he had 
united, to hiB cfown$ a^r having dethroned their natural 
kingft,.th9«|;ht proper to take the advantage of this juncture 
In. which a new prince, who was but yoimg) had ascended 
the thcone, for recovering their liberty, aad nniting aj^iniit 
the common usurper. Nor was he under less appi*eheiisioii9 
froBi tirreece* Phil^) tfaou^ he had permitted the several 

fEt domiiia jam Giperftitis feeoraii ^i^mlmA cum ftnfut hamtai ftfla- 
^MHi^Bi eq>iffavi»-r'Attl.Oet . . 

lA M'$6eB^AM, J, C, 5»6^Plfit| in AUS| p, 6;o, 6;a^OiAd 
1^ ivii,<f , 4^t 4<9*»*AriBDj 1| i, de espcdit, Aks, p, si«-23.. , 


ckias and oimnraoivoaltli^ to c<«itl»«e-theif) aooif^t ^brm of 
govennnent, had however «i|diiBly' ctang^d it |a peojitf , and 
made himself abeolote master of it. Tliou[^ lie ^vrere ab- 
sent, he nevertheless nded-m aH aB6«mbHes ; '$fiA not.^sm^ 
gle resolutioa was taken, but in tabondin^tioa^t^ bit iprilii. 
Though he had subdued all Greece^ either by Che tenor «£ 
liis arms) or the secret machia^cns e£ poUoy-) " ho had mxt 
had time safficient tf> subject and accusunn it to hir power, 
but had left aU thin^ in it ia great formeBt and disorder, the 
mmds of the v«aq(iiiTibad not bainc; fet cahoed er mouldlsd 
to subjoctioB. 

' The Macedoniana veflectins on this preomious^ ^tundoil 
of ^ngs, advised Alexander to relkiq^ui^ Greece, and not 
persist in his resdotlon of aubdning it bv Ibree ;* to recover 
by 9W>tlo metiiods the barlmri^iis wbfi had taken aFOM^/Oiid 
tpaootii) as ix vora) tfaoae gUitmieriaiaof revottrandkii^ova- 
tioft bgrprodep^ reaervo,<complaocncyi a^d inswMatabnym or^ 
dar to oon^Uate anbction* JiBm§very AlessMder wenlid 90t» 
U^^ to the^e timoralia.coiiBcilsi^but rf^lired to ma^^' mi^ 
support his affairs^ by Mdness and ma^i^iii^lfi^it^f ;; %IBd|B 
persuaded that sliould he relax in any pomt at £^t, all hb 
neighbours would fall upon him* f and that, were he to eo^^ 
deavoUr to compromise matters, he should be oblip;ed to give 
up all Philip's conqueats, and bf that means confine his do- 
minions, to the narrow limits of Macedoo^. • He- ther^lm. 
made all possible haste to dieck the arms of the baibarians, 
by marching his troops to the banks of the Danube, which 
he crossed in one ni^ht. He defeated the king of the Tri- 
toaHi in a great batiafr;iiiiift$tiio Got* 11^ «t iila«i^:rpt^sa6& r 
jmbdued'set««albattttti9ow nat&anar some bj^ ttfc^t^Errar or 
hianame, and othet^byftwooo^ anus ;• and not^th««afi^Bfi^ 
the arroga««t aaswter of ttoeii^ ambasaadotsy ho- tau^t tllietiK- 
to^ dread' s dat^r aHiU mor« near tilem, «ia^> the feffi!Hg**of 
tile sky and planets. 

Whilst Alexander was thus employed- at a' ^lixamcie)' ^ 
TAong tfie baH»ai^an0, all- the citios of (Weeee, Whowet^ &««- 
imated more particularly by D«MoB^ene», fermed'a fo'^ff^ 
crf^l-^^ance ag^ist that prince. A fst'^ report ymith: 
pi^vafled of h;is^dtta^, Inspired Che TMMins^kll ft Mf^^itm 
that provtd th^r ruin. They out^co pttftces parf^of #ie IKfia- 

f Alcnnderimaeming that hit nu^e ODly had struck t1i€ie|MSp^ 
with terror, tA^'i tftcir ao Aw i pd i Hr Wllir ttilaei tfcey>d i i » J M' Btt>F 
They rcplkMl, with a haughty tofae of vaiae> tiiat citey w ei lg ' MOi M 
tiafhiag M tha iftllMig aftbtf dbg aadatoni 


eedoaiait gurrisKm intliesf dtadel. *B«n08thene§, on ffie 
ether' side, was every day haranguing the people ; and fired 
with contempt fer-Alexanderf whom he called a child and 
ft hair4>ralned bof f^ ^^ assoi^d the Athenians, with a deci- 
sive tone of voice^ tbat they had nothing to lear from the new 
king'Of Macedon, Who did not dare to sdr out of his king- 
dom, but liroaldtiunkfainis^yastly happy could he attpcace- 
eably on his throne. At the same time he writ letters Upoti 
letters to Attahis, one of Philip's lieutenants in Asia Minor, 
to excite him to rebel. This Attains was uncle to Cleopa- 
tra, Philip's second wife, and was very mnch disposed ft» 
listen to Detnosthenes* proposals. Nevertheless, as Alex- 
ander was grown very difident of him, for Which he knew 
therie Was but too much reafloa, he therefore,- to eradicate 
from his mind all the suspicions he xpight entertain, and the 
better to scraen his designs, sent alii^emosthenes' letters to 
that priiace. • Blit Alexander saw throngh^ his artifices, 
and thetetq[>on ordered Hecat«us^ one of his commanders, 
whom he had sent into Asia fdr-Uiat parpose, to have him 
assassinated, which was executed acicordingly. Attains' 
tfeath r«§tbned tran<|uiUity to the army, and entirely de« 
stxioyed the s^eds cif discord and rebellion. 

:J When Atexjmder had secured his kmgdom from the 
barba^Hans^ he marched- with the utmost expedition towards 
Greece, and ]>assed the ITiermopwIoB, He tfien spoke aa 
follbws to those who accompainied him : ^ Demosthenes cal- 
'^< kd ^e in his ^rations, a child wlienl was in ItlyTia, and 
" aiftoftg the Triballi ; he called me a yonng man when 1 
Waai in Thessaly 5 and I must now show him before the 
-" walls of Athens, that I am a man grown.** ' He appeared 
BO suddefily ia Bsotia, that •'the Thebans could scarce b^ 
lieve thfeir eyes ; and being come before their walls he wte 
Wiliiig to give them time t6 repent, and only demanded fi» 
have Phoenix and Prothutes, the two cWef ring feadefs Af 
- tiie revolt, delivered up^ to htm ; and jniblished, by sound Of 
' trumpet, a general tArdon to all Who ^all comfe over to him. 
But the T^bans, by way of insult, demanded ^o have Phl- 
lotiis and Antipater^ieHvered to them ; and invited by ade- 
claratiiSnj all who were aoHcitftus for the liberty of Greece, 
to join urttH fliem in its defence. 

• AVnmadtr fif«|ing it impossible for him td get the better of 
fiawif cbrthmcy hjp offers of peacjift^ ^aW wife girtef tha|t he 

. 'fH^mmgkm la Gi>cdC|4 word which B^aifei oiaoy thiagt to 
that ItDgdagv. . f ' ■ 

' 4 AJd.^79^Avt.} t ^Z4. • : ; . ,t ... 

%iiTB%r 09 AhZHAif^pm, JhokXfL 

tli»al4 be teosd ta tniploy his QoWfTi aad ^Md% tiM 
bf Ibrce of arms, A gvtat ba«Ue was thereupdci Imigfafc) m 
whichrthe Theban&exenedtKemfielve^vHtJift t>F«^ely aiKd 
ardoar much beyond their streogUH for th%^toMvvf eitgetdie^ct 
tliem ¥afitl/i» Aocabers < but isfter a long aitd vigonna re-- 
slstance, such as survived of tiae Ma^edwiian fjamn^ mtHe 
citadel cooun^ dowa €rofl» it, avi chaa^g^eg Ibe 
the rear, surrounded on all sides, the greatest ]^a#t ef tbeae 
Vere cut to ^eces, and the> city was taken and. pluodesed. 

It Wtiuld be Hn{»QSslble for words ta expresa the dreadU 
caiamiUes which tlie Thf^mus sofiered oh this oeca^em 
Some Thracians having pelleddown the heuaid ef a^TivtueaB 
•lady of ^MsUityi Tinuxdea by aosne, carried oft' all hsr Mods 
and treasarea ; and their oaptain having seised the uulf > 
and^ satiated hisjbratal laat with her, afterwards etiq)w«il 
whether 4ie had not csaCealed gold and lUver. .TIiooGlea, 
animated by aa ardeat desire d revenge,, iseplyaiif that she 
had hid some, tools bin with heieelf only into her gardeny 
and sho^fiDg lum fr weR, teld him> that the insUeiidie saw 
the enemy enter the city, the herself had theowD kilo it the 
most vaMble things ii^ her possession. . The efficer, <MFer. 
joyed at what he heard) drew uear the weUy aad 9teo|^iiq; 
dowa to see its depth,, Timoclea, who- was hehftndi, iwaHmg 
him. with all her strength) threw liim into the: weOyaiMl af- 
terwards killed him w^g^*eat stones which she threw up- 
on hrn^ She was iamniUjr seised by the TThratian^ and, 
being boned in chains, was cajrrled before Alexander* Ttee 
pHeice perceived Immechately by her mien, that she wt^-a 
woasaa of quadity aad great ^irit, for sbe followed t|Kiae 
brutal wretches with a vei^ haughty air, and wkheat d]»- 
eovering the least- fear. Alexsnder asking her wh«» she 
was^ Tlmocka replied, I am sister ta Theagene^ who 
, Soei^tagains^ Phihp for the Uberty ofGreecei and. waskSlod 
In 1^ battle of Chssronea, where he ccNSAtnandeft* Tfaie 
prince^ admiriC^ the generous answer of that la^j^^aiid stSl 
More the actioi^ that she had done^ g^ve orders than afa^ 
should have leave to retire wherever she pleased m&ter 

Alexainder then dM>atediBGeuneilbowto' actwi^ reg^ard 
to Thebes. The Phocacans and the peqple eiFPIiCI«a,Thee- 
^p?»^ and Orcho9»eae<^, urtw wei^.aH in sli^Hee wilt^lex'- 
:>SKider, aod4iqid;$hHif:N ^ ^^i» i^ictoryf a^reaeiiMM^.hffts 
the cruel treatment they had'met with from the Thebans, 
who also had destroyed thein.severaloilieMtB^t^^i^^'^^^ 
•fheipa Mri^.HhSLXeal, ^hi<^ taey ha4 .abva^s atis i Miwt>e<| in 
favour of the Per^anis against the Greeks, whj)* Imld tfaetti 
iathe utmost detestation j theprocf ffriiii4ttc%e^lM<fa*4ath 

SM. JI* ftiaTosT or alkxahoes. 91 

thef tfU ba4 taken to dortsofTlKbttt after tlicf thoQld have 
vanquished tho Pornat% 

Cieades, «Be of the ]pnMnn% keinf permitted to »prsk« 

endeavofu^ tm m%am:^\m MHie measarc^ the vevoli u Uk 

'i bebatie ; • iuiH wfaid^ Ui kae <yMifcM» ihoeld be m>^i«-(| 

to 1^ vwb- MKi criiitoni ■Bpf»dtuoe» t&tfacr Uuai tc rteprt>v^ 

ity of Witt ud iloQbvtd p^tMf. lie seaiottbtratvd, that 

his comiti|MfU| upon • Mte ntport e( Akximder'ft deaths 

haduulaed toDtttblf htokrirte fciieHia% not aj^aintt the 

king> bufc af»ii«t hs MtcccsaDrt t Hu* what «Hm«« uacxix 

ihey fD^h^ hsifve CAOiouttedy tber I&4 betA ponUhrd icr 

Uifcm witH the ntnmsft nwvotkt^f Vf the dreadlel coiamky 

^bid¥)Mid brfaiif w theireiftsrf that there ftaw rtmftintd in 

it noQO'bm weaMl],.ddldreftt«Ml eld ma^ irom whun they 

had nethiac; to feaf^aud whi werv «> BUKh the greater ob- 

jecta €d coaipa^sioOy aa tbsy had beco nowayi. coacerried in 

Uie rwvolu Ue^ ceikchidid with remndinfp Alexander, that 

Thri>ea^ which h«d given birth to so maa^ eocU and herM^, 

MTv^raV Qi wfaeia were IhaA kivg't snccfsov'^ had at«o brni 

the aeat of hie Miet Philip*! riuag %\f»rf^ and hke a m.c« 

Old Dativ#€OiMtry to him. 

These laotivea^ which Cleades urged, wrrv tenr ttmru; 
and. pe^^vfid ; neveitheleas, the astger el the OMinu< mr 
prenraifed». and Ae ck^ was destroyed. Hawevtr, Le net 
at Ubertjr the prieato \ all aaeh aa had ri<(bt of hmpitahty 
wkh tfae MaeedoDiana ; the detcendanu otf Pindar, the fa< . 
Hiooa poet^ who had deoe ao much hiaioar to Gi ecre ; and 
such aahadoppojed the ttvcM : but all die rest, in nuniher 
aiboot 3O».0CO| he aoldtand upwards of 600^ had tiren kiU^ 
inlxittla. The Athenians were so scnaLMy afflicted at the 
sad diaoeter whieh had befallen Thet>cs, that beini; aboat to 
eokniaifie the festmdef the great anystcries, the\' uispe rwlrd 
ib^m, upon accoant of their extreme grief, and rereirrd 
with tlie greatcet hooiuDHr all thoae %h^ had fled fW^m the 
baule, and the plunder of Thebes, and%iade Atlicna their 
' aayliKii. 

AlexaiiderVao andden arrrital in Grtece^hod very inti(^ 
ai5ated tiie haughtiness ef the Atheniahs, and extfnf^iii^hed 
Ibemostheites' yehemence and ftre \ but the min of T1iehe«, 
lidMch was atftll more RUdden, threw them into the utmo&t 
' conslemation. They therefore had recourse to entreHtiex, 
ifid seat a t^iUtion to Alexander, to tahpkire hhi clemency. 
I)emQ6<heneft.waa among them ; but he was WS liootier nrii. 
vadactneaatCytbereQ, diais, dreading the aagerofthot 
piiace» he ((iBitted the eatbaaay) and retumad h^me. > 

Immediately Alexander sent to Athena, requiring the cit- i^ 4 

iaens to deliver up to hitti'^en orators^ whom he supposed 


io have been the chief instrumoits, in fomkif the league 
which I^Uip his father had de&atipd at Cksronea^. It waft 
Ott Ihh jQCcaaOQ I)enK)ithtees related to the people the faille 
of the wolves aiul dogt» in whkh it U sopposed/Hhat the 
«< -wolves one day told jlbeAhetp» that in<ase dieyidettred to 
M be at peace with then, they must deliver up to/thenr th^ 
:V dogs who weretheirtguapd.''' The apfrfication was easy 
,and natural,, esptcially. with repeat to the orators, wh<y 
werb jttstly.compated to dogs^ whose duty is to waticK, ta 
barlc> and^fA B^U m order to save the lites ^f the flock. • 
. In this prod^ioiis d&enima of the Athenians, who could 
JK>t.praVatl with thena^os ^ deliver up their ofatcfts to 
certain death, th«agb tho^ hadiio other ifay to saire dieir 
city, Demades^ vhom Alexander liad/homttred wiUi^hiis 
.iriendship, ollered laundertake the embassy alione, ttid in- 
tercede igr them. The king, whistfaerhehadaatis^ed fa& 
. feveo8% or eodeavonred so-blot ont if possible, by aohie act 
,of clemency, the barbarous, action he had ^joet before com- 
:iniltted$ or rath^, to remove the aereral obstacles whkh 
. mi^ retardlhe^qeeention of his gtaiid design, and b^ that 
means not leave, daring his abscsiBe,'the least ]|lNten«e fyt 
rourmucs.; waved his demand with regard to the delivexy 
of the orators, and was pacified by their sending Garidemus 
into baoishittent, \€hQ being a native ;of ^raea, had bt&i 
.presented by the- Athenians with hisrffeedom, for the servi- 
.ces he had done the rep^lic.. He was son^n-^kw to Che^- 
sobleptus, king of Thrace ; had learned the art of war uii- 
der Iphicrates ; and had himself fre^ntly commanded thb 
J Athenian armies. To avoid the pursuit of Alexander, he 
.,took refuge with the king of Persia. 

As for .the Athenians he not only Ibi^ve them, the sex^er^ 
^ injuries he pretended- to have recdved, but escpressed a- par- 
ticular regard for thera, eadiorting them to a|^ly themselves 
] vigorously to. pi:^xUc afiairs, and to kee|9 a watchful eye cv^ 
[the several. transfibtioRs which might happen^. because, b 
case of his death, their city was to give law tp the rest^ 
.Greece. Historians ' relatfe, that many yearsafter this'^pc- 
cdition, he was seized with deep reniorse for the calamity he 
tiad brought upon the Thebans, and that tl^s inade him be- 
have with rouch grea^rhumanity towards many otherM. 
""t;on|5. ,.••.. . . • ■■ ■ I 

So. dreadful an e:tample of severity towanJA so powetfnl 
a city as Thebes, apf end tjie terror of hismrms through all 
Gte^,. and made allthuigs giv6 way before him. He siitf- 
»oned at Corinth, the ^assembly o§ the several -states aiS 

^ ^•Acrty ofEuttta. '/' ' . , 

Stif, lA. M rrOBt of A^^xMtmmtM fS 

commmd ftgaimttlie Pwiwiii m hmA hitn^gmlBi Jnt'ftitiMr 
a litOe befoM ftife dwHw K^ diet tnw dsbitod on a mora 
ixnp0rtamt Mk^ect. ft ims tte wwlcxfc wuM ikiJMming 
upoivtte miR •£ tbecttfy tedthe ■rthiiifa hi tjiimhin • 
rev€«ig^fiiii|N»dedaiocrtiMn«««8e. ThmmmmMv futhA 
at tbiatiiB* wUi%lv4ijrite fo ^rmt% the rtltiwi og' whkli 
>¥in4ppeAr attmSilHagiMid aimctt iociMbble';«iitofevo» 

Ing^ atid ea^«itectd id *WMr:; am al p<it m 

bavin^ ajcauHied a mlifaCf mumehf liU caqMOi 

be imjmi<kitcd bf 4ttoCMs» amt rlitiilMd bf nbiMclM ; bm 

«b0V« Att^ ft BDQMirch ir]B> iMld ft MpKMft An thMily U PtTfttf 

^e elateft ftf GfMOB^ Mae of wiMi^ tttiflf » '^wm |ju— liuj 
eaa9f^ to aa^mm fta ftlke»^ I and whinb i«%uii« 
ed> in ordftr fo thftir 48tk^«i ofincert, to be tobird tb one 
ehM^ wKe OMfikt ^rvftinat&m to the ftev<erttl pAtu cf tbaft 
gfeat bodjt by nwluiaf ttali ftU omctif to ^he teve cn^ 
Si»c&%piis»ce.ivBft Alndmder. It was not dsficuk farbiai 
to fdLindle io' the roiadffcf theysple their ftBckiir halted af 
tbePeraiagff, thaaa'penpataalftiid Mrrecaa ri l ea bi e encarica | 
^hme defltractiim thef had mope ihftft ence awarn, aad 
nbtom they had detemined to extirpator mbkabum appoe* 
tufii^ dtoiild piiescDt iflteif far thiaa pnrpaaa ; » hatred, 
which the kitottiae £nidaoff the Grceha ifticht Indeed Vw 
"suspended, but coqM never extinvalah. Vkt kntoavtat re* 
taeat of tbe taa thousand Groeka, netnatfaatoiidtof^ the vig* 
cvaoa opj^tion of the prodigooa aea^rof the ifcsttaaa | 
the terror iitbkh Ageailanar ^aith a Wanrtfal of nffn^ had 
struck eren aa fiir aa Sma^ Viewed jdaUf-vhat Bright \m 
asapected from an amiy, eanpoaed ef the flover of the lofi* 
ceaof an the cities efGieecei and thoae el JMacadoB, oan»* 
afeaoded hjr gane rala and affioera ioEaaed mderPhiiimaiidv 
t^ aaf ittt-in- ft wordt led by Alexaoder. The debbcrationa 
ci^^ fticteinUy were theve£ore verv short, ami that princtf 
V(9» vmstmuaiiaiif appai^ed ganaraliniaaa^ againatthePcr^ 

^ immediately a great number ol odBrexa ^od fpoTariHraaC 
ckies, with many philoBophera, waited upon Alexander^ to 
^angratahtarhim npen'MaefeKtan. Hm ftatterad Mm^lf 
UtorBioffBoaa^fSMpa^ who wfta«MB «t Covind*, imM 
atto come like the rest, and pay his coaaplhntato> Thia|dii- 

*PlQtarch placet that diet or adcmUy here, bat aihert fa it car- 
^ ; whcB^c fit, Pridiaaa (appabd it «a« fumancd iwictv 


r, y^ cHtMtaiiied ft ver^r mean idea of gfitiidear« 
tiioiwfat it improper to coogratalate -meii jute upte th^r ex* 
•ttatKii ; botlktfa imnkiKd ongbt to wait tUf those poKon^ 
to^ ep feriufuted actioas worthy of Utehrhi^jhstl^ians; ^1X6^ 
genet tlKrefbre did iMt etir out of hio hodse ; upon wMdr^- 
cxaader, fttmdid^by ail hii ^eoiirtierf^ maiohimaTiat. 
The phiHuoptier waa a* that tine iyiagdom in the sua ; tsiit 
leefaiB ao great a. eiw^ of people advadcmg towards hire, 
lwaati^andftudhisc3F«ao»Al4aBAder. <" This prince, 
Burpriaed toaeeso fiunooaaphilotepher tedneedtoouch ex- 
ticmefovenrt «^^ fiMthig him in the khidest miumer, 
adced whither he wanted a»v thing ? Diogenes replied, 
*«yea| that jrca woold stand a htde cot of my sun^shine/'w- 
This aatwer ralaed the eontempt and indigaatfcm of-all the 
<30iirtierB ; but the monarchy struck with, the pfaiicBopher^s 
ftreateewefoottl, ^wer^Inot AiexBiider,''8ay8he,**Iwould 
¥e Dio(|^es.'' . A vrry profound sense Hes bid in this express 
SMDythai dvows perfectly the bent anddiqpo&ition of the heait' 
ef maikp. Alexander isaenslble thathe is formed to possess 
«)1 thinjgsf such ifc his destiny, in which he makes ins hap|tt- 
Maa to toiisist : battiien in case he dioold not be able td com- > 
paas kfe.eMs» he is also sensible, thatto be haj^y^ he must- 
endeavourr to bring Wi mhid to such a 'frame as to want no- 
Uttftg. Jb a Word, all 6t isMSn^ pre^jents uiT with the true 
laMge of Alexander :aiid Diogenes^. * Hoi^ great^and pow- 
ftnl soever that princk miaht think himself he coold nfefc 
deny himself on thia occasion, inferior to a m)m, ^ whom 
h0a)vldgiTe9ancr from whom he ^^cyaMt&tenoth^ . . 
. , Alexander^ beforis he sfiit oitt fol* Asia, w«is <Mtermkied to 
ioo9«dt t]ie ofkde oC ApqBp. He therefore >vetit to Dej^hioa^ ^ 
lieliappenedtoanrfffeatitcar tSiose days ^hkh' are eallei^ , 
milucky,-a aeaaonin whicb peot^e were forbid consoking the; , 
. oracle ; and accordingly the prieste^ refissed^ to ^ to tm$'* 
•eaqile. . B«t Alexander, irhoooiAd. not biear any ooiitradl[> 
|i»B to Ilia wiB,^ took hier fordblf by tbe arm; and aa he waa 
leading her to,^' ten^jle, die-eri^ oat, ^ fc^fsob, thou art 
*irresi3tiiiie/' Tiiis waa all; h^ desired } and catc^ng htM 
•i dtes^ wordsv^ivhich he . considered aa^spok^ hj the oracle^ 
he set auK for Maoedonsa, in order to make preparatiniaf^ 
isr his great expedition, '■ 

. f H«eiosapeimcasBrsaihwaao»flapstl>fClBaicaf,tidkaliqosattf 
4ai B^ darp ^aidipiSQB y sii cti ace cfipcrtk ioK^. dc ImbcU «• c. Ai 


I could h£lve wished, and it was eren xny desig;Q, topre&C 
to the eiqplolts of Alexander a '^pographical ma^ as Idid V^ 
|hose of Cyrus the y Onnger ; ' this being of ereat assistance to 
the reader, ind enables him t9 i(^ow the heroin all his oqb« 
ijuests. But it was iibt in inj power to do this here, t|fte map 
pL Alexander's conquey^ IxSing loo Jitfrge to be' eontipiiently 
^inserted in a duodecimot ' But U> supply, in some measure^ 
this dele»(tt, I ^sdl here sivc,«n on€i view, a'ahoit accoimt of 
those cobtit!lel( tlkt^oagh whidi: Aiexatid«rplttftBd,till Ms^re- 
turn f^om liKlia* s , • . • . .^ . : * 

Aiexandier iiets out froiii Maicedonia^w^ich isMirt^Tur- 
Jcey \xi Eap>pe, and crosses tlie HdQeif^QBt, or the straits of 
.tlie DardUfneUes.; - . . * ' ' 

He crosses Asia Minor, (Notolia) where he ft^^Ma^ two batr 
ties ; the first at Uie pasf of ^ xyi^x Qranii^is, snd the sec- 
end near the city <^Jsfi9i^; '• 

After this sescc^ batti^he eniets.Syria and Palestine ; 
goes into£;gypt,wlj^relKi buydsAlexsiiv^'ia,on«fie ctf tfie armi 
of the Nile ; advabces as far as I^ybia, to- the temple of Ju« 
piter. Am0|oB.$ . whence \^ i«tunis back, arnviss at Tyve^ 
and £|pom t)>j^ce mar^jies towards the Buphrates. 

He crQsses:that,|9irci!r, j^ijen tIife,Tigris* and gams the eelt 
ebra^d vicUny of Arl^a > ]^3)eti6es> himself of fBaliyloD, 
and lEU^ba^na^ the <^ef jp}ty of Media. 

Fromtiijsncehe passers i^tp.Hyrcania^. to the sea which 
goes by that name, odiorwise called the Caman Sea ; and 
enters Partita, Dfaagiana, |^ t|ie eoontir of tParopamisns. 

He aftf^^r^ go^ into Bact^cMmaand ^ogdiafia ; advan«> 
.^es asj&r as the rivj^r .laxarthes, c^led .by Q. Ciirtitts the 
Tanais, ;^'£»rther>ide 9f whicji is inhabited by the Scytiii- 
apiK, whose cc^njhry formspajrt of Great Tartory.^^' 

lAIekander," after >8^vmg gone trough yarioiw countricsi 
Cf»sl»es tbe viverlnduB, enters Indis, which lies on thisside 
the Gangj^ and fems pa^ (Mf the Gf^nd Mogui^s entire, 
and advan<^ very ^j^aruie river K^anges^ whl<^ he also in- 
teoded to pass, had nothis irmy refosed to Ibllow him. He 
therelbre ixM^esi^s himsetf ii«th marching to view the ocean, 
and goes dojivn ^p river jndus to its mouth. 

Prppi JVfacedonia to the Ganges, almost to which river 
Alexander marched, is computed at least ilOO leagues. 

Add to this Aetv&rkns tumings in Alexander^ diardies ; 

.^st fi-om the extvemitf ol Clttci% whqre Ihe-battle oilssia 

vras fought, to the tQn\ple of Jupiter Amman in Lybia ; and 

liis returmng from thence to Tyre^a^joiimcy of 300. leiignes 

«.The ca^ttl of ||sbj]onis» 

route in <£%reBt places ; we sh^ Qnd-ti^at Alcsuiiidcr, in 
lestthan eight yeats, marched his amv vpvanEts of X709 
Ifoffs^ vitSout indtudiokg his .vtpmi tp Babylo^. 


Alexander being; arrived in his Ipingdom,*^ lield a comr- 
dl With-thediief «Al0ers ofltlff army, and 'the grandees of 
lUa ccnrt, on tlie ^xpcdMioo^henietfitatedttgatnst Persia, and 
the measures he should take in order to succeed in it. The 
v^holeasieniSly was unanimfNB, except on one article. An» 
tipateraiid Parmen^wereof oninioR, that the liar, i^elbre 
ke engaged in an enterprise which would neeesaar^ be a 
long Gnc, ougM tomain choiceof a consort, inorder tasecure 
lumadfasiiCKiestDrt^histbfoiie. INit Alexander j ^(rho was 
0f a Tiolent'fierytetni^^didnot approve oTtadsadrice ; and 
believed, tkat aftorke had been ndminated gjiMieralissimo ti 
the Greeka^andttkat his father had left Kim an mvinQ&le 
army, it wmddte a'Skameferlnm to loseliis'thne Ins^em* 
niskigkisniptialsi and waiting for the fruits cl" it; for wliSdi 
reason he determined to set but immediately. 

Acconihigly he offiMd np very splendid sacrHtees tn the 
gods, and eauaad to be celebrated at Dla^ acity oTMaeedctt, 
t scenieal games, itisit had been institWed by one ttf*Ws anc 
cestxmi in honwrr of Jupiter and the Muses. Thisfethral 
coAtlQued nine ditys, agteealily to the nurtber ^ those gdgv 
desaes. He had a tent raised* large'enough toholMOOtafilea, 
on which, consequentty '900^ covers might be kdd. ^o-tffi» 
*ast,t!^ several princes of hfe family, AH the ambassa^^s, 
geweralsi and oiBcers, were hwited. pKt "also treated Kis ^ 
wh<^anny. Itwaathenhehadttiefemotts vision^ hi ^vMcK^tte 
wasexhortedto marcli speedily into Asia, of which mentkm 
wtilbe madeinthe 8e(^L • 

Before he«etc«ttipon this expedition, he settled ^ tf. 
faii^of Macedon^ oirer *»1dch he nppbinted Antipatcr-as 
TOceroyjW&hlfjeftBlfootiandnear the same number 6f horse. 

:*:^ * M. ««i«x .tort-^. C. 334, VM,\.^t. p. 49>~.J03. 
^Aftna^U t^a3<«;^ Wat. in Ale«: p. 67a. 6f3. JaiHo. 1. mt. 
^'i'^*^ ■ tThwtricaIgsi»^.w«ref*fl»lle4. ^ 

Se'ct. In. SisTokY op a^fvavdfr. r>r 

H^e Hf?olncjii1re4 jnto th^ d«>™'ci|ir,airair$ of hi\ irinxj^ 
|i v% to one aiijC-it^ in JL4i)d,lv ^qoUvci: a vUJai,c, to a.OiJi^ 
the revenue.^ pf^ J. »vn,^U),afcura^«lv5. loll of ^a h-.tUur. 
AncJ asall fhp r^vyiuvs of Jiis4caiettjc» wcrtaiitisiiv cm* 
t)loyed and €;iauu«tcaby luAjJMJiiiti()us»^itniicr»w ^kl lo Uim* 
« my JiM-d,.\vl^at is,i^ you rc>c|vc Uitvom^ur AU:ji;«jKinr 

« therxit-ii o t^^siMisfy n. ;**.a;Kl w rcflUica Vcrv geiicrui»ly 
to^cx:ciU.;jrv,nuti^k! J,u.^.)iaa,J|pi^uU«JWn».'- .- . . . 
i TjfC kuowludi^ of the huT^aitoUpaufWftiMi iliv^ti nf.Rty^nu 

-CC'as^cnsjMt, tliat this ^<T;^rt:f:9pniM**iMliAKiDj;il Ujc iQtcM 

9^y fcelhiliHniN 

, . ?.prjiM c ;i h» V- 

are one 3 owjvi>0*^scs»j|ins^,on^% OwnJuiptjiinrrst, wKkJi t^a 
love in lus pcisop ; a^d,^ arcup ra«mv .tio)«« «Uachia u» 
him, aWcTbv^, a^^^^^ M^c M^e- tlynj;i. %c Jo*-,£ 

^vd receive froni;huu.. t^H ffee^.M^Hpl.of tlu* iiiM=Tvwi»V 
^lo>v t^iat .np T>criipu^vef jp^^n^orc U^ of tliss 

T.'^:H?*|^^'V- ^'^^?^^''^ ^^^^ ;hi)vgl4liiintelf,n»iMd to iii4s 
throve mmyjh^t,hct\}}f;hl<^^ gwxJ4 #iia iiMlccx) Uia lihw^ 
5*.l^rv^^J/9V\^s |m.w>/vJ>,.M'*a»;ieilUcA- sau>lictl <ior c/.- 
hau^te(|b;\ti|Cm)Iilpst,fpt3A3fj^ . . • . ^ 

Mafcedon,;^rttTi^d,a4the^W^ hn^fCMiai^c >C4> prt>i 

oilt for Asia^in the beginning of the fating. Hit-arror cou- 
"s^?^ UW^.m9re t£a|^,aQ,Qgo^t, «ikI 4 w 50ot* liors<j ; 

MJ'W^T«.^iP'^^^S«^ % ^\vm^ scv^miwropaiKiwi under. 
I^rB hW^j^'.^r^ ^ckofjjic^* in.caM;^Cn«cc5>rtv, r.iiia-i 
bl6<^r<^mmf>nd^ng ^jto^^ pf .0^ pflicci?* >vcrencA><>©v^nt.. 
.-t^i^^? >i;^^^a^§y >vci:c either.a:wicmUed.t ordrsWji up . 
a^taie bead of-^^ ca;np,.yit;x Md the »k of a irenerable ueZ. 
tt-T^^F^9^^9^^^^^^<^^<^^^^^^^^^ Pliilotii»shis M:fw' 

Md ISDOUorscf under iiiffi; a,id Calla^^the M«af Harp:%lTw, 
|¥,^?W lignite of JJi.qs^^^ T^t of the. 

hdVse, Svho werecom|>o^^ otivitivieH.of tke sc\-ei-»J «tato»oi:. 
Oreece, aftd.ambqnted to 60P, Uad tUetr jJarticaUr cm-' 

, h.YL«»,**5 ^«.t>««»"t«. 4»»w »H"^«^ m'iiitim dectof paurct» 

J ut, II priocipia ctstrorum.ccrncrw, Knatiun te alicoioi Dritw 
•rcip. viderc djcercft. 1 • , . ^^ 

|i BISTOftT 07 AXEXAKDER: 9f»k IW. 

auffider. The Thradans and Paonians, who-i^re alyajrs 
an firdnty were headed by Cassander. Alexander began his 
route along the lake Cercumm towards Ainphipolis ; cross- 
£d the river Stiyiob^, near its mouth ; afterwards the He* 
brusV and arrived atSeatos after 26 days inarch. He ttiea 
commanded Parmenlo to eaross over from Sestos to Abydos, 
with all ^ horse and part of the foot : which he accbrdmgljr 
d^d by the asMaace of 160 galleys, and several &t-bottOEn- 
cd vessels. As for Alesander, he went from Eleoptum to 
^e port dfthe Achaians, himself steering his own ^^Xiey ; 
•ad oelng ^ to tb^e loiddle <tf the Hel^s^ont* he sacrificed 
a bull to^eptune and the Nereids ; 'and ma4e efl^sioris in 
the aea from a gdden qap,' It Is' also related, that after hav- 
ing thrown a javelin at the land, asll^ereby to take posses- 
mpp of it, be landed the first in Asia ; ai^i Jleaptxijg' firom the 
ship completely armed, and ^i the highest tran.2^X)|r^ Of joy, 
he erected altars on the shore tolupiteryto^nepra, and to 
Hercules, for having favoured him with so propitious a de- 
scent. He had done the same at his leavmg i.}^xcg^ "* ' * 

He dqsendedso en^rely (da .the happy s^ccen ofhls arms^ 
i^id the rich spoils he a^io^d^nd in A4a, that he had made 
^eiy llittle provision for so great a^ expedition ; persaade4 
;^at war, when carried «n fiuccessfully^ would supply aU 
things necessary for ^ar. He had butro •tafejotsin money, 
:to pay his army, aikl only a month's provision. I before c£- 
served, that he had dl^ded his ^atiimony among his gene- 
rals and officers .; and adrcumstaoce bfgreat importance's^ 
,that he had inspired Ms saldiers w^th so mudt coijirage. an4 
Jsecurity, that tl^y fancie^'tbey marched^ not tapjoBparioi^ 
iwarj'but certain yidtory.- ' 

t Being; arrived ^t iSie city of Lampsaais, ytAdx he vrzs 
di^terminddto d)e^.^,in otder to punish Uoe xpebefiicii <^sts 
inhabitants,* Ana^imenes, a liattve of tha^ plaqe, cati^' to 
him. This man, who w|isra famous historian, hhd xXeen very 
intimate with Philip his ftther ; and Alexander f^iimself had 
a great esteemfor hira, havingbeen hjs pupil* The king sut- 
pecting the business he was come upon, to be beforehand witk 
Sim, swore, in e^mress terms, that.he would never grant his 
request. <' The fiivour I have -to defdre of. you,-^* says Anax- 
-imenes, "is, that you would destroy Lampsacus.'" By thU 
witty evasion the Mstorian saved his country. 

-From thence Aleacander arrived at -Dion, where he paij 
great hono\irs to th^ manes -of Achilles, apd caU8ed\gaiyifa 
tQibe celebintted round hk tOsnrib. He admired and envied 
jlhe double felicity of that renowned Grecian, in havh)gfooii4 

|i^o trow^K t y«*- Mw, U ^,>. 5. 


^iniiij^ his li^e-^e^a taithful fria)d<m Pa^x)tltis ; and after 
Kis death* a herald in Hoxfier Worthy^ the gr^toess of his ex-' 
pipits. And andcied)* had H i^ot been for &e Uiadt the name 
^ AcftHles wou^ have pfcrkhc^ iii tite same grave with hia 

At last Aldcander s^i^ed on iht ban]ul of the Granicus, *a 
tivcr of Phjygk, The satraps, c^ . deputy -^ieuteoants, "wail-i 
ed his coHung on the other s\de of it, firxnly resolved. to dis* 
piite the i^skage vrith hun , Tlietr army consisted of 1 100,000 
lcx>t, aad vq^^i^ards of lQ,00p h^ . Memnon, -who was a 
Khodian, mSi cior^^ina^ded und«r Ba^ixi$ all the coast of Af ia» * 
^ad ad^fsed t3ie gehierals^V to ventui^ a battle ; hut to lay 
waste thyj>l^his^ai)d e^en the cities^ th^teby .to starve Alex- - 
^dfer's army, and obligb him to, r^^ back into Europe. • 
|(lemnohyas the fo^ ci aU Darids' g^erals^ ^4 had been 
the prindipal agent m h& victori^. . . It is- not easy, tp deter- 
pdne what we^ oi^ht to adpire mosi bk £am y whether ma 
gr^at wisdom itt cotmcil^his <&oifrag^ andcapadty in the fields 
0r iua^sjet^aind attach|nni6nt to his sovereign. ,7he council he 
I^V^] % tha jpceasion; wa$ ixc^lent^ ^hen we consider that 
bis ^o^*ii^^ wias fiery and impetuous >h^ 
izine, nor plac6 o| retr^t ;^ that he w;[is enfering a count^ 
to i^hich^ he was abSoI^ety a st^ti^, inhabiled by enemies ; 
&at delaya.a^6#pqld Wi^sdeej^ana rum hiin f and that hi!l 
Wyliop^iWiii giving bkttlci^^ But Arsitcs, a 

Phrygian satrap, oppb6ed the opinion of Memnon, an4 pto^ 
te^teoChe would nev^r su%r th^ Grecians to make such havoc • 
in the. territories he governed. This ill conncil prevailed 
over ihsii of the forei^er, M^mno% whoiki the Persians, to 
their gTf&at prejudice, si^ected of a ^^si'gn to protract the 
-Vi^ar, ^ndby th^tmeanimake h&i^86unedes$ar^ toBariUl. .- 
, Aj4sxatkder, u t)ie mean time, itsaxdiM ob at the head of 
his Ik^avy-'arttked^infantnr driawn up in two ,Iines, with the - 
tavairy lii thf win^^rt& ragg^gc followed m^^e tear; Be^ 
lag aifrived t^pop thc^banki 0f ^\e G^anteu&,n Farroenio.; ad-. 
vised hiiid. to ehcan^j^ diefe in battJe«^rr^y, m &i^ef that hi3 
fcrcds might have time to rtst themselves ';' aiid- liot to pfjk' 
^eftvertfli yeii^eaflyxiextxnorningi b^causc^^ th«i caieirty 

^^m in Sig90.a^. XchiHc* tBrnolan ebmti'tiMct; 6 tottthztig- 
Sbquiti adoIesccnsV ^ui tui^ virtutis Homeram pra|coaem iniFtb6rift>r. 
Et vere. Nam, ot«i H'lU ilia ntittioet, idemtoviuloi; ^1 corpus c^ 
tontexerat, etiam noinen bbn^isiec. Ctctpro Areh. o. 24. 

f AtcordSag to Tuatto, their army coDiitted of 6oo.doo foot, 
wl^reaa Arriao di^mr^a there were no more than 06,000.-— «> 
Both these aecounta are improbiUe, and there 11 dtobtkw ifBH^ 

Ml tft riM UiC^tBd I li»ltow pMocM IKctt^ 

100 ^fSTOilT OF ALEXAJTDfclt. SfitOf: XPI^ 

Would tlieti be less able to prevent^ htm^ • He; Jlddfd, tha 
iTould bctoodarigerouij to'ftt'tempt' cr^^^^ riVef h?"it, 
of. an enemy, e^st)ecial^ nk ^hit Mfote i3i.e rti 'w» '^qj,*? 
Its brinks t^ety cfag^j^ it ^ tliat tlife 'frefrsiajx cavafi^, ^ 
"waHedtheir eojnteg In battk-af^inijS onthfeothef sf^^^ 
easU/ defeat them before they were, drawn 'tip. , Thal^Si 
skldS tlirtos^ \rt\fch%VW!fd li4 Six^i^neA'^t^hvWwi^^^^ 
c»iierpri^e, In Ckse ft slt^tild pix>V[e unsi'tccessf^^^ 
^ri^n-^iia cOns«pieiice'*td tfieih mtnre. affaps ^ Ih^ i^p^ a^»f 
glbiy of arms dcp^din^ on the ffi-st actions'.' "^^ '*' "^' * *^ ' 

pf ogi-tb's t&bd retaraerfbv'^I^Sfiet- for sp lie caftfedf thelGirkl*^ 
ni(i(|S ouf of <ign^emi>f : ' Aat. Ihey bli^t to take advati&ge ql^ 
thti te'^t^oi^ >^1licb*tI»e?,iSudd6hncss oHikai^val^agl'tE^b^a-. 
nese'of htfe a(tt<;liifi^l$idW?eaa^atndii^tliV|^rtians^ 
yf4f tlte' liigh ^6i5Wifeif^tfewoVia''cj)ii^irV(itf'"^ 
and the Valotjr *6^,'l1ie'M*5e5imrang.' '"TlieefeeaiVVfioi^j' 
Svlildi >i^s>y*j^ ixUnifei^^ 

cd a' Ui^ fFdht:;'!n oriKr ioopbbsfe Xfe'3<S«d^;Wft^et«^FfieJ 
shquld e!«€av<HiV to '^ss y a^aithe-fooi^'WV cpnsaaa^ 
chlefW of Ca^e«£Sj in PAfrifis^sciVBpe, waTiibst^f^^ 
oii nnfeas^^fecen^. -'^ '' . /:..'■*• 

''^l-he ,^wp aVjcpies qont jtmed a \qi\^ t j hr- in bi^jit ut' t-Lich Ptb- 
er, on the banks of the river, as if cU t-iiiip^ tm:^ ^H-n^* , *^''^-i 
PursIUijis. waited ^ill the M|tcetU>ni:ins nlit^^Id tjiiipr the nvj^iV 
iiiorljler tocli^iJ^e-thcipi to ^j^Vuntni^c upon ilvciu luruUivj^ ; apti 
the iaVt^r seim^d to lie inakint; rhoice of n plufje^t-yp^j- for 

Uppi vthi^ A'TexamTcr Krvi n g .or dt;rt; r I Ki ?. tin i^q ifilie Jtii-mi^t 
c^mpiaiiide^lW of tla* Voui ttn liSl|6^ luin^ i\nd.1ic 

have ^gantWi' ' R ^s h i n ^VlI f con i m: -. iidt^u tlic n^ht w j n t^, iu ■ - 1 
Hif^inSwo tr^ Ifeftl Tlie iciri^^' first 'Smse<l a sCt^ig d'#jtsich- 
nient tohiarc^'lhto the rii'cr, him.^dt 'foilou;iug Bj'Ukh the 
re$tof 'tJrc^|iTes. 'He rVn^l e l^ii rjn cmp^ t^cj vap ce" a i tL- i:w ai*c^ s' 
•svi'A tl>e' left wTjSg. TJe IbiTist^jT lett^txi ^'^e rl^lk wirig iiito 
tHe m-er, fplkrwfcd by ti\e rest of tht tjoty ^ ; lUe . troiiijVc t -C 
S(;uinding, aiidWe '-wMe^army fatsit^g cries ^'f joy," '^" '/ 


to prexQiijt tiho?y 'l^ie Mi<^i{(fen^g^ ,ym^ <i%Mfel^ 

^^if:;y:^ .c^jpp^rten^ m§^ W4f ^V^f 

ground, were wouii(%^|S%gljft4si4^lteif » 

Ji'fief. tfti w^9T<mT cr Aiitr/i^9eitr* Jot 

«mSteiiceindfctotncnfte(ft AatUieftywcrtrftftc IVrsktn horse 
"weredwfcywto^^e^rijrtfiw p^ace; antl tJiarMcimion, ii) 
emic«rrt-w^ fris^sooqij command^ tfeerc, The Macedonia n| 
therefere: aet first gave^i^ipd^ afbef ha>1ne lost t^e first 

h^d^^^lijwed tfeewf do«e, atjd reinforced tftem '^idt \m ftt-str 
troops^ heads ttiem T\mwdf, attiQsaties tjicm by hiu presence^ 
pushes tlie Persijitts^ amJtotjft them ;,ttj>c5n which the whelc 
army^ folkn? after^ crdss the rfrer, ^nd" attack ti\e eneu)/ 
on a'tt ftkH^sr. ' 

.A^x.3»(tor firit charged! tUc t*dck;e%t cart of the dieitijr'i^ 
horse-, la wfjteh the geaerais fcug^hti Ue himsaelf^was par* 
ticum4jrcot«pkw>u9l>y hisshlrW,uiKHhtj plum^of feiitlieri 
tliat orecshadotved hi5 hH^fr^e^,^ ear tfie two, sidbs,of whicfi^ 
theref^tJset^vot^g]?, a»ft were, of ff ,'B:neaT i&igtliv «i>d s^ 
vnstfy wMtSej t!i4t t&cy dazzle^' \herc^e9 ot xi;;t l^eholder; 
The ehar^. W»S veryiidqtts about hife i>erson ; and thouguj 
6n?y' horse engaged^ ttrey fottglitlHte focst, tmin tbman, irith^ 
out ^viji^ way on eitiier $ide. -^ every ^one striving to repuls»tf 
his- ailvcr^ry j and'^in gr<nindf of tlinj. " Spithrotiatw, \ie\ie 
tfenanHg^\'ifer<ro^ of TQxJfa, and-idn^o tljstin- 

grifehed- hifffjtetf 4fa!dv«*-therestrof thegert^qraiaby l\h supeHot* 
brav^rr- ''. Bcftig-s^jitmiuded by foti^ Fer^l&n lorcU, aH oij; 
th^ hi^^rfdNtioiis, ofexp^rfertccd i^ltoar, arid who nevc^ 

Alexaptjifer,- qbifervlng t6'!i(^gattant * manner* hie signairse4 
hinwelf,'dajfped. SRurytahis-horsei apd' advaxiredrdwardi 
hini. ImitretfialJe'iy' tfic^ eh^^, autj' ^^^^ 'having tiiroWii ^ 
javi^Bnv wowjclcsd thegfther Sightiy. Spithrobatcs falls furi^ ' 
oitsljr 8^01-4 ln^ h«nd upop AlexaTideri wh« being pa'cparccf 
for hiVW^ 'thf\xst!i^hi5 pike into ftisjace, ?rnd laxt^ h>nri-(kiAd iit. 
hi8 &eXi ' Aftit^ Very mdto^Jnt; Rt)^cesr, brother to that ^jo- 
btemati,c1ffttg^%'htnt <in ^esi%;^ gives' :himio %i(ui's i ' 
WowoiTtfte iSaa'^tl* liisr battltf-ax,' th^r h6 lieat off hi^ 
pluiTJe^ but .wept jio deeper ^an the^ hai^:. AsJ[ie\wafc gbi^^' 
tirrfcpeat Ws blftrw <ni t1ie:l|ca(J; wfrichhoWf^fpear^thr^i^gl^' 
hw ^fctm-ed'hefmet, €Ht^s c^tsroffijtosace^hani^jiviit)! one* 
stroke- of Ws sqJMtar;. an(^%; tfcfff nieani saf^d A\'i sore-,. 
reign^s Vt9t,_ The^ftfig^ txy whfcfi AfeTtahdef htid beej> ex- 
If osed^tiMctajr ^fr?T0iit!ed the cpur^c^bfft}^. int^^er s^J w.ho now^ < 
per^cHrr wofnd«r$. ' The?ei* ^ cefart'^,of.'n6rse, tip- i 
©nr wlibtfl' thci llgh^-arVji^ t?^o6As; wht) badf tJeeu. ported ijfc 
^e ijHterv^ of -the hcfrse; ttc^P^daig^jJettiirijlli^^na of • 
^rtsj being; nfta^i^* tor Sustain, ^Til^lbigei; ^'^ttac;^ oTi'th*^ 
l^^cedodaiis/w^oSttrti^ A^iiff m Ml ihe'fae^, «he^^>*(0 wW& . • 
i»<rt4^att i Tie a ii.teft y tTrojce aticlput;t6flV^t: ^ Ale^an^cr ^d'«o£ - ' 
pursue them Icajg, bttt»it!mfe<§* ^tborit jtotatcli^ekr «) cliatg^ 
thefoot, 12 

Tbese, says Uiehistomn^at fintstood tb«ir gtound, wtiicfir 
ivas owini^ to the jurprUs tbey were fteiwd wibi, r^^er^ 
^\aA trayery. But wbe|i they saw themselves attacked at 
tlieisainc time py the cavalfyiaod thg'Mftcedonia&phalanXy 
ivhich Had crossed the river, and that the baUaUoos ivere 
now Engaged) those of the. Persians did not make ei^er a. 
long or a vigprous resistances and wer» soon put tp fiigt^t, the 
Grecian intantry in l^trius's tervice excepted. . Tliishody 
«f foot retiring to ahUl, dipmanded a j^x>mi8e from Alexsui* 
derto let t]iem marcnaway unmolested: but following the 
dictates . of his wrath, ra&er tbaivthose of reason^ he rushed 
into, the midst of this b9dy of^ fbo^and )>FesenUy k>st bi» 
liorse Cnot Buceph^lui), who was killed with the^ thrust of- 
i sword. Tht battle was so hot round him, that most of the 
Macedonians who lost their lives on this occasion fell here i 
ior they ^ght against a^ body of men who were wdl disci-^- 
^ned, had be^n inured to war, and fought in desp^r^ 
They were all cut topieceS| 200Q eacceptad^ who were ta-^' 
i^en prisoners.. ... 

A great number of the cKSef Persian commanders lav 
dead on the ^ot. Arsites fied inta Bhrygia, .where it is 
^aid he laid violent hands upon himseli^ for having. been the^ 
cause that the battle was fought. Itwould Itave been aior& 

fibvibus for lum had he died in ^the field.. 20,000^ ^t, and.' 
500 hoi*se were klTled in this engagement^on the^ideof ti^ 
barbarians ;. and of the Maeodonians, 25 "of the. royal horse - 
'^re kUled at the. first attack. Alexander^rdered Ly^p*^- 
{)us tp make their statues in brass, all wliich were^setup m 
HL city of Macedon called Dia, in honour of them, from whence 
tliey were n>ariy years after carried to Rome fc^ Q.^etellus» 
About 60 of the oth^r horse were killed y and neas 30 foot,^ 
who, the neijct day, were all lai4, with their arms and. equips 
age,, m one grave ;. and the king e^smted at^^exem^Uou to^ 
ttielr ^thers a^id children. £bom evexy: .kind, of tribute' andp 
servite. , , ., ' . . 

■He also took the utmc^ care^of the wounded, vi^tedUiem^ 
aJnd saw their wounds dre§$e4- ^« enquired very particu- 
lar^ ' iiitb their adventures, andpermkted every one of thenk^ 
to . relate his actions m the battle,. and boast his bravery. A 
prince gains many advantages by such ^'£a.millarity andoc^*- 
&escensTon» 11^ also, granted the rifes of sepulture to the 
grandees , of 'F^^a, and^id not even refuser it to siich Greeks 
as died in the Pei-^ian service i b»it al^those whbm he tookr 
^Visoners he .laid iix chains^ and sent them to Vork as- slaves 
ift Macedoniai for having fdu^tunderthe barbarian ^i^- 
ards against Uii^ir country, contrary to the ^^^e$S pji^iobfi^ 
tioiVnia(ifeby Qreeceuponffiatlle^ , ' 

our of his victory* vittrtbe Ctiieks ;' add sent particidBrijrf 
to the Athenians 30^ .i|lne)ddt besDg pafl; of the];>laD4cr lak^a' 
f^m the enemy ; and caDsed th* elonous uscnptkn fiplfew^ 
ing to , be ia$critie4 on lihe rest of thi^ nffUk^i ^hhiyauAtt 
^ son of PKilip, wittvthe.OVeelb, th^ XjacedrnttooMi tx« 
» cepted^ l^aioiid the^ 8|»qU0 froni th« bailMiHaM who in* 
« habit Asia.**'. A conduct of thi$ kJM af^gi»^ ^ very un- 
common axui amiable greatness oC soiil m a oonqueror, who' 
Sjenerp^y canmyt, without .fT«»^ t^uttaace^ admit others W 
share in his.g}ory> ., Th^gueaJtc^ part of the gold ftnd silve^• 
plate, the parp^ carpets, apd other tttnut\ur«^pl^thePeriiaof 
BaKury,<t6.b4«,motbe¥.^ . , , ■ 

'•■;.:;",''- "' jSJBCTlON. IV;".- ,'..', ,' 


i:iie;succe$8ol thfc biittle of the Oranlcos had a^ the hanpf^ 

eon^equ^ceft that codld ntitursdly be expected from it*,' 

Sardi8^i«hi<^^W^ in^a matiner. thfe bulwark of the baii>arian» 

empire on' the spdfrn^x^thfe sea, sdrf^oidered tDAIeicttnder,' 

wto thet^upQo gli^tfad<at«pens their liberty, andpermitted- 

thcm to liv<e alter their own lawsftr Four days after he arri-- 

ved at Bphiwdis, duliying wi& hiin those who had been ban*' 

i^hed fi^m theiDcefor beinshi^/ adherents^ • and restored it» 

popular fprm<3f govertoient,' He asngded tb the temple of 

Diana the trSnites wluch wer6 paid to the kings of Persia, 

Heofibredagi^t nomlKr of saerrfiees to that goddess, so-' 

iktxmized her mysteries with the utmostpomp, and conducted 

the certombny" with his ^hole' army di^wnupihbattie array. 

The E»phesi&ns bad begun to r6bi)iid the temple of Diana^ 

Which liftd been burtied the^ni^tof Aleitander's birdi, as way 

. More qteepved, and the work^ was now i^ery forward. Din-' 

^rates^ a famons arehkect, who superintended <th^ edifice^ 

was eoi^loyed by this kingp. to baild Alexandria in Egypt. 

. Alexa^ider ofi^ed to pay the Epheskns all- the expencev 

theiy had alrea^ beenf i^t, and te*fumi!ihthe remainder, pro-' 

vided they would inscribe the temple only with' his name ;• 

f)V he ^as fond, or pather insatiable, of every kind of glory^ 

The inhabitants of Ephesus not being wflling to consent to it^ 

and however afrakl to retorhinrthat honour openly, had 

teceurse to an artftdr fiattefylbr an evasion. They told hinf^ 

' ♦A. M. 3«rr. Ant. Jl C. S^f, Diod. li Jtf^n. p. 5tJJ^-.5tli 
An»xi^\, i. p. 36, 59* ««• '• "• P' 60—66. Plm.lo Atet. p. 6731 
<74. Q:. Gort. 1. Hi. e. |*-3^ JuftU>|k Xi; '^ h^ Uxf^M^ 

goM asaiwir m»4 and iiSdeifir^ P^riMi ifeetr, #|n(^ w&& 
Y^ Con^#9t>abl%nii44l ft^sftoii^ aslf iC' >v^ck^9ttccour t^t' 
<4^'; btue liAttr lllwrfiw raodif sefveftd IMtfess attetmrtr tnf 

was detertnmed to make a gooff ^fiiii^^! ' Ahdtaridefi, wha 
•would not lose a monientV ffmej: attacked it, and planted 
scaling-ladders on all si^s.' QfW^^ade was carried on 
tteh vlswrri^d -liiJ^jWa* %iflr ilo *» fli€r^jafty, thmiglt 
Alcxand»t^«h*^ fnerfk- t«««tomta nAlev^ on*' anoMterwithout 
1te4ei(9t tsiferitiiaiian>v aaif tiUsilatfcd^iJenirti 41^- vAelakt^ 
iutdlng: fadi ^sMamw^Bk maryi wlieite JKpulM«i^ afictlkatr t]h«p 
<ait)l^>7iMtt ipmNvMr'^a^^kimyT Hmtfr Jem a^loi^ sie«0< 1i# 
nlMtiMbalL4iisififl«idina agajaafe it^^tfttte «.fr«i£intf»f(Mt^e# 
llrffi»kn%alidn«kera»tfeB tteseiWttlifr atttuokjoijOP^m^^^itjig^ 
wiwr attt^nplBd:.. l%e i>esk9al,. afteii tiistiiMi^ 
•Oiirtii witfa lii'oAsisBKbiaxdryf ^afMatmAy^i^^ ^ i^^ 

-^aoMfbiiiidiinYil. Tfaehi!«Dsiaii«dKiK»rntiMiaiii»<lft«a«^ 

^Mde2ttttdcg»iBf giwfltt tih c . <iiBm y te«iaeil h«cd\9aa»^»^a 

'uritttbnrG' * 

istadiwAto lafrit{» haroiwnvidi® tnt]ittiic»o04t I 
ttoferitOfnitntioH tifiilr l»:wa»ttfl^ina»ity'ibt^<liit^ 
imiiarttaca; S9n»iiiitoBaB&.a«e«e«cH0#4piaio!)f'fi^ta^|l« 
ij|eaaupD9 tbcLi^abitof oomin^rtD a.l»i«te*wMBafite^lMlSi«dl» 
wa taKiftleef«BMrtiia^te«£'th« tanMittpi^ h^^ik» vtmA* 
•«eid:ts[<lfiptate y» soldicteoi^* Al 4i^>ttf of r«ti«a^ aii# to^ 
laMfCltomi nPKitfaBr r m onwm^ iham thatg^vicitoiyi Hetftci^^' 
S>i»; T«t«Dedti9Mcli-»stc|firail^ bf liit HMt a^wtti^e ^tSvoKiMf 
niws^gagy JmbtTw iyprttayaig wiiitBwy angiiMMr «ia^a amdl 
aiimlieir oficrtfaBiv gcllejrs^ • * .' -i. :. . ' 

: Aft«fpow*WMr^in«»ld&^Mttl*ii9,heiftaVeft^ 

prodigious difficult access from its happy situation, and had 
^fitfi sXfm^f^ntAfifAi ^BQ«ilE^s,:Me{€99^$tas4r%ll 
at ^97niD8^M«dl«tt{of aU^idaxiiuf eQain]fit9dilqs^)iad.g0t«»tA 
Hf wlfeia lipdir oi flliQlqft tBiliei%, M»tl» dMig% totf^ii&eiai^ 

courligej f^ivd Ikklitj for hi^ ^itj^LTi^^ip Hv dCOdntiftgly 
lii-4f!e^ very ^bic .dt^Jei^a^ iiv ,wl4di lit ,was wctii^Utjl by £* 
pi i]^ it^^j 'p.1 iptitj? r gcii er al of ^i cat fsw rU . WUate v^ f cby W 

cqi\aji^ii ^1*^* kn^ylftfl^e ifi tJte suicnoe qf ,wttr, VHis coo&[>U 
r.\\ on ^ 51 1> ixj^i sj^t.^^ (Hi tl > T s 1 H^?t 1^ i yj^, A f tei' 41^: i^tigt rs 

sbfi^ ,oi> ivi't;, iiy tUtj iVj^q^vf" i}t vjg<>iig*^i& ^iciy^^ .i»f ihe fc^fjflt^-d. 
j\fter boating ciusvn iwtrlpt a.yr^\l wj^h tHuir UaUeriiij5-i*nD*% 
tliC)' ♦v^^ix- ^i^niiilvql tfi ^ a i»cw one l^ljiwi il ; v^hkh Tviia 
^> sii44t^:3 thut it ^fx^vCfJ to iiiMJ cpQt fi/tJie iijTOwuit. 'Hw^^' 
t He k «t U>jp sc 1^- iill^^p wiy t:|i w i?i tJ iH^fetr in 4 -jjf^ii ac;f re i*i ar form ^ . 

M^aj tijuj t^i> 9f ;lic K»v^y>vj *i4i;.>l Y<«iPp f«il^<) VP tfie w-^^m-nl' 
vta^^ip imjl ^wwrflge qt iu i\B(fii^dci'.i. J^ie f i^gsf ii^ni^>Ud ewe 

abiifli^ipn t^e ciiy\ M i)^ 1^^ ^a^ qp<ju to hj^m, liitpr hitvirir . 
put^a litroii^ g^rrjLsop iij^o^)^ ^^itaficl, ikFlikh wa«i^L*U i^oj^ 
witb pravisitqvt,Jj.t tticii, t^j^4il|Ii iJ*c*iii>Uing jjiiiafutSi^i^i, 

Cp^a , whicl^ •Mi'*« atft fei r uyom Mi^yc.^ r mi**^i 1 » AJeatand e v .tli^ 

sea It with ^truni; walls^ ai4 i<^ft ^ly^ |^4 J%QQ|^t k tiid 

. Wf ^ ^i^6t^ rf^t^aflis#r^'WW JOiflE^iWt* Mrteiii her 
prntiei* -i^^iK^ ip Vi'fitf^Ldi, T^ #e«ptre 4^v^vfFd .yjic^ 
A^^, £ist*ir 4y^ j^y^y of iflrici**^ jiccqrf^k^ff t<> Uie eualmu *j£ 

Injv, ^ Ada^ ^oV(&Vierj )«fii6^tjyjl |uj»^^%ffd e^ a ft>rtrtAs cuUci, 

aiiiiifor hcf ^u. jli^ Jp^g Tjwi,*^ s^p f itF f v>«ii c^ite^imiijl 
tliiiwUono^*^ limt h^ M\ lic?r i^>« !ii|it* possp^sjon x>f Aitir awn , 
^Mj^ f m^ lifLpv iviLyiflj? tii^?^ yu.jieiai***wui, an he k^ thgt- 
tt^cRh;^ \y4i^ auafiiv;r t^' ttit: whole coau|rVjl^ Kcsljuisftd Ac gov* 

• *tW§' l«djr, ajj a teslitopny olP the deep setikc' she hka of 
pie fktoafs reccSVeift {i^nlf Alexand^, venthiiatev^ d&jr 
Afefttt' d r cM edih the m6st exqUii^te fnanher ; delicidtt* pies-' 
^ alf 9M*t^ and the most ckcellcnt eobks of eVety/kfetf.* A-' 
wxaiider ansifi«ered' t^e queen' on^ thfk occafsibtl, ^H^ aJA thl^ 
^ train' iHu of ifbservieb t6 hinr> for*fhact W tt^ po^cisA^ 
•*^ mtridh better cooks, Whom X.eonida^ hiaf^ov<irn<>p ha^" 
^?^g;i^*n* hSm ;' one of whom jircpared Mm'^ good^ifiimer^' 
^and that -Wad by vfaXkin^ a g^eat deal ibf the nrornihk verjr 
^* early f and the other pSfepa^ed hani an idkciaiehtl«4>P^/* 
•<Bnd thkt ^as dining v^'ifibdcr^tdy?' 

SeveiM klhgsr of Asia ^Hhbr subhutttA vbitihtaiti jr tbr^Alex- 
•ttderi' MhhVidaifes, kihg of Pttfetii^, Was orti* of ^se vh& 
iEft»rvrardB adhered to thiii pribe^ jui4' Ibllgyre^ him'iirhls 
^xpeditiQiil; Hfewa3^ntoAti6biiri^aneB,Mverilorofp£iy- 
gia, and king of PohtXHi/of Whbm ntentiwlto'bis^ il&ade 
dsewhere*' fl^ » com^ruted^ to be the 16th kSiig fi^' Ar« 
fatmcuS|Who ik dbns^dered^as^ founds of tt^tkhijrdQin; 
iiyMdtuht ^mif pot in fjbif^esliba hjr XKirih^aQh ctf I%tiui- 
^ hiit'fiuAbr.r Tte ftttn6ii^ Ml^dbles, il^orib Ibogem-' 
ftmd^e-Rchh'aiiaA^^Ies^ wa^oiiii:^ , 

I ' AleJiHiMei*! b^foi'ilf^hik Wciitf ihto 'fHht(^*>(jtnirtet^j^ f^^^ 
feed aUsbeh ofhk'soldil&r^ !»:» U&d'iiiam^ t^aty<iar/t6 re* 
imt Uto MaMS^ft^ thtdt^ tbr ^kbd tbi^wiiits^ i»l& their 
vIvM^ iMfl. eohdiuoh^that'tttey tirotrftf i^tam in'the ain^g. 
Jte ai^pieinted three offieerii to Akrch^hiim thither and tackr 
ilQBAti;, This agrees ekSit%^^rfth^helaw»^lM^09M 
•s'weidowt fifld thM this'iaW bi-^atHJtom' ivas trltii " 
«ih«riitttitfti; it i» -vjeiT iSiK)ba1il^ «iat Aifet'otle'tetf.l„ 
i^ £rom«»«i»' JcWifrtth^Wlwt^ ^qtikirtted^h'li 

awehHittt api^ikig^it ad a y^ \H9e asfd jt^- ^osfotH. ne 
4SiBt«fopr • h4a* w<<Sbntoert^ ft to mr ^W^'yrh&'nmia^^ 
i^redliitoa'.thl^-«6]^aiiOm'.-< ;.^*--s • ...<-:.;• ;..^ .:.."'. 

The next year Alexander' blwab the ^aropaiim V^'iKc3i^' 
m hMdcUted'^li^thi^h wb«ad:ik! praj^r fipr hihi^amat^ 
^resQj^ igaibst J>an^ oi^'^e^^d firsft snbdu^ the i%«e^(lt£? ^ 
aiiritimj^^reyiii^^es. lli<&' latter dpinibit^^pp^red%€ss^st«: 
i^fK^ be^ thereiWiRMild rtbt he mitested by il«i:h'n^otis (Uhe 
ifiytHlid leave b^iind hiVti. fEfis pi^ogreM "v^s^ lititle iiitet**' 
.rifled' at: flrst. Neiar Phaselift> a city situa^d biStv^n ty- 
da and PaiAi)hylia) is a dejSie ^ohg the 9eaalt(^,'lMrti|ch1& 
§way4i dry at low walei», so th^t trav«*llcH mayp^ss kmt 
%tae ; but whc^ the'se^ r^; h h all undei- m^atei^, J^ it' 
w^i now winter, Atexanijter, whom pothinj: cocdd daaht^^ 
HsL^ desirotts of paissing it limre the waters m\. His %^9< 

4StCt. IV. AISTQUT OF AX^iUnKM*. . ifi9 

^ere-tl^^srefere tinged to marc|& « .wlioitf day iti the water^ 

^^hichcanie ^i).to^the}r ^«is^. Sajx^ his^nianS) purely •to 
emb^sb this indoqpt, i^late IJbat .the sea, .by t|xe diving 
commaxvd, had' sabmiUc^ vpontaticqasly to Alpxaiidcr, an^ 
had oj^eiied' a -way , to Iv^m^coiitrary ,to the .usual courae of na. 
tufe ; among th^ae vrri^h is Quintos Curtius. It isfiurpn* 
sivi^ that losrahq^ <fie4i|S(orMD) to -f^eal^en the a,uthority of 
the miracle V» the }ew9 passiiif; .iKrqugh ^e Red Sea as on 
dry land, ^QT^^d have citediLhJs^circQnistaT^e Jby ^ay of ex« 
ampl^ the fali^ pt ^hlc^ Ale^cander hikm^elf had refuted ; 
for t'lutarch relates, that he had vrcote only a^ {cilows lo one 
of his Jetteta, «*^at whto he left wt^e city ^ J^haselis, h(p 
,^^ marcbedoi^ fbqt l{uro^gK the pass of the rooMfttain called 
'^Clinojax/' ^^Oid it js Very we^ Jtofywn tiiai thisprincef 
who wis vaiitly. food j^ J^ taairellCHis, never let slip any 
opportanity or ^r^c^ng the pe^}e tha^ tlie|;qdsp^ecte4 
him in ayery sin|g\ilaT .uiaruier.. ' 

~ Durip^l^ being jn the*nQlgy}b>hood .of Phasehs he dis* 
covered a /toi\Bpiracywl4chya& carrying o^ by Alexander^ 
son of ;^opus, whoxi;x he hkd a JittXe befojpe appointed gene- 
ral of the Thessalian cav)iUy, .inthCfoom of jCalas, yrhom>4'?^8?^ve^^ Darius, :upoii the re- 

ceipt 'of a. ][etter VMch this .^raitcff ^ad S^t him, |»»fnised 
,hm a ijeward of l<3teO,taientSf* of j^d, .nf^fth the kinsdom of 
Maped(9ua} 4n cai^e hp^ could pnux^er Aie^caoder j t^heying 
this was not p^yinjg too dear fc^ a ^ime which .wouid rid 
hjmV>sQ£n£i^(Iableaa^nemy; The messc^cer. who car- 
ried the'^ng's apswer beiti^ seijxdf niade a ^u confession, 
cby which ineans th^ ^^}^ ^^ .ll^<9U|^^ ^ ccsidign punish* 

* 'Ale^an4er4 after having scttjed affaRTS jiirXJilicia and Pam- 
pUyfla, inarched hl^ army to C^n?B, a cHy of Phrygia, 
>at«iedJ>y, the riv^r Marsyas, vhi^h pie fictjiojoM of poets 
have fnade so fia^ttous. fffi fu|ii^caicd the |^rri»qn or (he 
4:itadel, WhiJ^her tl^e iiihabjtants Ts^ere retired, to airrendet' ;. 
'.but these.believjn^it impregnate, answered haughtily that 
they wo^id^rk die. ". Hqwev€ar> ftuding'the attack xar'rie4 
x>n with if^t^vkour,, they. 4esi a ti^ of 60 d^ys, at the 
expiration. pf :?rh^h tjiey pr<)i^ open their. gates, in 

;^8e ^y ^^re.not succovred, /bidaccsTdintly no aid ar« 
jriving^ they Jf^trenoeped thenM^lyes /ipt^ ,fte iip^xfid, , 

Tro^ /hense Itheltfng marched 4?^to *hrygiai the capital 
4Df which was caD^ ^wr^jis;!, ;,ilje ancier^t and famous rcsi, 
'^^06 ^ Iwie ^Ud^ situated on.the riyer Jtogaiius. Hav* 
ing't^ken the city, he waa «J^8u^ 


^iVta»P ^at^AtlSii^SFMlii ■ 

MhJt Sf;' 

i^odiaii,oaSlvl«Jd mtt^t^ MsSmf^'fik^^ ^ M»tcftim^ 

ftoim pwMprit^«gei»- ()W*8t*^Ela^ 
,other Greek nations, who)ia^^iJyd<WcW(Jtf^6t^t!S^JWk(iedb^^ 

Ak9diairieiitti!|i**feWbfe<6jl' f^^ 

Mmiiteteredua4ni)i^l ht^^fmt, ^^^H*^0 ^^iSfotW'. 
MeiiitoDir^wait>itil« ablest ga^fWTMn^^s^^drXlieil aM*hM'^ 

»to<pasar)a«|r'tnte^tftttapftrii4d *f^k^<»f^fctf6^ iini 

'^feowrdoi«*i^4««©tft«ftW^9Hlic»»lrtAfj'6^^ ^tSfe. ' -I'M 


for Darius not having one general in his army ^1»o was ah^ 
^to supply Meranoi]f*s place, abaiictoned entirely the only en- 
terprise .which could have sjxved his empine. His whoJc 
refuge therefor; now lay hi the afmies of the east. Darius, 
dissatisfied >vi"h all his generals, resolved to command iii 
persoa, and appcunted Babylon for the rendezvouuof his aif- 
my ; where, upon being mustered, they were found to be 
>iboot 4, 5, or .600,000 men, for historians differ very 'much 
pn this Ivead. 

Alexander having left Gordion, marched into Paphlagonia 
and Cappadocia, which he subdued. It was there he hear4 
of Mcmaou*s death, the pews when^of confirmed him in the 
.resolution hfe had taken of marching immediateU^into tWc 
provinces of Upper Asia. Accordingly he advanced }m 
hasty marchesinto Cilicia, and arrived in the country called 
■*Cyrus' Cump". From thence there ii*\\o more than 5.0 sta- 
.4ia (two leagues and an halt^ each) to the pass of Cilicii*, 
.which is a very narrow strait, throuurh .whicli travji^UeuB 
:5ii:e Obliged to go^from Cappadocia to '1 arsus. The ofl5c«f 
who guarded it in DariuS name had left hut few soldicvs in 
.it, and tiiose fled tlielinstant tliey Iveard of jtLe enemy 's. ai- 
Tival. Upon this Alexander entered the pass, and after 
^viewing veiy attentively ^Jie situation of thej>Iacc, he ad- 
mired his own good fortune ; and confessed, Jtha^ he mi^l^t 
have hccn .very easily stopped ai>d defeated thcrii, mercV 
by the throwing of stones : for, not to uventioi) that tlus.paM 
was sonaTTDT/jthat four men complcatly armed could sea w»- 
ly walk arbreast fu it, the top of the moimtainliung over the 
Toad, which was not only str^t, but broke ia. several, places 
;by the torrents from the mountsiins. ' . I * 

■ Alexander matched His whole army;to the tity ^ Xar- 
'sns, where it ari^yed '^le -instant the Persians wevie^. setting 
.fire to that plaqc, to prevent his plia^dering the.j»r^t richer 
of so flourishing a city. But.. "PArmeni<i, whom the kj^ had 
sent thitl^er witli a detachn^idnt of horse, Jirrived ^e'vy sev 
jSonahly to' dicp the prpgr^s of the fire, ^nd,roarx;hed into 
the city which he sa-sjed ; the barbaviaus having ficd the 
.moment they heard of hii} a^vah . s . ./ i 

Througli this dty theGydrnts isiinsjh river not «o rem'arii- 
able' for tl^e breadlth of the d\^jinej, as fof die bi^auiy^f *ite 
*wateri, %WiA;wdr;e vUsUy'/mipld; hut At .t}>c sauiq twne^ex-. 
cessirely^ 6/6ihi becflu^^S'.'bf thetofted trees yr'^tlv wwcli^ite 
ibanlts arc orei'sKadoWect it wasi ho>«r abCJut the end of sum- 

' '"^ jg^»o^^t3iictitM'm})^^Me0 i^4«»'b«.il>.callBd fiQ«i^^ <Msit 



mer^ which is excessively hot in Cilicia, and in the hottest 
part of the day, when the king, who vas quite covered witl^ 
sVreat and dirt, arriving on its ban^, had a mind tohatlic ii^ 
that river, invited the by beauty and clearness ojf the stream. 
' Howc\*'er, the Jnstapt he plungpd in/to it, he wa^ seized 
nvith so violent a s)>)vering, that all the standers,«by fancied 
lie was dying. Upon this f\e was parried !to his tent, aftef 
fainting away. The news of this sad disaster threw thip 
whole amiy into the utmost consternation . They all bur^t 
into tears,4nd breathed their plaints in the following words : 
*• The greatest prince that pyer lived is torn from us in the 
•• midst of l^is prosperities and conquests ^ not in a battle, oj- 
•* at the Htormine; of a city ; but dies by his batliing in a river. 
••'Darius, who is coming up witli us, will conquer before he 
^ has seen his enemy. We shall bjp forced to retire like 90 
••• many fugitives, through those very countries which we cn- 
** tcred with triumph. As tlie places thropgh which -wp 
'*' must pas8 are eilhpr dpsert or depopulated, hunger only* 
** shpuld we meet no other enemy, will itself destroy us. But 
•* who shall gjiiidc us jn our flight or darie to set himself up in 
** Alexander's stead ? A^i)d should yfc bj? so happy as to ar- 
* rive'at the Hellespont, ^035/ shall wpfumjsh o]urselves wit]i 
♦* vessel's to cross it V* ' After this, directing their whole 

S oughts to the princcf, and forgetting themselves, they cried 
oud, " alas' J how sad Is it that he who was our king, and 
*< dhe phampion, of oqr. toils ; at ting fn the flower .of his 

"^ybiith, and in the bourse gf his jgrca^st prosperities, shou^ 

*•' be taken off, and in a yn^pner topi from ojir arms '*" 
At last the king recovered His senses by deg^es, and bc- 

'gah to know the persons who stood round him ; though the 
only svmpjtoms h^ gave of Ijis recoyery was, his being scn- 

'sJbfe <*>f bis' illness. Byl 1)^ was mor,e indisposed ,in mind than 
W.bpdy, Jfof news was brought that Darips might soon ar- 
rived' !&lQ3^andcr Ibe'wailjrig perpetually hi^^ard fate, in be.- 

-inJ5 thus exposed, naked and defienceless to his enemy, ^nd 
fobbed pf so noble a victory, since he was now n»luced to 

'tljie melancholy condition of dying obspurely in his tent, and 
far from having attained the gloty he had promised himself. 
Waving ordered his Qonfident^ and physipiansto come into his 
ten*:, <^ou scQ,'said he, niy JFriends, the sad e^trepnity ^o which 

i'' fortune reduces nie,^, ^lethlnks I ali-eady hear ihc sound of 
** (Kfe istnemy^s arms, ?rid see parlus advancing. He un- 

'^ dbubtedly held InteUigepce with my evil genius^* when h^ 

t Dsripa, w|io iongiocd himielf fore of overcomiog AlesMdffi 
, ^ w^it tfihk IffHldutttt, that tlKy ihopldisbittcige thh ymi»g fiM; 
^ d^ Clsthiffg hll» «i #vplt fn» ff deridoD,ibwkl ieiM Hi* 
|oiiod hand and f pot to the cpyrt. f rtioihsaln (^tnt Gfirt. 

Se^t. IK ttlSTORY or ALEiAKtfeU*. Ill 

'* wrote letters to his lieutenants m so lofty and contcinptu- 
** ous a strain ; however^ he shall not obtain his desh-cs^ 
" proviided such a cure as I Want ts attempted. The pres-^ 
** erit Condition of my affairs will riot admit eitlier of slow 
"fertiedies op fearful physicians^ A speedy death is more 
'* eligible to me than a sloW 6urc. Id case the physicianft 
*' think it is i^ their poiif er to do me apy good they arc to 
* know that t do not so milch wish to live as to fight:** 

This sudden impatience of the king spread an universal 
alarm. The physicians^ who >yere sensible they should be 
answerable for thee veilt, did hot dare to. hazard violent and 
Extraordinary, remedies ; eOT^cially as Darius had published^ 
that he would revirard with lOOO talents • the man who 
should If^il Alexander. Howeyery Pliilip, an Acaj'nanian, 
one of hiis physicians^ who had always attend^ upon him 
kam his youth, loved .him with ^the utinost tenderness, not 
only as his sovereign, bui lus childjt raising himself, inerely 
but of afi^tbn to Alexander, a)^ove all prudential considera- 
tions, oflfered to giv^ him a dwc, which, though not very vio- 
ient,.would nevertheless be speedy in its effects ; and he de- 
iired three days to pi^pare it. At this proposal every one 
trembled, btlt him only whom it most concerned ; Alexan- 
der being aifiictejd upon ho other account than beciuue it 
\rouId iKep him three days from appeari&g at the head of 
his army. ., . . 

Whilst these things wei«4ouig5 Alexandler received alet- * 
l^from Parmeni6, who was left^b^ehind ia Cappa£fefiia» in 
whom Alexander put ^reat^r confidence than in any othciMjf 
his courtiers j the purport (of wlud> was, tc^bid him beware 
of Philip, for that Darius Had bribed hini, bv the promise of 
1000 tafenjts, and his sister m marriage. ITiis f letter gay^ 
him great uneasiness, for he was now at.fcUjeisure'to weigh 
all the rea86i]ks. he mi^ht have to hope or to fear. But th^ 
confid^ce in a phybici^n, whose sincere aUachment and ii* 
delity he had i>rovfed from his infancy, soon preyailed, an<i 
irenioved all his dotttits. ' Upon this he folded up ttoc, letter, 
and put it under his bolsteir^ without acquainuiig any one 
with the content? of it* ; ♦; 

Tlie day being come, Philip enters the tent with his ined- 
icine, when Alexander, taking the letter from under the bol* 
fiter, gives it to Philip to read. At the same time he talt^^ 

* About 245,0001. fterling, ^ . . 

f Togectum ahicno aolicitudineaa literae incuflerant ;.et 9UK<}Q«i 
in Qtramque partem aut metw attt fpct fubjeccnt, f^crets »&ina^ 
tionepei^bic. Q^Cort , . j > ^ . .^ 

the cup^ andi fixing his eyes on the ph}*sician, swallavs tHe 
draught without the least hesitation, or .-wiUiout discovering 
tiie least sufipicion or uneasiness. Philip, as he perused tiie 
ietter^t had shored greater signs ot indignation than, of faur 
or sui-prise ; and throwing, himself upon the ktng's bed — . 
** royal Sir," said he, with a resolute tone of voice, **yoiir 
•*■ recovery will soon clear me of the guilt of parricide with 
** which I am charged. The only favour I beg is, tliat 3-ou 
** would be eas\' in your own mind, ^nd suffer the draught 
* td operate, and not I'egard the intelligence yon have re- 
*' ceivcd from servants, who indeed liave shewn their zeal 
** for your welfare ; wliich atcal, however,4s very indiscreet 
^ and unseasonable.** These words did not only revive the 
king, but filled him with liope and joy ; so taking Philip by 
the hand, **lje you yourself easy," says he to him, '•for I be- 
•♦ficve you are disquieted upon a double account : first for* 
•* my recover)', and secondly fot your own Justification/' 

In the mean time the physic worked so violentlyt that the 
Rccidents which attended it strengthened Parmenlo's acc«U . 
sation ; for the king lost his speech, and wa« seizixl >wi^ 
such strong famting fits, that he had hardly any pulse left, 
or the least symptoms of life. Philip employed all the pow- 
ers of physid to recover him, and in every lucid Interval ^- 
verted mm with agreeable subjects ; discoursing one moment 
about his mother and his sisters^ and auiother) abk>iit tlie 
mighty victory iirhich was .advancing, wiU^Jiasty steps^to 
cyown hi^ past lritmfiip»hs. ^thtst the physfcianV ^^ Ha. vine 
^in«dAhe ascendant, and Effused through evei^f'.veln a shu 
luaryniid viviiic virtue, hb mind first begjan to rettulne it^ 
Jbrmer vigour,' ttld aftetTVtir'ds his body, mWh soto^r tha^ 
had been ejKpected. lliree days alter^hje showed Ifimself 
to the armv, who were nevel* Satisfied wfth gazing bn Hiro, 
ilnd* 'Cii^fiiir^teiifce ie'iieH'e theJreyes \, so mtieh the'li^tness 
of the danger had Stti^jrised and'^dejfectcd therfi. * wb cares* 
S^s* were enau^ for the phySidan 1 e^^ety One embracing^ 
tern lyJth the utmost* tendeimess, Jtad' i'^'ui'{i thai^k;^ 
fte'tb^a god who had saved the p^ of jtheix'sot^i^!!^/ . 
' fieside«Hic*respect'tvhich; these peoplfe hadnatufiBy for 
t^eir kings, words can never express how greatly tiley ^- 
mrred tn& moiiarch more tK^'any otter, and UJie strong" af- 
fection they bote hi rn . They we're persuaded, that he did 
hc^ tindertake ittty thm^ but by the Immediate tCssistlmce of 
Hie gods ; and as success always attended, his. desijgp9, |iis 
rashness became glorious in kimya^d seemed to have soij^e- 
fettig iiieiijressib^ <!ivine in' it. His youth*, which one -would 
jRfete ^(ioncWded "incapJit^lfe of stieh mighty enteiprijes, .'and 
vluch however overcs^me all dijQculties, gave a tresh llierit 

<hd ft briglitcr Iiistre to his actions.' ' 'Besides, certam ad- 
vantages that generally a<« little 'regardeil, and which ytt 
fen^^age • in a \tond«rful manner the hearts of the soldiery , 
greatly augmemcd the merit of Alexander ; auch as his 
taking delist in bodily exorcises ;' his 'discovering a skill 
and excellency in theni ^ his going clothed like tlie common 
soldiers, and knowing hovr to familiar! ge himself with infe- 
riors, -without lessening his dignky j his sharing in toils and 
dangers "with the most laborious and intrepid ; qualities 
•whicU, A^hether Alexander owed them to natWe, or had ac- 
quired them by reflection, made him equaUj- beloved and re- 
spected by his" soldiers. 

l>arinj» this interval, Darius Avai on his march, fall of a 
vain' security in the infinite number of his troops, and form- 
ing a judg;raent of the two armies merely iVoni their (lisj)ar- 
Ity in that point. The plains of Assyria, in which he v,as 
encamped, gave him an opportunity of extending his horse 
as he pleased, and of taking the advantage wliich the gi-cat 
difference between the number of soldiers in each army ga\ c 
hiitr % but instead of this, he resolves to mai^h to narrow 
passes, where his cavalry and the multitude of his troo]>s« 
so fkr from doing him any servfce, would only encumber one 
another ; atid accordingly he advances towards the, cnemv, 
for whom he should have waited, and mhs visibly to his Wm 
destruction . t«f evertheless, the grandees of his court, whose 
custom it was to flatter and applaud his every action, con- 
gratulated him beforeliand on the victory he Would' soon ob- 
tain,, as if it had been cei*tain and inevitJible. There was at 
that tlrtie, in the army of Dariu&,oii€ Carldcmns an Athe- 
nian, a man of great exptrience ia war, who ^iersotinHy ha- 
ted Alexander, for having caused him to be liani^hed frorfi 
Athens, D'ai-iits, tuniit^g to this Athenian, asljcd wlictht* 
he believed htni powerful enou^^h to defeat hi« tnemr^ Caf* 
idemus, vrho had been broi^ht uf hi the bosom of liberty, 
and forgetting that he w;^s m a country of slavciy, where 
to oppose 'the inclinatioii of a printe is of the most dangtf- 
ous consequence, replied as follows ; **^Possibly,.SJi', you vrjty 
** riot be pleased With my telliftg y^" ^^^ troth'r'hi'* in easel 
** do not do It now, it will be .too late hereafter. 'Vhi^migh^ 
•'I ' ' -• • -^ - - . - - 

^t ^ 

^antty,^Whkh itf«otpt«cUgi"otts^ -tptendiil, tfeit those wJio 
"have not seen it, could rtevcr lorm&n idfca of itvi»agni|- 

♦^ai.Je*of»^beff-(<>l«iit, pt8rilUMiiM:1o«t*litturii gr«ttot» 
^'gofonti 6 Curt, >' ^ 

K 3 

114 HISTORT or AZ.UCA3U>£9. Bo^k K^^ 

*^ ccnce. Bat the soldiers who con^xise the .MacedoDisu% 
^ army^ terrible to behold^ and bristling in everv-pait w^itb 
^* amis, do not amuse themselves with such idle »ow. Tlieu; 
'< 0!i]y care is to discipline, in a regular manner* their bac- 
^ talions, and to cover themselves dose with their bucklct^s 
^ and pikes. This phalanx is a body of infiantry, which ea-> 
^ gages without flinching, and keeps so close in their raaKs, 
*'* that the soldiers and their arms form a kind of impeaetra.* 
'< ble work. In a word, every single man among them* the 
*< officei*s as well as. soldiers, are so well trained up, so at* 
*' tentive to the command of their leaders, that, whether they 
^< are to assemble under their standards, to turn to the ri^ 
*< or left, to double their ranks, and face ab^ut to the enemy 
^ on all sides, at the least signal they make every motioKfr 
^< and evolution of the art of war. But that you may be per* 
*< suaded these Macedonians are not invited hither* froon the 
^ hopes of gaining gold and silver, know, that t^is excellent 
^ dlsdpline has subsisted hitherto by the sole aid and precepts 
*^ of poverty. Arc tliey hungry I they satisfy their appetite 
^ with any kind of food. Are they veeary I they repose 
*^ themselves on the bare, mund, and in Uie day time ai^ 
^^ always upon their feet. jDo you fancy that the Thessalian 
<* cavalry, and that of Acamania and w^^tjoUa, who are all 
** armed cap-a-pee, are to be repulsed by stones hurled 
« from slings, and with sticks burned at the end T Such 
" troops as arc like thenoselves will be able to check their 
** career ; and succours mo^t be procured from their coua^ 
** try, to oppose their bravery and exi)ericnec. Send there- 
" fore tWther all the useless gold and silver which I see here, 
" and purchase formidable soldiers." f Darius was natur- 
** ally of a mild tractable disposition ; but good fcolune will 
corrupt the most happy temper. Few monarchs are reso- 
lute and courageous enough to withstand their own power» 
to repulse the flattery of the many people who are pcrper 
tually fomenting their passions, and to esteem, a man who 
loves them so well as to contradict and dispkase them, in tell- 
i ng them the genuine truth. But Darius, not having strength 
of mind sulBcient for this, gives orders for dragginjg to ex- 
ecution a man who had fled to him for protection, was at 
that time his guest, and gave him at that time the best coun^ 
sel that could have been proposed to him. However, as 
this cruel treatment could not silence Caridemus, he cried 

•Et, ne anri •rgctittque Audio eeocfi ^€t,adl)sc iUt diCHpliBi 
pauper tate tnaglQra ftctit.— Q^Curt. 

f Ecat Dario nite ic traAabilc iogeomn nifi ttiam fntti nstoram 
l>lcniQi<|ii€ fortana corriuDporcii 4^ Can. I fo%ca dw pvticle 

•9AM. :^ 

Sect. IF: vtsrnr of Aisziivufim. 119 

mldiid, nrkh hi^'usnal-freedam : ^Mr Sfttger Is at Jiatid; the 
*^ very man in oppositkm to whom I gave you counsel ; anA 
«^ he wiU soon puoish you for deqpimg it. A» 6»r you, Da« 
^ rius, in whom soTcreign power has wrooght so sudden aT 
*^ change, yoo will teach posterity, that when ofice men a* 
^' bandoa themsetves to the delusion of loituaey ^he erase* 
«' from their miods alt the seeds of ^xxlncsa.imp^nted ia 
^< them by nature*.*' Darius soon repented his having put to 
death so valuable a perscMi ; and experienced, but too late, 
the truth of all be had told him^ 

The king advanced withh^ troops towards the Euphrates. 
It was a custom long used by the Persians, never to set out 
upon a march till after son-rise, at which time the trumpet 
was sounded for that purpose from the king's tent. Qvev 
this tent wks exhibited to the view of the whole army, the 
image oi the sun set in crystal. The order they observed 
in their march was this t 

First, they carried silver altars, <» which tliere lay fire, 
called by them sacred and eternal ; and these were followed 
by the Magi, singing hymns after the manner of their coun- 
try. They were accompanied by 355 youths, agreeable to 
the number of days in a year, clothed in purplis robes. Af- 
terwards came a chariot consecrated to t Jupiter, drawa 
by white horses, and followed by a courser ef a prodtgiouf 
size, to whom they gave the name of the sun's horse ; and 
Uie equerries were dressed in white^ each having a goklei^ 
rod in his hand. 

Ten diariots, adorned with sculptures in gold and silver, 
followed after. Then marched a body of horse, composed 
of 12 nattons, whos^^nanners andciistoms were various, and 
all armed iii a diHEbrent manner. Next advanced those 
whom the Persians called the hnrnortals, amounting to 
10,00(H who surpassed the rest of the barbarians in the si^mp- 
tuousness of their apparel. They all wore gdden coHars, 
were clothed in robes of gpld tisane with surtouts, having 
sleeves to theix^ quite cowred with precious stones. 

Thirty paces from tikem, foHowed those called the king'^ 
Cousins f^ t reUtides,tothe.iiiftmber of 15,000^ || habits very 

** To ^eidea, fitiemls segiit Mtto ■ratttvft docvmcotnra crit pof- 
terii,hoitiiiiei,<ttaiie pBtmikit iarimtiM, tthm aatiVM) MiTctrs. 

t Jtt^iter was %^ miamwn to the PerilMis. ^istas Cartiot 
tKereSorf, ie all probftbUicy, calttlhs Art Nid grctteft of their g<»d^ 
by that name. 

$ Tbif was a title of dii^icy. PeSb^ a gtfSI Mmbcr ol the 
»<!*• rtUtioos wsr« ia this b9dy| i, .. > 

tlS VMVMT cff ALrxAtr&et. Book XV^ 

ibtidi rdemb&ngtlMiii «l-iirt)in«ii| wd'4«ore renatkable foir 
tfie-vam pomfwof tiieir dvcst than the g^ik^cf their arats. 

Those. cattdcfUve tdomilioti eavw alter ; l^ef caifriecK^e 
king^A €k>ak, «ttd miked beft)M Itis chariot, in yiW&i Ae 
wemed te fiit as on a high throne. ' T^us chariot vas en<^ 
fiched OD both sides with iaiages of the gods hi g^d axvd sil- 
ver ; aad fram the oiiddle of the joke, which was covered 
with jewetei rose two statues a cubit m height, the one re-r 
presenting war, the otber peace, having a golden eagle be^ 
twcen them, with wings extended, as readf to take its flight. 
. But nothing; could equal the majpificence of the king. He 
was clothed in a vest of purple, stnped with silver, and over 
it a long robe glittering all over with gold and precious 
•tones, that i*eprescnted two falcons rusliiitg from the dcuds, 
and Inking at one another. Around his waist he wore a 
t golden ginlie, after the manner of women, whence hi» 
scimitar hung, the scabbard of which flamed att with gems. 
On his head he wore a tiara or mitre, round which was a 
fillet of blue mixed with white. 

On each side of him walked 300 of his nearest relations,, 
followed by 10,0(K> pikemen, whose pikes were adotned with- 
•ilver, and tipped with goM j and lastly, 30,000 infantry, 
%ho composed the rear-^uardr These were followed by the 
king's horses, 400 in number, all which were led. 

About 100, or 130 paces from thence, came Syeigambis^ 
Darius's mother, seated on a chariot, and hxs consort <m 
another, wilh the several females attendants of both queen» 
riding on horseback. Af^terwards came 15 large chariots, itt 
^hicb were the klng'a children, and those who had the care of 
tfieir education, with a band of eamichs, who are to this day in 
^eat esteem m^th these nations. Then marched the concu' 
bines, to the number of 960^ ill tlie equipage ^ qtieenn, fol-r 
iowed try 600 mules and SOO camds; which carried the king's 
ereasure, and were guarded by a grearbody of archers. 
. After these came the wives of the crown -oilcers, and of 
the greatest loWs ef th^ court; then the sutlers, imd ser- 
vants of the *army, eeated also* in cliariots. 
. In the ' f*ar ^ere a body -of Ug^t armed troops, with 
their commanders, who closed the whole marcfr. 
' W4iuld nottbe veader^bdiM^'lhatrh&hAd^ee&.^reading 
the dcseriptieR of a<t«amaMieitt^iBbtA.t^ A^rdk cian-jirmy i 
Could he imagine that princes of the least veasoit wctM 
liave \A!^ i» Wuf^J a# to f iMofpwite irtftpDheir^Mrces^ so 
t^iitibersomefttroftnof women, ^iaocssts, <x3RcuyikeS} e^ 

• YIM; %ift )(wW# li%t (Iff icd 1 !■■ fflWi 

^tt.T. . IflSTOIlY OF ALBKASTDKir, f{f 

nuchs, and damtftict of boOi sexen ? Bot the castom nfthtf 
countiy was ream at flicient. Dariiis, hX the head of 0OO,OuO 
men, and sorrouiidecl witli thm mii^ty pomp, |»repa red for 
liimself onl)^y fancied he was greatp and iXMc in the idea he 
Had formed of himself. Yet shookl we reduce him to hn 
just proportion and hi8 personal worth, how littie would he 
appear I But heii not the only one in this way of thlukin^t 
and of whom we may {brm the same iudf^ient. Bvttkutniitf 
for us to bring the two moaarchs to blow^ 



For the clearer onderstandini; of Alexander'i march', 
and that of Daikn, and the better fixing the skuatloneCilrii 
t^xH where die second battlf was ia»ieht» we onst distin* 
gcHsh thsee straitt or passes.. fThe nrst of these ia hnae^ 
%atel^ at the descent from mount TaiHvs^ In the way ta 
the city pf TarsuS) through which, as has been already eeen, 
Alexander marched^ from Cappadocla into Cilicia. Th« 
sbcood 18 the pass of CiUcia or fbftnsLi Iradhig ^'ona OIW 
da into Syria ; and the thurd is the pass of Amanus, S9 
ealled from that i^ouatain. ; This pass, which leads hitoCi^ 
licia from As|yriai is mud^ higher .than Itie passofb^rio^ 

Alestaaderhad ^e^fKad PannaMo whlbpavt ef .the armf 
tp seize the pass ff.^yrt'a, in order .to for bitf 
jbarch. A8> for.Hitnsell^ afteir marching ffPi» Tanm, her 
arrived the next daf at Aachiala^ a -city whM Saidaaai^ 
1^09 it «aid to havj&^iitft* Hia«tqff|b.wai.stU.ti^beseen( 
m thatQity. trith? this iiisc.ription i ^ItocdaMpahie built Ab# 
«« cUial^ «nd X^r<ua In <xm My I fl» iia»HM^^,99$%'(kinkft 
"^a^rejokf^ /(fT ih^-rt^t u mdhmit^^* i rros #thaicc^ Imi 
csuoie ^ SoLSiriifh^re;h« oftrad|M(i)ilioee.ta ^^scuiapiusy' 
ia-jRatiittdew.t^0^0(MrMyo^hi»lieaith». JUesanderiiifli<' 
self headed ttie p^reyioiiy ^^ithli^M taperti fi>Hio«cd hr 
the whc^eaniyyaj^ )W tiiere^ef»i«itr4.'9»i»es ^after which 
he rotameci to .Taisiia«* Havia^ focioiaodcd .Philnhirt<» 
march, the cavalry through the-plaina of Akiaftt tgwa rd^i* 
the rifer ^yiamusylMiiiwietf «r«»it'Wilb' thfti hiftipti^. maOr 
• . .•,»,-.♦ . . '. 4 ;• 1- > *' . • /" 

* A. M. ^671— Ant, J. C. t3». 

Ala, f , <ri,4|*-A,C||lu WiiH »4 ; Mtf^>»»t^^'»^» 


hi!t Kfe gvtrd to Magarsus, wbeoc^ b^ arrii^d at MaD<5i$^ 
•Ad afterwards at Cact{iba]a< Advice had been bronj^ht 
biiki, that Darius, with hk whole army, was encamped stt 
Sodutt in Assyria, two days journey from Cilicia. There 
Alexander held a oootitit of war u|x>n that news ; when 
an his generals and ofllieets entreating him to inarch to- 
wards Darms, he teC out the next day to give him battle. 
Pamihiib had taken the little eity of Issus, add after pos- 
sessing himsdfof the pass of Syria, had left a body^ offerees 
Co secSre it. The king left the sick in Issns, inarched his 
whole army throOgh the Jiass, and encamped near the cky 
of Myriandrus, where the badness of the weather obliged 
Idm to halt. 

In tlie mean time Darius was in the plains of Assyria, q| 
grait extent. The Grecian commanders who were* in his 
service, and formed the chief strength of his army, advised 
him to waft there the obtiikigupof the enemy \ &r, b^des 
that thi» ^ot was open on all sides,* and ve)^ advantageous 
tor bii hoTM, ii#as iqwcioua enough to coDt«iii his vastly 
. muneroas host, with all the baggage and' pther Stings t)e-' 
kmgiiig to K\^ tf«nf :• Hb#e**r,4f he ihooW- not apJ>rove of 
thiscouftft^l, they then advised him to separate this inultir' 
tude.aad select such Miy Aft w6re the flower 6f his troops ; 
amf CQiraeduttit^ itol' venture hi^ whole army upon a sbgle' 
battle, ixrhichjperhaps might be decisive. Hdwev^, the 
eourth»«, with whotfrtht courts of taoftarchs, as Afran 
obft^ri^lorever abeondf-eaMed ihese Greeks an mi&j&- 
ful nation, and venal wretches \ ,an4 hinted to Darius, that 
the only' motSve^tlidr eomisdling th^ king id divide his 
troopa waa, tfaatf kfter th«y ^oikM once' be separated from 
^ti/t ratt, thcf mS^hatt aneft^er opportuhity isf deliver- 
ing up hitO'thc enauy^ bauds whatever might bi^ in thdr 
powers that tfie sa«ii^'waf wotfdtK^ tb stirft^ihd them 
with th^ whol^amiy, and eiitthem to piece?, a/ an illilstri- 
oos eicaaqyle of thse pittil^ment due to traitors. Th^ pro- 
posal waa vastly ^hoeMtuf to Dsiritts, who yhiok ntit^trally c^a ' 
^ery miM and htftftiBiMdttpb^tioh. ffe tke^fore answeii»!,> 
^^ thi^ he wa»&r fi^om ever de&igniiig to comxnft sbhofribie 
H a crime ^ that sboitld ht b« t^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ Da^6on Tj^oilld 
^^ afterwards gN« 'Ihi teft^ Credit ^ hib proihises : that i^ 
^ Mvx fibver known tlmt aperMh had been piA to death for 
*^vi»g impnid^iit co«3ftik6P ; that no itaan would ^er veti- 
<l;ture^«gi&l hii ofMiten^ if it were attehded With siidi'dan-r' 
^ ger, a du'cmnstance that i^oiild be of the most fatal c(m- 


ScCf, K\ KI8T0R.V or 41-*XAND«lv %19 

^* sequences to prioces.^* He then ttiaok.ed ^ Grebes fiof 
thei/zeal ajid .gpc4<:wUl, a^d coodcsGenicled to lay beibre 
them the' reasons which prompj^.Wm ^tp follow their 
adv^e. • 

T}>e courtiers ha4 pers3)ad,ed Daiius, tha^ Alexander'^ 
long delay in coming up with them was a proof and an effect 
of the terror ,with whi^ the approach of the Persian army 
had filled him (for they l^aid not iieard a word of bis indisr 
position) ; that fortiine, merely forthje^' saiipe^ had Ijsd Alexr 
^j}^^ into straits and naxro^ ps^saes, w)i|enos ijt would be 
impossjible for h^m to g^t .o^^ }ji case they should iail i|poi) 
hio^ immediately ) that they ought to seize {his fa«vounib]« 
opportpnity, §or fear the enemy /should fly 9 by which inemi9 
Alexander would escape them. t7p<»i this, it was resolved 
Ml council, that the army should march in search of him ; 
the gods, says an historian,* blinding the eyies of thatprihce* 
.that he might i^it^ down the pyrecipigs they ba^ prepared 
if>r bini, ajnd ther^eby make way for the destrji^ctipn of tbo 
JPersian monar.cby> 

I>ariu5 haying sent bis ;treasure, with h«s q>ofl| piiecioui 
moveables, to J^amasci^s, a city of Syi-ia, )u^r asipalfconvoy^ 
znafc^ed the main body pf l^s army towards Gilicia, and eut 
tered it by the pass of Ainatuis, which lies far above the pasf 
pes qf Syria.. His queen and mother, with the princesses his 
daiigbteT8,and the little prince bis so^, ^Uowed the army» 
according to the custom of the Persians^but wereinthe camp 
4ur^ng the battle. Wl^enhe bad advancied a little way into 
Cilicia, fron^^east westward, he turned abo^^ towards Issus, 
jiot J^nowing that Alexander was bebind ; fo^ be had been 
assured that this prince fled before hiin, '^^d was retired in 
g^at disorder into Syria ; and tbereforerQarios vasnow 
considering bpw he might best pursue him. He banbarOMsly 
put to death aU the sici^ wbo were then in the city of Issus, 
a few soldiers excepted, whom be dismissed, fiit^r making 
them vi^w ^yeiy part of his pamp, in order tbat they might 
be ^ctato^s of tl}e prodigious m^lti^de of his ^rces* These 
solcpers accordingly brought Alexaniier word or liarius-' ap- 
'prqach, which he could scarqe b^Ueve, ivog^ its great im* 
pirobabUity, jthbygh therje was notbing he diesired more earr 
nestly. But he himself was soon an eye-witness to the tr^tb 
of it, upoi) ^hic^ he b^axi U^ tbjink sei^oMsly of pv^rmg 
fajr battle. 

Ale^nder fearing, as th^^rbarjians were so |»omeroiis, 
jthayt they, woi|ld attack him in his camp, fortified it with 
4^es a!^4 p^dj^do^^ discoyeriog an iacrediblp Jby p^ 

liM HisTorr or Alex j^^^idAi. ' BooJt XK 

ffkis desire lulfilledy^iHiichwa^, to cri^gase {^ those passe^ 
wither the gods teemed to have led Darius expressly, to 
deUver him into his hands. 

And, indeed, this spot of ground, which was but wi^ 
eiwngh for a smaB Kftny to act and nkxve at liberty in, * rc^ 
4«iced, m some measure, the two armies to tai tfiuuMty . Bi' 
Hhh means the Macedonians had space ^/Mint to employ 
their whole army ; whereas the Peruaiis had not room for 
the twentieth part of theirs. 

Nevertheless Alexander, as frequency happens to the 
grc!ate^ captains, felt ?iome emotion when he saw that ^ 
was igcknf^ tohkairA alt at one blow. - The more fortune had 
favoifn«d bins hitherto, the niofc he fnow dreaded her frowns ; 
Cve moment approaching which was to determiiie iris fate. 
But, on the oQier dde^ liis oournge revived -from the refiec- 
tkm, that therewardaof his toih exceeded the dangers of 
;thcm4 and though he was mK;ertc(in with regard to the vk- 
tnrvi heat least looped ito die gloriously, and like Alexander. 
However, he did not dWulge these thppghts to any one, weU 
knowing, th&t,U{)dn4iie approach of a ha^le, a general caght 
not tb discover the least marks of sadness or perplexity : 
and tliat-the troops sliould read nothing but resolution and 
intrepidity' in the countenanoe of thelrtommander. 

Ha\'iHg madjB Ids sddiers refresh tliemselves, and oi*dered 
ibennr to be ready for the third watdi of thc4ii|^t, wluch be- 
|»tm at twelve, he went * t6 the top of a mountain, and there, 
fey torch-light, ss^^rificed, after tlie manner of his country, to 
tJie gqds of the place. As soon as the signal was given, his 
ai*my, which was ready to march and fiij^ht, being command.- 
je(\ to make greater speedy arrived by day break at tlie seve- 
ral ]x»ts assigned tljem : but now the couriers bringing word 
tliat DaHus was not abo^e SO furlongs fi'om them, the king 
caused his army to hiilt, arid- then drew It up 4n battle-array. 
Thcptfasants-fcthe greatest terror xiame also a^d acquain'tr 
ft6r JykY^n^ witjt the arrival of the enemy, which he would 
i\ot at first belie\^, imagining, as we have <rf>served, that 
Alexander fled before him, and endeavoured to ^escape. Tliis 
newi threw hie troops into the utmost confesion, who in that 
ii\irpri$e r^i to their arras with great precipitation and disr 
order.' "'•'■, • - • 

Th6 spot where the bat^e was fonght, lay near the city 
of Issus, wliicJi the mountains bouiided on onp sid^, and tli« 
«ea on the other. *rhe pltiin, that was situaited between tbc«^ 
hM\, Tt\j^ have been considel^bly bi^o^d, as the two' armies 
itncampel) in it '; -ftnd'II)efore observed,- that jiafius* wa» 

^ The ladajti used ta offer up thctr sacrifices open ipnuaenccff 


vafiitlf hnmereasi . Tlie i4rer P^uftrios ran thiviigh tlie mid^ 
^e of ihk f>lam from ike moiiiitalti to the sea, and divided 
4t verj tttear into twe^eqiial parts. The motmtaia formed ik 
hollow l&e a fjUff, the extremity of whick in a curve Um 
bounded paK of the plain/ 

Alexander drew up his army in the IbOo^ing order : he 
posted at the lesctnenitty of the i4ght wing, which stood neaf 
the monnUi^ie, the * Argyi^as^ides, coonmalided bv Nicanor ) 
then the phalanx'of Coeniis, and fd^rwards thalt of Perdicca^ 
which, terminated in the eeatre t^ the main army. On *th^ 
extr^roitf of the \eh wing he posted ^ phalanx of Ainyii* 
tas, then that of Ptolen^ ^and lastly, tiiat oC M^E^eagei*. Tirua 
the famote Macedonian phalanx was formed^ which we find 
v^as composed «f s^ ^tinct coi^s or brigades. Bath of 
these "bodies was headed by abfe gmerals ; but Alexander^ 
being alwap generalissimo^ had conseqtiently the coimnana 
t)C the wholeariny . The horse wertg placed oh the ttro wiagt f 
the^Maeiedonians^ wHh X\» Thessalihnfi, on the right, and 
, thoseof Peloponnesus, with the other allies, on the left» Cra* 
terns commanded all the foot which ecwnposed th^ Mt Wingf 
and Parmenio the whole \v1ng; Alexander had reaierved to 
himsdf the command of the ¥i|fht. Hb had desii-ed Pai*fnenld 
to kei^ as near the sea as possii^, to prevent the batlKiri* 
ans from surrounding Iwm ; and >Jic«nor, on the contrarj", 
was orderetl to keep at some distance from tlie mountains, 
to kiecp himself owt of the reath of thfe arrows discharged 
by -those who were ])osted on tlierti. He Covered the horse 
trf his right wing wkh the light hoTste of Protomachiis and 
the Pseonians, -jlfid his foot w ith the bowtnen Of Antfochns. He* 
teservcd'the t AgHans, commanded by Attalua, who wor* 
greatly esteemed, and some foi-ces that were ttewly arriA'ed 
from Greece, to oppose those Darius had posted on the 

As for Dai4tw* army^ it ^'^« dr«wn up in t^e following W* 
^er : having heard that Alexander was mal»ching ti>ward« 
him in battfe array, he commanded 30.000 hotste and 20^000 
bowM^ to cross the river PinaHtr6,'t1i^t he n^ght have an 
opportunity to draw up liis armV in a tiommodiotts manner 
X)n thetiither side. In the ceMfe he posffedthe SOj^^O^ireeks 
in his service, Who, doftbttess, %ere the fiower and chief 
strength of his army, and^w^efre not at all in^rior in bravely 
to tiie Ma^cdbrjtan jdialan^c, with vl0,^)00 Cairdticians on their 
^ignt, attd asi itMMy on llvw left t tire Iteld erf botfder n6t being - 

* tl^ti W4ik al)0^ of IntaDiVy, ^ist^Dgai^ed ky tbeft itfltar iKfcliit 
W much movHB 90 by tbch- grest bravery. 
f A^ was s oily -becwees the tnouotMltt HfcaMw wai IUiBtfo|M^' 


able t«!contam a greater number. Theae were aD heavHy annr 
lea. The rest of the infantry, distinguished by their several 
iiatiowiy were ranged behind the first M|ie. It is a pity Arrian 
(loe^ not tell ua thp deijti^ of each of Uiose two hnes ; but it 
must have been prodigious, if we copsider the extreme nar* 
rowneas pf the pass, and the amazing multitude of the Per- 
bian forces. On tlie mountam which lay to their left, against 
Alexander's right \y ing, Darius posted 2p,pp0 men, who were 
po ranged, in \hp several windings pf tl)^ mounUin, that some 
were behind Alex^er's army, and others bpfore it. 

Darius, after having s^t his army in battle array, made 
his hoi-sp cioss tlie river again, and despatched the greatest 
part of ^heni towards the sea against Pannenio, because they 
c«uld ftght OP ^hat spot with the greatest advantage : the 
rest of his cavalry he sent to tlie left, towards the mountain. 
lioweyer, finding that these wo^ld be of no sprvice on that 
^dc» beca^isf^ cf the too great narroyn)e^s of the spot, he 
caused a great part of them tp wheel abpnt to the right As 
iof himselff he took Ws post in the centre of his ariuy, pur- 
suant l^tl^e custom of ih^ Fessian m(»)archs. 

AV^xandeV) observing that most of the enemy's horse was 
to^pposp hjs left wing, whicli consisted only of tjioseof Pe- 
lopennesi)s, andi of some other allies, detaclied immediately 
^o it the Thessalian cayaUy, whiph he caused to wheel round 
behmd his battalions^ to prevent their being seenby thebar- 
barians." Qn tlje same side (the left), he posted before his 
foot, the Cretan bo\ymen, and the Thracians of Sitacles, a 
king of Thrace^ who was fioverpd by the horse. The for- 
eigners in his service were behina all the rest. 
. P^'c^iviog tliat. his right win^ did not extend s^ far as the 
left of tlie P/€»8ians# wjuch might surround an4 attack i^ "* 
flank, l>e drew from the cgntjip of his army two reginients 
of foot, which he deUched thither, with orders for them to 
niarch behind, to pi-ey^nt their being seen b}'' tl>^ ^^^^'IJvipJ 
also i*einforced tliat ving of his forces which he had ^Wf^ 
tp the baiiiaria^ia oi^the mountains ; for, seeing they did not 
come down> h^ wade ^p Agrians and some other lx>wnien 
attack them, and drive them towards the summit out ; so 
tliat he teft osly SpO horse to keep them m, and sent the r^M 
as I observed, to reinforce his right wing, which by U» 
n)eans extended farther than that of the i'ersians. 

The two armies |)eih5 thus drawn up in order ^^/f ■ 1 ' 
Alexander marched very slowly, that his soldiers ^fP^^ 
a little breatli ; so tliat it was supposed they would not ^' 
^ge 3^11 yery late : for Darius still continued "with ^^^^ 
on the other side of the river, in miier not to lose tiie adY ^^ 
till(egiis sil^atifloi ^.lu&post^ and even cau^ such ps^ 

^ebt. Fl illSTORT 6T ALLXA1«>E1I. liS 

the shore as were not craggy to be secured with pallsadoeny 
whence the Macedonians conchided tliat he was airemdy 
afraid of bein^ defeated. The two armies being eoMe in kight^ 
Alexander, n^uif along tltc ranlcs, odledi tay dieir several 
names^ the prinapal officers both of the Macedonians and 
foreigners ; and exhorted the soldiers to signati?^ tliemaelvc^ 
spealunjg; to eacli nation according to its pcctittar genius and 
di^xsitidn. To the Macedonians he represented, ^lie vic« 
** tories they had fonneriy gained m Europe ; the siill recent 
^ glory of the battle of the Gramcus ; the grettt nunt'^ 
^^ ber of cities and provinces ^hey had left bcliind them^ 
*' all which they had subdued." He added, that ^ bv one 
'^ single victory they would possess thenisch cs of the IVrsiua 
^^ empire ; and that the spoils of the east would be the re« 
<* ward of thdr bravery and toils*" The Greeks he animate 
ed, *^ by the remembrance of tlie many calamities which thn 
^ Persians, those irreconcilable enemies to Greece, had 
^ brought upon them ;" and set before them, <* the fsmour 
'^ battlies of Marathon, of Thermopyls, of Salami&t of I'latjBa^ 
^ and the many others, by which they bad acquired immor* 
*^ tal glory.'* He bid the Illyriana and Thracians, nations 
who used to subsist by plunder and rapine, ^ view the cne-i 
"^ my's army, every part of v^ich shone with gold and pur« 
^ pie, and was not loaded so much with arms as with booty. 
^ That they therefore should push forward, they who were 
*' men, and strip all those lAromen of their ornaments ; and 
" excliange their mountains, covei^ perpetually with ice 
^^ and snow, for the smiling plains and rich fields oi Persia.'* 
The moment he had ended, the whole army set up a shout^ 
and jcagerly desired to be led dn directly against tlie enemy. 
-Al^ander had advanced at first very slowly, to prevent 
the ranks, or the front of hb phalanx from breaking, and 
halted by intervals : but when he was got within bow sliot,- 
he commanded aU his right wing to plunge impetuously into 
tiie river, purposely that they might surprise tlie barbarians, 
come sooner to a close engagement, and be less exposed to 
the eneniy's arrolvit ; in all which he was ver>' successfiiU 
Both ^dcs fott^t with the utmost bravery and rc^iolution ;; 
and being now forcetl to figlit close, they charged on lx>th 
sides sword in hatid, when a dreadful slaughter ensued ; for 
they engaged roan to roan, each aiming the point'of his sword 
at the face of his opponent. Alexander, who performed the 
duty botli of a private soldier and of a commander, 
wished nothing so ardently as the glory of killing,-*^ 
with his own hand, Darius, who, being seated on a high 
chariot, was conspicuous to the whole army, and by that 
neaiis was a powerful object^ both to encourage his own sol-> 

224 visTORT OF ALEifAiirDnm. Book IK 

dierftt6clc&<Kl,atKl the enemy to attftckliim. Andnortrthe 
battle grew more funout 4uid bloody tliao before ; bo that a 
ne«t nufabeir of Persua noUemen weve killed. Each side 
mght with incredible bravery^ Oxarthesy biother to Dari- 
us, obeenring that Alexander >v«8 going le charge that mon- 
arch with the unmost ingoar, nnhed before bis charwt with 
the horse under hia conunand^ and c&stinyiirfied himself 
above aU the rest. The horses tiiat drew l>ariQs'' chariot, 
being quite covered with wonndsy b^;anto prance about, a&d 
•hook the yoke so viokutiy) thattbc^ were npon the point of 
yv eitnm iag the king) who seeing hxcnself gomg to fall alive 
ibtD the hands of hia enmiies^ leaped down, and moanted 
aaother cbarnt. 'Hie rest observing this^ fled as last as pos- 
siUc, and, thlvwing down their anDs, madk^he best of their 
way. Aleseonder h*d received a slight wound In his tlugt^ 
bat hapjMly it was not i^ttaded with ill coaaeqaeaces* 
Whitot partofihe Uaeedomaa in&ntry^ posted to the mbt^ 
WKia carrying 4Hithe'advant^esftev had gained agamst 
Hm Peisbna, the icmaiaderof them who engird tfce (keeks 
aiot with greater reaistssce. These observing tiwt-thebody 
of iafontry Hi qntslian were no longer covered 6y ^e r%ht 
wlag of Alexaftder!^aiviMry> which was parsuing the eaeaiy» 
eame sad attacked h in ftsak. The engagement wac very 
bloodyv <Ad victoiy a iang thne doi^fol. The Greeks en- 
deavoared to pu^ the Macedonians into the rivers and to 
teoeverthe murder into whioh the. left wing had been 
thffcwfi. The Maoedoiuaas idso^gnaUaed thenosdves with 
Hm ataiost brwverv, ia order (o preserve the advaatage Alex- 
aadet had jtJst be£»re gainedyand siq)port the honour ef their 
phalaaxy. which had always been considered as invfaicible. 
There- was also* a perpetual jealoaay between these twons' 
ti«ins, the Greeks and Macedpniansy which greatly increase 
ed their eoarage, and made the resistance ca each side veiy 
vigorous. On Aleaamder^ side, Ptolemy the sod of Seleucos 
lost his life, with 120 more considerable oC^xrsy who all ba^ 
behaved with the utmost gallantry. 

In the mean time the right wing, which vraa victorious 
under its monarch, after defeating all who opposed it, wheel* 
cd to the left aganwt those. Greeks who were lighting with 
the rest of the Macedotiian phalanx, whom they ohifged vwy 
tigoreu^ ;* and attacking tliem in flank, entirfe^ roateif 
them. - . - ' • • ' 

. At the Tcry beginnuig o£ the engagement the Pcrsiati cav- 
alry which was on the rigl^ wmg, without waiting ibr thc^ 
being atUcked by tlve Macedonians, had crossed die rivet, 
and nishod upon the Thcssalian hoi*sc, severid of "whose 
squadsaat wercbrokefay it. Upon tiii»thereQuuBdirof^ 

lafctei*) ktinkrtoftiioid the u)r^)e|uo»i^ <tf the first charge, 
d,nd obhge the Persian^ to breeJc ^eh* ranksy made a ieiut of 
-retiring, as if terrri^ed by the prodigious numbei-s of the en* 
emy. The Persiims teeiog: this, were fiUed with b(»ldiiess 
and confidence ; and thereupon the greatest \^y% of thrni, 
ifcdvancing wHhsut oHlef cnr preea,ittion, as tp » certain vic- 
t:ory, had no thpughts batof ^rsuingtlyc enemy. Uj^on this^ 
the TheasaUans seeing them in vuch^con^sien, faoed abopt 
on a^sudden, and renewed tiie fight with Ci-esh ardour. The 
Persians loade a tMave defenice, till they saw Darius put to 
Hight, and the Greeks cut to pieces by the phalanlft^ 

The routing of tlie Perwn cavalry completed the defeat 
i)f the army. The Pei^an hot^se sufered very much in ihp 
retreat, from the grc^^ weight of the arms of their ridei*s ; 
not to metftion, that. as th^j.rtti^d in disorder, and crowd- 
ed in great numbers- tin-ough passes, they bruised and un- 
horsed one another, and wei'e more araio>'e<l by their owh 
soldiers than by the^nemy. . Be^des, the Thessaiian caval- 
ry pursued them with so much fury, that iJiey were as much 

* shattered as the infemtry, and kwt as many men. • 

With regard to Dariu8, as we before observed, the instant 
he saw his left wing broke, he was one of the first who fied 
in Ms chariot ; but getting aftprwards into craggy rugged 
places, he mounted on horseback;, throw)i)g down h»s bow, 
^J^ ;d, and roynl mantle. Alexander, however, did not at- 
tempt to pursue him, tijl he saw his phalanx had comiuered 
the Greeks, and the Persian hoi-se put to flight j which was 

, of great advantage to the prince that fied. 

About 8000 of the Greeks that were in Darius'- service, 
-with theif" officers at their head, who were yery brave^ re- 
tired over the mountains towards Tripoli in Syria, where, 
Aiding the transports which had brought them from Lesbos 

' t^on dry giound, tiiey fitted out as many of th^m as sjuitrd 
their.purpose, and binned the rest, <o prevent, their beifig 

. pursued. ^ • • ' « 

As for the . barbarians, having exertted themselves with 

. bravery enough in the^fii'st attack, tliey afterward* gave ¥^y 

- inr the most ^ameful manner ; and being intent upon nothing 
but saving themselves, they took different ways. Some 
struck into the high road^which led directly .toPersia ; others 
ran mto woods and lonety mouirtair^ ; and a small number 
returned to their camp, wliich the victorious enemy had al- 
.*eady taKea^andplutidereifl. ' » ' - : :.' • 
• Sysigambis, ■ Darius' anodier, > and that monarch's ^leen, 
2who ate» waff his Vister, remained in it, with two ofthe kittg's 

* *fla»ghters^ a -son cff his^ vstxltild, and some • Persiflan^ladJts ; 
tor the rest had beeajcartiei \o Daoiiascasf witU parVflf Da- 

L 2 

inns* ti^aiitre, aiid«ll fUdi^iiigsMMHtribiited enif to &« 
loxuiy and faagnlficence of his eosrt. No mors thin aooo* 
MefitB irete fband Wi hiBCuip; but tiie inett of tlie tneasart 
fell afterwards into the handft of Fte«eiM) «l hli taftiuie the 
dtjr «f Damascus. 

f AlexaBder, wcarf of pitrMiiS;I>mi]Sy aaemg nigbt d«aw 
en, Mid thatH wooid be imixiBiiNafcr him %»t)vetia]de that 
laonaifeh, retnmed to the enemjr'hcaaap, irbkli k$i adkiiei» 
had just before phnidered. Socb wa»^e cud af thla3Mn«> 
orable battle, fought the fourth yaar «f AlexaiMllr'a reigiu 
The PeNiaiwt, either fn the e ng a ga m ent or Uiu rout, kat a 
great nutther of thdr forces, both hwrse and Ibot ;; but wry 
fe^ tirere kilted on Alexander^ sidei 

That irery evwihg ha invited the irandees ef his^ourt, 
and his chief alicers, toa ftast, at liiiicli lie hWnsetf was 
preie&t, nolwithatandiug the vound he had r«oei««d, it bar- 
ing onljr mused the akin. Batthef werenoaaaner Eetdavm 
at tablt, Btan thev heard from a neighbouring teat, a great 
noise, totermked with groans, which fHg&ted all the com- 

Sany ^ insomiidh that ttkt aoldiers, who were won guard 
sfoff^ tlie kingf a tent, ran to tfteir ariYw, being afraid of an 
itiMirrectkm. But it was Ibund, that the persona who anade 
tliia clamour were the mother and wife ^ Darhts, and the 
rest of the capelye ladies^ Who suppoaing that prkiOe dead, 
bewailed his loas, according to Ihecuatom^of the harhachuiif 
^widh dreadful cries andkowlinga. An emiudi who had ieea 
Darhis* cloak m the handa of a soldier, MagkMng be had 
killed lum, and cfterwarda atrij^d him of Ihat gareaeat, 
^ad'canied them thait false accoaat. 

We are told that Alexander, upon bdngtoM thie reaaonfof 
Ibis false alarm, could not refMn from tean, wfieu hecoD' 
aidered the sad calamity of Darius, and the tender dispoii- 
tion of ^ose princesses^ whom his misfbrumes cfilf tfibctad* 
He thereu|»oa sent Leohatufi^ cue of lOa chief courtiars, to 
assure them, that the man whose death they bewared was 
alive^ Icooatus, taking some adidiers-wflii lumycaadt tothe 
tent of the pnncaases, and aunt wordthat fat was caite to 
Ipay tbeflEi a visit ift the Idng's name. The peradua who were 

at the enlranoa of the tent, seeing ft baad <» armed <nen, iin- 
aginedthatth^mistresMs were undone; eadaccerdjaglf 
ran kito the t«a^ tayii^ ak»d, thatiieblaat heurwaacooe^ 

• About 440,0001. tterliag. f A,M. H^m, Ant. J. C $if- 
• t Acdordiav ^ QSlDtat Cavdaa aad Afriaa* the Pcniad^ /*" 
< 100.006 -fool, aadtQ,ooohorw. AiMlthirlaauMr hi«ariaaaiei<^ 
Aat eo aifoar than yyo hfnrae»aed joo tiBBi, ifai al oal ee Ai > r* «^ 
jida, which daaa flpticau fciy f f M H ^ 

4^r/^ K^ \ vtfTwv w ^hftMAUM^M^ yxr 

1|ifl9^ pwo ^wt at ^ bHuf i|ci?ed wtt|i the ttUs)o%t dUtrftaion, 

thr or^n'of tliocoii%ii«rqr*. A^UwS I^vmaUM^b^^TO suu4 
% long tioiey mMi 96«uig po «p^ appear^ left bi« soldsn •! 
tibe 4oof ^ ^ c^me inta tfcf tt«t : b^ their tm^x iacttufii 
vHefi %\wy MW a vMfL oi^e? amoi^.tk^fa .wirh9(t l^eiw i9» 
ti0^bioed» They il>are<ip«ii tbrew tbamwlT^ at bi» feet^ 
mA eixtre%te€^ that <^ before |ie pi|t th^n to death, thtf 
«( n^i|^ be aU^wed tebnty Pgp^saftev |he manper^f their 
^^ GQUiitiyy and that when the/ had paid th» k;st dxity to their 
*' l^i^S^f they ah^yld (Me contented." J^onaais ^weiedv 
<«• Ui4t Parius wa^ Iwrng : ami that 99 far ft^v^ giTHig them 
^ aay gfience, they shoula be treated as qneens, and live ip 
«^ thiihr liHliwr spletidoar*" %ftigaiDbi% h^arinig th^ b^;ui 
|o fvoo^r her ${Mrit^ aad permitted («^09Mkt|ii togireh^r 
hui hapd ^ raise har irom thf grouad. 

The next daf Ak^Muien after i^isitbg iha wauidcd, 
fiavseid ^a last hDamirs to be paid to the dea^, iitpraseiKe 
^ the whole army, drawq up m the jnp^ splendicl order ef 
bsittlcb He. treated the Persians of distinQUop ip the sane 
laaaa^ <9»d pera^tted i^Hiis' mother to b^iry whatcrvcr 
. perions Mie pitied, tccordipg to the c^8toma aad cerano* 
, sites uraptisedjn her ^onmtvy* flowaver,th» pmde^ prio« 
. «€«! i}sed.thA( periwslo^ jo nsgird oaly tp a few who were 
iMor oear r^tioast ^ that with aach a iDodestyuid 
as jihe thqught ssited her present coodjttoD. The. klne tes- 
tified his joy aod^ratitiidetp the wbol^armyf espeeia^y. to 
the chief inlcert, whose actii^ he applauded in the strong- 
f)S|lflm% as weU those of which be jhi^iVB^^^ ^^ ^>^eii aa 
. ci'o-witftesS) as s^ch M had been oaly related to hini $ and 
ke made presents to aU, ac^x»rding to their merit and station. 
Aftee Akioaad^ had performed these several doties, trti- 
. 2y iporthy a'(p:eata9t)iiiiirch|lieseiitamess£tt;etothe9ueeb^ 
to mtom thera that he waa cpmuig to pay th^ra a visit; and 
t^cerdingly, csnfOM^diufi sil his train to withdraw, he ep- 
a^icisd the tent, a^cempaoied only by Hephsftion. He waa Ipa 
l^fsQontc^ ; aod^tbey had heeabrou^t up together, the 
. Icing v^ealed tus secrets to him, and 00 body else daregi to 
i^ak ao freely to him* ; but even Hephaestion made so caa« 
^tewsand discreet an u«e of th^ liberty, Uiat he seepaad to 
take it not so much out of inclination, as from a de^iie 4o 
.. iheyitheMet^"^ would hayeit^sp^ Tt»^ ver^ of the m^e 

* iibcrta^ ^o^M hi ee s^sMeeedo hod a^||| ja^hsbcM i iftpd 

rMP irs ampib^« fit mMn$ » uwi fvwmm «psa tiadi^w^ 
sevidcrttat. ^;l$iirf. 

fiff* HtStORY ot" kLtxA)iveti, ^ Boih XV. 

age, biit H.eiphzs^on was taller^ sd that th€ qtieais took him 
at first for tke king, and paid him their respects as such : 
but some captive cilnuchs showing them Alexander^ Sysi- 
gambfe fell prostrate btefore him, and begged hit pafdon ; 
Seehiring, that as she h^d never seen him, she hoped that 
consideration 'woifld plead hfer apolog^'. The khig raising 
her froirt the ground^ ** dear motlier,*' said he, ** you arfenot 
** mistaken, for he also Is an Alexander* :'* A fine expres- 
sion, which does honour to both, ! Had Alexander always 
thought and acted in this manner, he would justly have mer- 
ited the title of great ; but fortune had not coirupted his 
tjoul.t He bore her at first with moderation and wisdom ; 
but at last she overpowered him, and he became unable w 
*resist her. 

Sysigambis, strongly affected with these testimonies of 
goodness and humanity, could not fofbear testifying her gra^ 
Itude upon tjiat account J " Great prince," said she to hi'mj 
*' what words shall I find to express my thanks, in such a 
.** manner as may answer your generosity ! you caD' me yoi* 
" mother, and honour me still with the title of qUeen, whcre- 
*' as I confess myslf your captive. X 1 know what I have 
"been, and what I now am. I know the whole extent of 
**' my past grandeur, and find I can support all the weight 
" of itiy pi*esent ill fortune. But it will be glorious foryoviy 
*< as you now have attabsolutfe power over us, to make «s 
** feel it by your cleftiency only, and not by ffl treatment.'^ 

The king after comforting' the prhicesseSf took Darius* 
son in his arms. This little child witlwift discovering the 
" least terror, embraced Alexander, who being affected with 
his confidence, and turning about to Hephxstion, said to hifn 
*' t) that Darius had had some portion of this tender dispoa- 

It is certain that Darins, in the beginning of his reign, be- 
haved in such a manner, that he surpassed in clemency and 
goodness all the kings his predecessors, and wais superior to 
' a passion which conquers and enslaves the strongest^ Da- 
rius* consort was the most lovely princess in the world, as 
he himself was the most beautiful of princes, and of a very 
tall and most majestic shape ; and the princesses theirdaugh- 

* O doonm inclyta vocis, danti pariter at^oe accipkiiti ipecioisiD! 
Val. Max, I, tv, c, 7, 

f Sed uoD'daitf fortuna se aaimo ejus infbderat. Ita^ue oriefltAn 
earn moderate et prudenter tulit ; ad tthimum inagQitudioeo^ eju» 
00a cepit. Q^Curt. 

t fit praBtcfhae fortunoc fastigiiim capio, ct praescntia jugutti p^ 
posfium, Q^CttTt. 

'ters7re8eiiib3eA.lheitt Hiey were, aaft Pitttaivh, ib Alex* 
AftdierS campi not «s in tbadt of ao eneo^^ but fts in a aaered 
tempk) afid a aanctuavy assigned for the assylum of chatti* 
t3ri in which «U the priaceaees lived co retired dot thef were 
not seea by any- pcrsoiii nor did any one dare to i^prooch 
their apartments. 

>Ve ev«a find^ that after the lint vitit above nueDlioned^ 
-which w&» a respectful and ceremoniDitt one, Alexandert tie 
avoid exposiQg himself to the datigers of Iranian frailty^ toolt' 
a solemn resolution never to visit Darius' queen any more** 
He himself informs us of this memorable circnmstance in a 
let^er^ wrote by him to Parmenio^ in which be conmanded 
ham to put to death certam Macedonians, who had fercsd 
4lie wives of some foresga soldiers. In this letter ti» follow* 
sog words were read : ** For, as to niysd£ it will be ibnnd 
ii that I neither saw^ nor wxadd aee^ the wife of Darins ; and 
^ dM not suffer any person to speak of her beauty before ne.*' 
W« are. Xo renaeniber th«t Alexander was ynong, victDn* 
ous,and freie, that is^ net ^enga^ed m roa rringe^ as has been 
fteervedxif the first Scinio on a Hhe occattont. ^ £t juve* 
lus^etco^iebset-vii^r, ■ 

. To Goticlbde^ he treated, these princesses wldi mieh. htti*^ 
UAnity^, that nothis^ but the remembmroe Aat they were 
;oi^tves coi^d i^ave made them sensible of Aeir cabunSty % 
ftBd of ell the advantages they possessed before; nothing was 
.wafting With regard to Alesunder, but that tru^ an^ axA*' 
iiencQ, which no one.caivTepose hi an eaemy^ how klndlf to^ 
«Yer he.b^ves^ . . •:-...•••; 

. ;. , SECTION. VI.^ 

jtUKii;^KDii;m marches viCToniotis n^o stma.-^lats' 


Ai«sxAy nEB t set oat towards Syrk, aftier Itavin^ cinse# 
crated three Altars oa the river Pinawus^ the trm lo^lupitarv 
^ se€x>nd to Herci:aes, and the third to Minerm^ as 40 ma* 
1^ monaments of his victory. He ha4 sent PaisnwnJo 4o Bet 
mascns, in which ParkK" treasure was deposited. The ^yf* 
rmof of the city>'betrayinghis s<iverc«g»^^fconi ^i^om he had 
no twr^esp expeciatione, wrote to AJ^xander to aeqvabit Hiei 
thathe was readf to df^ver tq;>, iato-hi^ hand^idl the lreaa» 

• Plat, in Alea; t V*!* M«» l» «v. e, J, 

t Dipd. t. xvii. f. 5^7* S^^ Arrisn. I. Jl. p. t^^t^ Flat l» 

Mac ^ut.CM«l;i%«rt« jwOB^Jk^^^^x^ 

ISO msroEY OF ALixAKBEft; &d^3rr. 

lire Jind other rich stores of Darius. But bdng desmnis of 
toTering bis treasoci with a specious pretext, he pretended 
that he was not secure in the city; so caused by day breaks 
aU the money and the richest things in iit to be put on men's 
backs and fled away with the whole^ seemingly with inten- 
tion to secure them, but in reality to deliver them up to the 
enemy, as he had agreed witli Parmenio, Who had opened 
the letter addressed to the king; At th^ first sight of the 
forces which this general headed^ iho%t who carried the 
burdens, being fritted, tlirew them down and fled away, 
as did the soldiers who contoyed them, and the governor 
himself, who was most terrified. On this occasion immense 
tichei were seen scattered up and down tlie fields ; all the 

Sold and silver designed to pay so great an army ; the splen- 
id equipages of so many great lords and ladies : the gold- 
en vases and bridles, magnificent tents, and carriages a* 
kbandoned by their drivers ; in a word, whatever the long 
prosperity and frugality of so many kings had amassed dur- 
mg many ages, was abandoned to the conqueror. ' , 

But the most moving part ofthis sad scene was to sM the | 
wives of the satraps and grandees of Persia, most of whofli | 
dragged their little children after them ; so much the great* | 
er objects of compassion, as they were less sensible of their i 
miaCcnrtune. Among these, were three young princesses, | 
daughters of Ochus, who had reigned before Darius.; the | 
¥ridow of this Ochus ; the daughter of Oxathres, brother of 
IDarius ; the wife of Artabazus, the greatest lord of the 
court, and his son Ilioneus. There also were taken prison* 
ers, the wiffe and son of Phamabazus, Svhom tlie king had 
appointed admiral of all-the coasts ; three daughters of 
Mentor ; the. wife and son of Memnon, the illustrious gene- 
ral ; insomuch that soiree one noble &mily in all Persia but 
shared in this calamity, 

iTiere also Wet-'e found in Damascus the ambassadors of 
the Grecian cities, particularly those of Lacedemoh and A- 
tiiens, whom Darius thought he had lodged in a safe asjlian, 
when he put them under the protection of that traitor. 

Besides money, and plate which was after vfrards coinedj 
and amounted to immense sUtns, 30,000 men, and 7000bessti 
laden wkh baggage, were taken. We ind by Parmenio'S 
letter • to Alexandet, that he found m Damascus 329 of Da- 
rius ' conctibines, all admirably well skilled in music ; snd 
also a multitude of officers, vrhose business was to i-egulat* 
and prepare every thing relating to entertainments ; such as 
to make wreaths, to prepare perfumes and essences, to dress 

• • Atben.l.'tftu.p. do;,- 

6§Ct, VX BXS^ORir OF AL£ZAND£A« 1%\ 

jviands, to m^ke pi^^ smd aU thirgs in th/e pastry way, to 
preside over the winercellars, to give out the wiive,andaii^ 
Xike. There was 492 of these officers— a train wo|:thy of a 
prince who runs to his destruction ! 

Darius, who a few h<^i*s before was at the h^a4 of so 
jnighty and splendid an army, and who came into th^ jBekl 
mounted on a chariot, with the pride of a conqujeror rather 
than with the equipaee of a warrior, was filing ovpr plains, 
■which, from being befor,e covered with the mfinite multitude 
f>i his forces, new appeared ljk,e a df^sert or vast solitude, 
^his ill-fate4 prince rode swiftly the whole night, accompar 
Bied by a vjery fjew attendants ; for all had not taken the 
satne road, and most of those who accompanied him could 
itot keep up with him, as he often ch^ged his horses, At 
}ast he arrived at f Sochus, where he assembled the remains 
of his army, which amounted only to 4000 m.en, including 
. Persians as well as fore>gn.ers ; and from hence he made all 
possible haste to f hap^acus, in order to Jiavc the ^pphrates 
between him and Alexander. 

In the mean time, Parmenio having carrijed al) the booty 
into Damascus, the king commanded him to take care of it, 
^nd likewise of tiie captives. Most of the cities of Sy?ia sur^ 
Tendered aJt tlje first approaches of thfc conqueror* Being 
arrived at IVf arathes, he ^c^ivipd a letter £i\)m par|us,.in 
-yvhich he styled himself king, williout bestowing tliat titlQ on 
Alexander. Hp con)inapd.ed, rather than intreated him, 
** to ask any sijm of money he shp^ld think proppr by way of 
** ransom for his mother, his wjfe, and phijdren. That with 
•* regard to their dispute for empire, he might, if he thought 
** proper,decide it in one general battle, to which both parties 
« shoi^ld brijBg an equal number of troops f but that in case 
" he wore still capable of good council, he woiild ad!\ise him 
y to rfst <po!).teniBd ^ith the kingilom of lijs anpcstors, and 
^<AOt invade tjiat of anotl^/er ; that they should l)enpeforward 
4 live as good friendjs an.d raitbful allies ; that he hin^sclf 
** was ready to s>year to the obsprvance't)f these articles, and 
^ to receive AlpxanderJs oath. 

This letter, ^hipb breatlied so unseasonable a pride and 
]^aughtiness, exceedingly offended Alexander. He therefore, 
yrotc the follo^g answer : "Alexander tjie king to Da- 
** rius. Tde ancient P^rius, wl>o«c name you asspme^. in. 
f^ former times entirely ruined the Greeks who inhabit the 
<5 coasts of th)? HeUe^x)nt, af)d tlie lonlans, our ancient cdo«« 
<f nies. He next crossed the the head of .a powerful 

* f This city wai two sr three dsy« jburiiey froo) i\kt place where 
ihe batdf was foogbu 

** attRf , ind caiTM the v«r into (He veiyli^rf of 'Maiceflo* 
*<ftta ttnd G rc c e e . After hita, Xences made aiitotlieir de» 
^ Kent ^vM « tlreadM nvmber of barbarifins) In erder to 
** fi^ht lis : and having been overcome in a nava} engage- 
<* TTieiit, he left, at his rettrtng, Mardooius in' Greece, who 
''pkiiidered our cities, and laid \¥asle oar plaihs. Btit v^o 
^4iae net heard, Uiat PhiHp, my lather, -wbb assassinated bf 
«* ^vretches suborned thereto by your partisans, in hopes of a 
«• great reward t For it is customary with the Persians to 
** undettadke impious wars^ and, when armed in the field, t^ 
^' set a price «poh "the heads tif their enemies. And evea 
«*you fom»«H, though at the head of a vast ar!riy,howei'ef 
^* preibised a thoctsahd tah*nts to <any perscm who should kitt 
*• mci I tlterefore only defend myself, and consequently arti 
**iwethc aggresfsor. And indeed the gods, who always dc* 
1^ darts for the just Causs^ have &^oured my ariiis ; and, 
«' aided by their protection, I b^ve sobjetted a great part of 
•* Asb, and defeated you, Dariua, in a pitehed battle. How* 
** ever, thpugh I ought not to grant any req?iest you make^ 
« since you have not acted fairly « this War j'tieverth^css* 
^* in case jrou -\Vlll appear befoi'e me in a supplicating; gos« 
« tm*©, I give yoii my "^ord tliat I w!u restore to you, with* 
<« oitt any ransoitt, yoixt mother, your wife and chSdrcn, 
<» I yiQ, let you see, thtt ? know how to coiiQUer, and to o* 
•* bilge <hfe conqtiet^d** !f you are afhud of surrendering 
♦• j'-ourseif to me,' I now assure you. Upon ro^ honour, that 
« you may do it wit!>out the least dangei- : Bulremember> 
^ when you next write to me, that yott write not oiily to 4 
^ king, but t9 yoUr king,** TherslppUs was ordered to cany 
tins, letter. 

Alexandef i maftMrift From ttience tntb Phtetiicia, the cit« 
feens of Byblos opened their gates, to him., ivery one sob* 
knitted as he advanced* blrt no people did this Vlth greater 
pleasure than the Sidahlaiis. AVfe have seeti in Whatman* 
her Ochus had desttxjyed Aeil* city 1« yi!ars tefdrc, and 
p\it all the inhabitanls of it to the sword. After lie was rcj 
tume<l into Persia, those of tlie citizen^ who, upon accoipw 
Tdf their frafJic, or ibr some odiert^aUse, had been absent* 
arid by that means had escaped the malssaci-e, returned 
thither, Atid rebttilt their City. But thev had i^etaifted sd 
violent a hatred of the Petaans, that tHcy were ovcrfoved 
)&t tids opDOi4Unit>' to throw off theiV yoke '; and ind^fed they. 
were the first m ^at countiywho sibmttted to the kmghy 
*tk«r deptities, m otaosition to Btfato their king, who had 
decUki*ed m fi^voUi* cit tiarius. . Alexander detlux>ued hii% 

*St %tiieet«tetct)iifiilcre%iAkiei#. i^Xvft 

.-5"^^/. VI. RJ«T01T OF ALF.XAKDr.R ].|^ 

and permitted Heplhrstion-io elect in bin ^ead .vlioniviever 
. 'OftheSidonian9,hc sliould nidge worthy of k* ex«lied a^A- 

This favourite wns (2uartered at the hoiuie nf two broth- 
ers, who were yonng, and of the most considerable laniil)* 
in djc city. 'Jio tbcsc he offered thccroHa : lait tliey i«- 
luacd it, 'telling him, tha;t, acooitfing to the lawa of Uicir 
rcmintry^ 410 ]M;rMin cc^uUl a«cend the throne, tmlvu he were 
.<]f the blood royaU Hephx!>tion admiring^ thin grtstt nri4 of 
soul, which could contemn what othem Mrive tn<4>t..iii liy 
Are and sword : **Continuc," iia>s he to them, **iii thi^uav 
•^of thinkhig ; you, wlio liefbre were nenHibic tli:.t it in hum h 
*' more glotiows to refuse a diadefH, than to accept it. Mtm. 
"ever, pamc me seme person of the rmal ^amiJy, who may 
•"remember, when lie -is king, that it waskyotfiicit tlR'-rrowii 
.**iipon his head.'* llic bix)t)>en*,<ib«t<V]iM* that set^rraU 
through exceshive ambition, anpired to thin \\x^\ Ktatimi, and 
»to obtain H p^id a servile court to Alexander's hi%'ouriu*s 
declared, that the}* did not know any person more wortli> 
^of the diadem tlian one .VbdoUmymus, oesicended, tJtouj'h at 
a great distance, from the royal Imc ; hut wlio, at the samr 
,4ime, was so poor, that he was obliged to get bin bread by 
jfSoLy labour m a g^den without tlie cit)\ ;HLh honesty and 
integrity 4iad reduced him, as wtrll as^Lanv more, to so ex^ 
treme po\'erty. Solely Intent 4ipnn his laliuir, he did aol 
;liear tlie clasliing of the arms which had shaken all A Ma. 

Immediately the two brothers went in search of AUlolo- 
;.nymus With the toyal garmenta, and fouad him weeding his 
£;arden. They then saluted him Ittng ; amlone of them ad- 
.xiressed him thus : «You must now change ycur tatters for 
'x the dress I have brougltt yon. I*ut off the'mean and ani- 
^^ temptible habit in which you ha^e grown 4ikl ; » assume the 
«* sentiments of a prince ; btit when jron aw «eated on the 
•* throne, continue to presen-e the virtne which made you 
** worthy jof it. And >^en )*ou sliulliiave asceoded it, and 
*<*'by that means l>ecome the supreme dfs]M:n»er of life and 
** death over atl your citizens, be ^urc never to foi*gct the 
.*' condition in which, or ratlicr for which, you was elected." 
Abdolonymus looked upon the whole as a dieam, and, una- 
ble to guess the meaning of it, asked if they were not ashamed 
to ridicule Irim tn that manner. But, as he made greater 
resistance ilian suited their inclinations, they tlienisehcs 

* Cspe cegis ^oinstiai, et hi e atti fortunam, qaa dlfniii ei, iiam 
^oottoeotlsai profrr- Bt, cam is regsli folio rc0«4ebi«, virae nerifr 
'jque euioiaai riviom dooinat, csve obUvtfcsf it l.ajot ftatnf |{) ouo 
^ll^xtpis regmuB, ioio kcrcalc, propter ^vMif Qsfiai. Cart* 



wa^ed hiniy and threw over his Moulder? a purple robe, 
richly embroidered with goTd \ then, after repeated oaths of 
their being ineamesty they conducted him to the pakice. 

The news of thb was immediately spread over the., whole 
city. Most of the inhabitants wer.e overjoyed, at it| but 
«Qihe murmured, esp«cialty the rich, who despising Abddo- 
nymus's former abject state, could Jiotiorbe^r showing their 
resentments i^n that t^tssA in the king^s court. Alex- 
ander commanded the new-elected prince to be sent for • 
and, aftersurv^ing lnim attentivibiy a long t|ipe» spoke thusi 
^< Thy t air and mien do not contradict what' i» related' of 
*' thy extraction ; but I should be glad to know with wh^t 
" frame of nind thou didst bear thy poverty.*' — ^** Would 
to the gods,' rcplved he^ **tl>at I may bear this crowij with 
e<iual p^ttience. These hands have procured me &U I de- 
sired ; and whilst I possessed nothing, I wanted nothing*'' 
This laaswer gaye Altxaiider an high idea of Al>dolcnvmus*« 
>\ii*t^e ^ 90 tl^t he presented him not only with all the rick 
furniture^'which had belon^e4 to Strato, and part of the 
Persian plunder, but likewise annexed o»e of. the neiglibour* 
ingprovmcet to hbdoroiniont. 

* Syria and'FhJQ^nlcia were already. subdued by the Mace- 
donians, the city of Tyre excepted. This city was jusUy^ 
entitled the Queeii ol '^he Sea, that element bringing to it the 
tribute of all li^tiOQs. She boasted Ker ha>ang first invented 
navigation, and tatfght mankind the art of braving the wind 
and waves by the assistance of a frail bark. The happy 
jsituatioB of Tyre, the conveniency and extent of its ports^ 
the character oflts inhabitants, who were industrious, labor «» 
ious, patient, and extremely court^us to strangers, invite<l 
thither merchants from all parts of the globe ; so tjiat it 
.might be considered,* not so nauch as a city belonging to any 
particular nation, as the comixion city of isill t>ationS| and the 
centre of their commerce. 

Upon Alexandet's advancing towiird3 it, the Tjrrians sent 
him an embassy with presents for himself, and ren^shments 
^r his army. They were willing to have ,him for their 
friend, but not for their master \ so that when he discovered 

t Carports, tD^ic, habitus, i^mx, generU noo repiigost. Sed 1i)>ct 
' fcire, Inopian qni paticntit niWris. Tbm lU^: acinstn, ifiquir,* eo^ 
d«m antmo rcgnum \ pati poifin ! H» naoss (bffecere defidccio 
leeb. Nihil hslKQti.iubUdcfait.Q^ Cart. 

tT1iethotigbe!sbeaDtif«Undji«ft. H^ conCden tlje regal p«wer 

as 1 burden more difSoiU to be borne than povcrtf .; regonm pad.** 

' • Died. I V9\l p. 5i«, 525— ABiian, 1, ii, p. 8 .— 100.' flwl. i» 

y^kl.p. 678,67^. Q;.C«rt. 1. iv. C. ^, 3i 4« Jwftioth !*• ^- ?P- 


jl desire of entering their city, in order to offer a sacrifice 
to Hercules, its tutelar ^, ^ey refused him admission. Hut 
this cosqueror, after gaming so many victories, had too high 
ai! heart to put up such an affi*ont, and thereupon was re- 
solved to force them to it by a aege, which tliey, on the 
other side, were determined to siistam with the utmost vi- 
gour. The spring was now coming on. Tyrfc was at that 
time seated in an island of the sea, about a quarter of a f 
league from the continent. It was btnTounded with a strong 
wall 150 feet high, which the wavei of the sea washed ; and 
the Carthaginians, a tc^ony from Tyre, a mighty people, 
ttnd sovereigns of the oceaii, whose ambassadors were at 
that time in the city offering to HercUlcs, according to au- 
tieat custofn, an anntial sacrifice, had engaged tliemselvts 
to succour the Tyrians. It was this made them so haughty. 
Firmly determined not to surrender, thev fix machines on 
^e ramparts and on the towers, arm their young men, And 
Duild workhouses for the artificers, of whom there were 
great numbers in the city ; so that every part resounded 
Itrithtile At^se of warlike preparations. They likewise cast 
iron gi^pples, ix3 throw On the enemy's works, and tear them 
away ; a.s also cramp irons, ahd such Uk^ instruments, in- 
dented ©or the defence of cities. 

Alexander imagined that there were essential reasons 
^hy he should possess himself of Tyre. He was sensible 
that he could not itivadc Egyt easily, 56 long as the Per- 
sians should be maisters of the sea ; nor jjursue Darius 
With safety, in tasc he should leave behind him so large an 
ex;tcnt pf country, the inhabitants of Svhich were either en- 
ifeifties, or suspected . to oe so. He likewise was afraid, least 
some insnrrcction should break out in Greece; and that 
Ws enemies, after having rfctaken in his absence the mari- 
time cities Of Asia Minor, and increased theii* fleet, would 
ihake his conntry the seat of war, dnring his bein^ em- 
ployed in pursuing Darius in the plains of Babylon^ These 
ipprehensions wci*e tKe more ftiBtly grounded, as the Lacc- 
damonians had dci^lared openfy aeainst Irim, and the Athe- 
nians sided with tiim -more out 01 fear tlian aflfcctfon. Btit, 
that in case he ihoultl, conquer Tyre, all Phoenicia being 
then subject to him, he would be able to dispossess the Per- 
Mans of Kalf ^eir naval anny, which consisted of the fleet 
t»F that province, and would soon ntiake himself master of the 
island of Cyprus and of Egypt, which co ild not resist him 
the ini^tant he Was become master a;t sea, ^ 

ttitiie other side, one would tyive' imagined that, accord- 
ing to all the rules of ^ar, Alex^der, after the battle of Is- 
f Few furlongt, . 

106 filSTORV Off ALEXANDER. Aook Xf^ 

sns, ought to ba\'e ^rsued Dariiis vigorouftly, and ncithei?^ 
given him an oppoitunity of recovering from the fright into 
"which his defeat hud thrown hiVn, Twr allowed him time to 
vaise a new army ; the success of the enterprise, which ap-^ 
)>cared infallible, being the only thing that cculd make him 
formidable and superior to all his enemies. Add to this, 
thntin case Alcxaud/er slioold not be able to take this city, 
whicli was not very unlikely, he would disci'tfdit his own 
4trms,wculd lose tlie fruit of his victones, and prove to the eii*'^ 
emy Uiat ho was net invlrtcible. But Grd, who had appointed 
this monarch to chastise the pride of Tyre, as will be seen 
hei^eafter, did not once q^f iniit these thcitghts to enter hisr 
mindr but determined hinrtp lay siege to the place, in spite 
•f aU the difficulties whi^h pjjposcd so harai-dous a des^pi, 
and the many rebsons whkh should have x^rompted him to 
pursue quite different roi^ures» 

It was Impossible to camp, near this city in order to storsi 
it, without making a Sank jwhich should reach from the con-' 
: tinent to the island ; and an attempt of tliis kind woifld^&e 
attended with difiicultie% i)iat were seemingly insurmouDt*' 
iible. . The little arm of th<3 sea, which separated the island 
from the continent^ was exposed to tlie west wind, -vihich pf-* 
ten raised i^uch dreadftil storms there, that the wa^^es would' in 
an instant sweej) away all works; Besides, as the city was 
surrounded on aU sides by the sea, there -v^as no fixing seal-^ 
ing*laddcrs, nor throwing up batteries, but at a distance in 
the ships ; and tlie wall, which pr€jectl:d into the sea to^- 
wards the lower party prevented people from landing ; »(<Jt 
to mention that the military engines, wtiich might have been 
])ut on board the galleys, eould not do much execution, the- 
^vaves were so very tumultuous.- 

But nothing was capable of checkiJB^ or vanquishing tlie' 
resolution of Alexander, who was determined to carry the 
city at any rate. However, as the few vessels h^ possessed"^ 
lay at a great distance from liim, and the siege of so strong 
a place might possibly last a long time, and so retard his 
other enteqirises ; he thought proper to endeavour an ac» 
commodation. Accoixlingly he sent heralds^ who yvoposed 
u peace between Alexander and their city ; but th^se 
the Tyrians killed, conti-avy to the kw^ nations aj)d 
lUrcw them from tlie tq> of the walls into the sea. 
Alexander, exasperated at so cruel an outrage formed 
a resolution at once, and employed his whole attention 
in i^ising a dyke. He found iii the ruins of old Tyre>. 
wliich stood on the continent, and was called Paiae- 
Tyros, materials to make piers, taking all the stones' and 
rubbish ftom it. Mount llfl^anus^ which was liot £&r C^^ 

&^r. Vl. HlSTOat OF ALE^AKDEH.- l37 

tant from it, so famous in scripture for its cedars, futni&hed 
him with wood for piles, and other timber-work. 

'Fhe soldiers began the pier with great alacrity, bemg an- 
imated by the presence of their sovereign, w^ho himself gave 
out all the cedars ; and who,* knowing perfectly how to in- 
sinuate himself into, ftiul gain the aflfections of his troo|)S, ex- 
cited some by praises, and others by slight reprimands, in- 
termixed with kind expressions, and softened by promises. 
At fii-st they advanced with pretty great speed, the piles be- 
ing easily drove into the slime, which served as mortar for 
the stones ; attd as the place where these works were car- 
ry-ing on was at some distance- from tlie city, they went oil 
without interruption. But the farther tlicy went from the 
shore, tlie greater difficulties they »€t with ^ because the 
tea was deeper, and the workmen wore very much suinoyed 
by the darts discharged from the top of the walls. Thc^n- 
emy, who were masters of the sea, coming forward in great 
boats, and razing every part of the dyke, prevented the Ma- 
cedonians from carrvmg it on i^ith vieour. Then adding 
insults to their atUcks, they Cried aloud to Alexander's sol- 
diers, «that it was a noble sjght to sec those conquerors 
^ wlwse names were so renowned all the- world over, carry 
"ingburdenson their backs like so mwiy beasts/' And 
they would aftei*wards ask them, in a i^ntemptudus tone of 
voice, "whether Alexander were greater than Neptune \ 
** and if they pretended to.prevfiil over that god ?'* 

But these taunts did but inflame the courage of the sol- 
diers. At last the bank appeared above water, began to 
«how a level of a considerable brfcidth, and to approach the 
city. Then tho besieged perceiving with terror tlie vast^ 
ness of the work, which the ^ea had till then kept from their 
sight, came in their ship-boats in order to view tlie bank, 
-which was not yet very firm. These boatfr were faU of sling, 
ers, bowmen, and others vrho Irailed javelins, and even fire, 
and being spread to the right and left about ti*e bank, they 
shot on all sides upon the woHtmen, several of whom were 
wounded y it not bting possible for tliem to ward off the 
blows, because erf the great ease and swiftness with which 
the boats moved backwards and forwards ; so that they were 
obliged to leave the wcri^k to defend themselves. It was 
therefore resolved, tiiat skin« a«d sails should be spread to 
cover the workmen ; and that two wooden towers diould be 
raised at the head of the bank, to prevent the approaches oC 
the enemy. 

On the otiier side, the Tyrians made a descent on th« 

*Haod «is«QaiD radit triasadi failitarcs aaioiM. Q. Cart* 


shore, out of the view of the camp, where thw landed some 
sokUers, wlio cut to. pieces those that carried the stones ^ 
and OB Mouat Libanus there also, were some Arabian pea- 
aants, who meeting the Macedonians stragglings? wKioown 
kUled near thirty of them, and took very near tiie ?ame 
nomber. These small losses obliged Alexander to separaie 
1ms troops into diffisrens bocties^ 

ITxe besieged, in the naean time, «roplo}«d ^^5*7."*!^' 
tioii, every stratogcm that could be found, to ruin the coe- 
mv's %wrks. They took a transport-vessel, and Winig i 
with brushes, and such, like diry materials, ^^^.^^^.Z" 
closure near the pcow, wLhw-ein they threw aU these vm%h 
witli sulj^uif , and pitch, and other combustible "^^^t"* i 
tlie middle of vhis inclosure they set up two roasts, to ^cii 
of which they fixed two sail-yards, on which were hung kci- 
tks full o£«U, anil such like uuctuous substances. , P^^' 
terwanis loaded the hinder part of the vessel wiA s«^^ 
and san4, iiv order to vaise the prow. ;. and taking ^^^?r^^ 
«f a fiivowable wind,, they toi»ed il to sea by the a'*»^^^ 
of (heir gaUeys^ As seon as they were come a^-ir ^Y^^ 
ers, they set fire to tlte vessel in qucstiori, and dre^ * 
wards the p»nit or extremity of the bank. In "'^ ^^ 
time the sailors, who were in it, leaped into the ^*> r|l^ 
jswam away. Immediately the fire catched, with &^r^ . 
lence, the towers, and the rest df the works which "^^ 
the head of the bank V and then the sail-yards being ciiwc 
backwards and forwards, threw oil upon tlic fire, ^^ 
very much hicrcased the flame. But to prevent the ^" j^ 
ooniaBs from extmgiiishmg it, the Tyrians, who ^^^^ 
their galleys, were perpetually hurling at the tawcrs ti^^ 
darts and bumitig. torches, iasomuch that there ;wa» ^'^^ 
proacluiig them^ Several Macedonians lost their ^^^J\^u 
miserable manner on the bank j being either shot ^*^* 
with arrow% or burned to death ; whilst others, throwu^ 
down tlifiir arois, leaped iiito the sea. But as they were 
swimming away, the Tyrians, choosing to take thein a« , 
rather than kill them,, maimed their hands with ^"*^.!!|^ 
stooes ;/and after disaWing them, canied them off. ^ -f*: j^ 
. sara^ time th« besieged, cconi^g ojit of the city w ^' 
. Ixiats, beiitdowB the ^^» of the banki tore' up its staKe y 
and burned the rest oi the engines. - t fed 

t Alexander, thoug]^ he saw most of his designs ^^*^.^t 
and his works demolished, was net at all dejected up<^ "i^ 
account. His soldiers endeavoured,, with redoubled v*S^^ 
to repair the ruins of the bank ; and made and V^^?' /^^e 
Biiichines with so pixxiigiotis a speed, as qmte- astonisbed u 
eiiCiny. Alex,aiider himself was present on all occasiaB> 


ami si]perinten€k<l ever>' part of the works. His preienrr 
and great abilities advanced these still more than the mnld- 
tuie of luincU emplo>-ed in them. The wholr wa* near Hii« 
ished, and brought almoit to the waU ol the ritv, when there 
aro»e on a sudden an impetuous wind, wliich drore the 
waves witli so much fkry against the Innk, that the cement, 
and other things that baited it eave way, and the water 
rushing throagli tlie stones, broke it in the middle. As sunn 
as the great Iteap of stenea whidi snpportcd the eartti was 
thrown down, the whole sunk at once, as faitD an aln*ss. 

Any warrior but Alexander would that instant have quite 
laid asid& his enterprise ; and inilecd he hiniMrIf debated 
whether he should noC raise the sie^ . Rut a su j^eritir power, 
-who had foretold and sworn tlic rukn of T\ re, and wh«>«0 or* 
dcTH this prince only execrated, prompted him to contttme 
tiie siege, and dis|)elling all his tear and anxiety, tn<ipirrd 
lum witlk courage and confidence, and firetl thc't>rcascs of 
his whole army with the same sentiments. Fur now the tol* 
diers, as if but that moment annved before the c*iv, foriTrt* 
ting all the toils they had undcrgore, bcj^un tu r::ise a new 
xcuiic, at wliich they worked inces!»;intiy. 

Alexander was sensible that it would not lie pc s&ible fur 
Mm either to complete the bank, or to uke the cttVf as long 
as the Tyvians aliould oontinae masters at sen. He there- 
fore resolved to assemble before Sidon his few ixmainint; 
l^leys^ At the same time, die kmgs of Anuius* and B\ b* 
Ids,, hearing that Alexander had cotic^uered their cities, 
abandoned the Persian fleet, joined him with theirs, and 
that of the SidbniaBS, which made in all 80 sail. There ar- 
rived also, much about the same time, ten galleys fn>m 
Rhodes, three fvom Sols and Malks, ten from Lye i a, and 
one from Macedonia of fifty oars. A littleafter, the kings 
of Cyprus, hearing that the Persian army had been del'tatcd 
near the city of Issus, and that Alexander had posseHscd 
himself of Phoenicia, brought him a reinforcement ot upwards 
of 120 gullcys. 

The kiuGj, whilst hiii soldiers 'vcrc prenarfng the ships and 
engirics, took some troops of horse with nis own regiment of 
guards, and marched towards a mountaiTi of Aral)ia, called 
Antilibanus. Hie tender i-e^ijard heliadfor ar o!;l pcntle- 
Tnan,- formerly his tutor, who was absolutely resolved to 
follow his pupil, e?cposed Alexiwdcr to vcr>' grerit danger. 
This was fjysimachu'^, who gave the name of Achilles to his 
scholar, and called himself Fiicewix ••. \\'hen the kiii*^ was 
got to the ff)ot of the mountain, he Icajxd iron* liiuhoise, and 
• Citiei of Phoenicia, 
f It it well known that Phojplx wat gcvenior to AcEIIIii«» 

140 nisjojLY.^f ^Lti^ivtzt. B9ok XK 

began to walk. His troops got a considerable way before 
him. It was alreauly late, and Alexander not being willing 
to leave his preceptor, who was very corpulent, and scarce 
able to walk} he by tlxat xneans was separated from his }it> 
tie army, accompanied oolv by a very rew soldiers ; and in 
this manner spent the wnole night Very neap the enemy, 
who were so numerous^ that they might easily have over- 
power^ him. However, hi?usual good fortnne and ccurage 
extricated him fh>m his danger ; so that, combg up after- 
wards with his forces, he advanced forward int6 the coun- 
try, took aU the strong places either by force or capitulaticn, 
and returned the eleventh day to Sidon, wherelusfouud A- 
lexander, son of Polemocrates, who had brpnght him a 
reinforcement of 4000 Greeks from Pdopoonesus. 

The fleet being read)> Alexander took some soldiers from 
among his guards^ and these he embarked with him, In or-' 
dcr to employ them in close fight with the enemy ; and tlien 
set sail towards Tyre in battle array. He himself was at 
the point or extremity of the right wingyW^Tch extended it-^ 
self towards the main ocean, bemg accoinpanied by the kings 
o| Cyprus and Phoenicia ; the left was commanded by Craie-^ 
yas. The Tyrians were at first determined to give battle j 
hot after they heard of the uni ing of these forces, and saw 
the army advance^ which made a great appearance (for 
Alexander had halted to wait the coming up ot his left wing), 
they kept all their galleys m the harbours, to prevent the 
enemy from entiering them. When the king saw this, he 
advanced nearer the city ; and finding it would be im|^ssi- 
ble for him to force the port which lay towards &don,' be- 
cause of the great narrowness of the entrance, and its beirg 
defended by a large number of galleys, whose prows were 
turned towards the main ocean,, he only sunk three of them 
which lay without, and afterwards came to an anchor with 
his whole fleet, pretty hear the bsmky along, the shore, whcre^ 
his ships rode in safety. 

Whilst all these things were doing, the new bank Was car^ 
ricd OB with great vigour. The workmen threw hito the 
sea whole trees with all their branches on them, and laid 
great stones over these, on which xbxj put other trees, and' 
the latter they covered with clay, which served instead of 
mortar. Afterwards heaping more ttees and stones on these,. 
the whole, thus Joined together, formed one entire body. 
This bank was made wider than the former ones, in cM^er 
ttiat the towers that were built in the middle might be out of 
the reach of such arrows, as should be shot from those ships 
which might attempt to break down the edges of the bank. 
Tlie besieged on the other side, everted t|iem3elves with ex- 

Sect, Vt BISTOty OF ALCXAN1>£X. \ii 

iraonflnary bravcrv, and did all that lav in their power t'^ 
stop the progress of the work. But nothing was of so mucti 
service to thfem as tJieir divei^ who swiiniiiinfi; under water/ 
tame utipercei vcd ^uite lip to ihit banW, and with hooks drew 
such branches to them as projected beyond the work ; and 
polling forwaixl witli great strength, forced away every 
thing that was over them. This was one reroora to the car- 
ijing on df th^ work ; however, after many delays, tXepa^ 
tlence of the workmen surmounting tstty < bstade, it was at 
last finiiihed in its ikniost perfection. The Macedonians 
placed military Engines of alf kinds on tlie bank, in order lo 
s|;ake the waltS with battmng rams, aiKl hurl on the be- 
sieged arrows, stones, and burning torches* 

At the same time Alexander ordered the Cyprian ificct,- 
Commanded by Andromachus« to take' Its station before the 
. harbour which lay towards Sidon 5 and that pf l*licenjcia be- 
fore the harbour on thie otiier side of the bank facing Egj^pt, 
. fewards that part where his own tent was pitched ; and en- 
abled himself to attack the city oa every siae. The Tyrians, 
ill their turn, prepared for a vigorous defence. On that side 
which lay towarcls the bank they had erected towers on the 
wall, which was c^ a pit>digioiK height, and of a proportiomi -' 
Ue breadth, the whole built wUh gfeat stones cemented tp*' • 
gether with iwortarl The access to any other" paft was ^'^ery 
I near as difficult, tl>e enemy having- fenced the foot* of .the 
wall witligreat stones, fb keep fh6 GrdeKs from approac^-*' 
I ing it. . The business then was, first to draw these away, 

I which could not be ddbe but wim the utmost difficulty, be-^ 

' caase,>a8 the soldiers stood iii ships, they tould not' keep vciy 
I firm on their legs. Besides, the Tyrians advanced wnh cov- 

ered galteyjis and cut the cables which held thie^ships at ah-* 
chc» ; 80 tbAt Alexander was obliged to cover In hke man-" 
net^ several tessds of SO rowers each, and to ttatkm t|t<?se 
<rt»s-ways, to secure the andtors from the attacks of the - 
T^rian galleys : but still divtrs Came apd cut them unper- 
ceived, so that they were at J»t ibreed to fix them with irod 
diaihs. After this, they drew these ^fones with cable-fopes, 
and carrying them off with ehgihes, Utey were thrown to the 
bottom Of the sea, whci^ it was tiot possible for them to do 
any further mischief. The fbot of the '^^all being thus clear-^ 
ed, the viessels had very easy access to it^ In this maniier 
the Tyrians were invested on all sides, and attacked at die 
*ame time both by sea and land. 

Tli^ Macedonians had joined two and two galleys, with 
foiw iftcjh Ch^ed to each oar, in' sutha manner, that ther 
prows were fastened, and the- stei*hs §0 far distant opc^from 
tlie other, as w as neci^sary f4Q(f tfiy^' pifeeci of ias^jKt bt^tweeiy 

iid kisront qt ALExXNokiif. Boot if* 

them to be of a proper lengthy After this th^ thrcW from. 
W stern to the othef sail^yards,, which were fastened to- 
gether by planks laid croSH-ways, b order for the aoldicts.^ 
viaiTid fastDn the space. The galleys being thus eqmpi^a,: 
:fyiey rowed towards the city, and shot, under .covert, against 
those who defended the waljs, tl»e ptows serving them m so 
toany paraj)ets. , The king caused them to advance abofot 
tiidhi|htjip order to surround the waft, and make a gener«^ 
assault; The Tynans novfr gave themselves tip for lost, vnen 
on a sudden the sky was overspread with such thick doods, 
^i ^ult^ took away the faint gUmrtjerings of light ^^»ch be- 
fore darted through the gloom. The sea rises by >»^^^* 
degrees ; and the bDlows being swelled by the fury of tnc 
wmds, rise to a dreadfiil storm. The vessels dash one «j 
gainst the other Vflth so much viojtbee that the cables, wtucft 
before fastened them fogether, are ehher loosened, or break 
to pieces ; the planks split, and making a horribW ftrish, car- 
ry off the soldiers with them ; for t'he tempest was sofiinovis 
that hifki not p<^ibte t6 manage pr steer galleys th»8 my 
4'ned togetlier. The soldier was a hSnderancc to the sador, 
ahd the satlor to tUt soldfer i ah j, as it happen on suth oc- 
casions, those obeyed whose business it was to comtnand ; 
fear and anxiety throwing all things into confusion. But now 
; ^e rowers exerted themselves with so much vijjonr that 
they got the better of the sea, and seemed to tear their ship* 
ttat of the waves. At fest they brodght them near the shorci 
'But the ^r^atest part in a shattered tqnditiixi. 
. At the same time there arrived at Tyre 30 ainbassadors 
. from Carthage^ who did not bnag the least succours, tho^gb' 
they fcad promised, such mighty things. Instead of this, they 
Qn\f made exotses^ dieclarii^ Uiat i^ was with the great^ 
grief ^ €arthaghiiana foind themselves absolutely unable 
to assist the Tyrians in anV manner : for that they tbem- 
, |eWes were enfpiged in a war, not as ♦before for empire, 
^ out to ^vc thpii: country. AM indeed the Syracusans were 
; fey»g Yfaste all Africa at tha£ time whh a powerful at^fPO-V 
and. Sad pitched tdeir camp not far from the walls of Cax- 
. tl\^ge. The Tyrrans, though frustrated in this manner ot 
tJie great hopes thfty had conceived, were no ways dejected. 
yhey only took the ^iae precaution to send most of their 
. women and children to Carthage, in oMer that they thiejn- 
ieWes might be in a coDditkn to defend themselves to the 
last extremity, and bear more courageoudy the greatest ca-^ 
, iamities which might be£ii them, when they had wee lodgea 
in a secure a^tqm what they most valued Jft the worlds 

.^V9ca v«L i* ia 1^ tooty 0^ Csrihig^v 

Sect. ri. »|s;-oyt .{(f AtViii»,«t: ji- 

There^was h^ke city.a bsaaen statne of Atwlla, of an en. 
.orroous size. Tto coUus had formerly st^ iiAe cttJ 

,ci|y, anil wqrfih^p was «id to it. ' Duriog th^ aige, on A 
4ream whicl^ one of t)ie ctazavi had, tbe Tj^rians imagUwcd 
^t ApoBo Wft9 dcterwuned to Icayc them, ahd gooSr to 
Alexander. Immediately thqr fMUmed with a gol4 chain 
Jiiar statvc to Hencules^. ;^lur, to prevent tbe deiiy ui ^uestK^ 
IninlnurieRigtlttein; fi^' these pvople w^resiUy ^enqa^ to 
beUeve, that 4ft4^ his statue was thtis- fastened dow^, \i 
enwld iuit te.pcBsibTe for him ^ a;iake hi? ^seapie ; ^.thot 
l&e would lie i»€ventedfrona doing so hy tiercfUes^^jtji^ tute«- 
4ar god* t&V^ city. 'What a strange idea die heatheni| ^a4 
of their divimlies * . . , •...,, =** . 

Some of the Tyriaris ppsposed. tbe^ ve&toring pf a f a^ri/icc 
^hich had' been df^oatinued f^r many ages ; and this ivay, 
tb'sac^r^ce a child bom of free parente to Saturq* The Car- 
^la^nla&S) who had bbrroiti^ed Jt^$ sacrile^^iouB custom froni 

•^heir fininder8^preset^T>ed U tBi'i}he.deatri|ctil^p o£ their city ^ 

-.and had niA the old n9en>, who wen^, invited witi^ the gr^ai^ 
esia^}i«Hty in Tyre, opposed thi5,cr)^l]y s\V)er9tiUoQ&iCuv 
torn, a child Tiro^ld have been butchered on this occasionl ' 

- The Tyiians^tiiidln^ their dty.HekpoBedf^very moment to 
be taken by sfiorni, resolred to folk *3|>on the Cyprian fleef, 
which lay at anchor ogT Sidon. They took the opportunity 
^o do this, at a titni vra^stsR the seam^ ^ 41e|pa^cler?a fieet 
were dispersed up and down, and when he htmij^f was ivlth- 
irawDp to his tent^ pitched on the se^-jsliore. A^^^^^os^Xv 
they came out about. neon, with \% p^\^%^93X planned, with 
choice soldiers whoifere used to «ea*iights ; and tomng witH 
all their mi^t, cathe thundelriQg <3n theenemy^a ves^elp. 

' Part c(f thetir they found empty^ bnd the rest .had been man- 
ned in l^reat haste; Bome^f-the^e they svnkt and drove sev- 
eral' of them against the shore, where they were dashed t6 

< pv^ces. Tbe loss would have been $tiU greatsr, had not 
Alexander, the instant he heard of t}u» sally, advanced at the 
^ad of his whole fleet with aU ima^able ctispatch against 
the Tvrians. However, ti&ese4kl not wait th^p commg ujh 
but withdrew into the harbour^ aller having also- lost some- 
of their shipd. ' 

' And' how the engines playing, the city was warmly attack- 
tA 6n aB sides, «»d as Ytgorbody^dtfisiided. , The beeieged,^ 
taught and ammstted by igiiplaef^ daAger» and the entirei^ 
•X>ie^.i,wi.p,t*f ' • 


HI5T0»'P «»^ A;-Sx4l^M»> AkWt XV. 

necessity to.which th^ were reduced, invented daity n^w 
arts to defend themselves, and repidse the enemy. They 
warded off all the darts discharged froni the halistas against 
them, b}' the asristance of turning whe^ whiciijeither broke 
them to pieces, or caVVicd -them jutot^ier way, .. They de^d; 
cned the violence of the stones thi|t wene hurled at them', 
hy setdng up a kind of sails aii^d curtains made of a soft sub- 
*t*mce, which .easily cave vrayl To ai>n€if the *lp« ^Aich 
adrmvccd agamst th^r %alls, tlicy fixed gi^pplli^ irons vxA 
^c^-^e^ to ^ists orheams ; then strain&ng meiSr catapultas; 
an enormous ^ind of ctoss4x)^v8,' they laid choie great pieces 
of timber upqn them ihstead of arrows, and «hot tfaemt>ffoii 
a' sodden at the enemy. These cnisKed some ^ pieces by 
their gt^at weight ; anxf the hooks, ^r pensile ^cyi&es, witk 
Vhidrthey wci*d. artncd, tcre others to piecef, aaid dkl oeo- 
^derable Samage'to their sl^lps. Thfey also had brazen 
shieldsv which mey di-e'cr T«d liot cot of the £re ; and, filling 
these with jiuming sand, hurled them in un inaiantfmn tlic 
top of tile waH upon the enemy. There waa nothing the 
Macedonians so much dreaded as this laiit iovcntion ; for 
the mon^tent this burning sand got to the flesht titvouf^ the 
cpe\'iceB in the artnour, it f^leroed to the veryi>one^aadstuek 
«o close, that there '^s nopuUltig it off ; so ihat tho soUiers, 
:t3tr6wifig down tlidf arms, and tearing their clotlies to piec> 
es, were \xt this manner expoiied, naked and defenceless, to 
the diot' of Ihe enemy. 

'' It wastlien Alexander, discouraged at so vigorous a de- 
fence, dehated SoiHoutAy, whether it would not t^ proper for 
liim to raise the siege and go for EjW'pt : for, after having 
'ovpr-mn Asia with )7mdigioi|s rapimty, he found his pro- 
gress unha]^\y retarded % and lost, befi>re a single city, die 
opportunity of executing a great many projects of infinitely 
'greaternmportance. On the odier side, he considered that 
^twooM be a ^;reat blemish td has reputation, which had don^ 
•fiim 5;rc^tcap .Service than his arms, should he kave Tjtp 
•heHirtdinm, and thereby prove to the world that he was not 
invincible. He therefore nssolved to make a last effort witJi 

* a great number of ships, which he manned with tlie flower 

• of his army. Accordingly, a second naval engagement was 
fought, in which the Tyrians, after fighting with inbepidity, 
were obliged to draw off their whole fleet towards the city. 
The king pnrsued their fear ^-ery dose, but was not able to 
ifjntef the harbowr, heiiii$ rqiulsed by arrows shot from the 
walls : however, he either took or suidt a great number pf 

' tlieir ships. 

Alexander, after lettmg his forces .repose themselves two 
' ^d^yfi/ath^anced kb fleet and Ms engines, in onjpr to att? rop* 

j^r. tt. kUt6Rt tt ALEXANDSR. Jl45 

.» general sisa^t. Both t]be attack and defence were now 
snore vigorous thatn «c«r. The^covr^ge <rf the combatants 
increased ,with tl^e danger .; and each side, animated by the 
most powerfiil n^ptives,. fought like lion^. Wherever the 
.*battenng-r^ms had be^t down anypart of the wall, and thp 
^fidges^!^«r^ thrbyrn out, instantly tap AtSynimdes moqnte^ 
the breach V^ith ^ejitmost .valour,., being beaoed by Admc- 
.tus, xxi%iA t!}e br^yest qfficers in tbe army, >wha was kill^ 
Isff the thrust of a pairtisan*, as he was encourayng his sol- 
diers. Thepi^eseiKpe of ,tl^ king, and .especially the exanb- 
^ple he set, fived'hls-^roops with unusual brarvery. He hinb- 
iself ascended one of the towers, ^which was of. a prodigious 
lieight, and t|iere was exposed to ^e greatest danger his 
.4:6urage had.e^^r made li^m haeard ; for, Uein^inimediately 
kiio'i^ by his insignia and die richness of iiis armotr, he 
-served as a mark vat jail the' arrows of the enomy. On tliia 
.<)CCasi6n^|ie performed wonders ; killing with javelins sev.- 
^^ral of those who defended the wall ; then advancing nearer 
t6 ihein, he forced some with his sword, aivd 4}Chei's with 
his shield, either into tb^ dty or tb^ sea ; the tower wheve 
^e fought ahpofit toachiog the ^wall. He soon went over it, 
b^ the assis^qce o^ floatkig bridgei^ ^^A followed by the n<v 
^l>ility,possess^ himself of, two towers, and the space between 
-them.' llie battering cams had already made fevers^ 
~ breaches ; ^e fi€«t;had forced bio the harbour ; and som6 
^ the Maiqedo^ans had po^sessi^ themselves of the tow^^ 
^vhkh were sd>and6nedi The Tyriahs, seeing the enemy 
paster of their rainphtt, i^fired twards aii fjpcti place, 
jealtod Ag|nior, and there stood their ground ; but Alexan- 
der mard^ing42p with liis regypnent (^ bqdy -guards, kilM 
tmrt of themi and obUged tt^e rest to flv. At the same time, 
■Hytt bc^g taken on that side .which lay towards the 1iar«i 
»Mar, the M^^cedonlans ran up and dbw9 every pait of the 
'^ity, sparhi^ no 'person who came ih thdr wa^r, hei^g high^ 
/Exasperated aJ the Jong ressstance of the besieged, and the 
•5arbarS^ they had ekerdsed towards same of their com*- 
.rade^ who had been taken in their ret^irn to Sidoni anijf 
^rown from the ^attlementi^ after fheir throats hadheeri 
jtxX in the sight c|f the whole ft^mf. 

The pTyrians seeing thc^selv^s overpowered sdn all sides, 
iome f^ to tl^ ^^ple^ to in^plore the assistance oF the gods ; 
^lel^ jlnstting thofnselves in thcu- houses, eiicape tl^e 
s#'6td of *he .eon^eror hy a .voluntaiy death - ; in fi»«,, 
others rosh upon uie vaRicg% firmly resolved ifs s^ll theii' 
jiycs at the direst ralte. Mosi of the citizens were g«»r or 
p^ hol&se tops, whence they threw stones^ aiid |»jiattrre^* 


came first to hand* upon sach as advaru^ed Iprward into th^ 
*city. '*The king' gave orders for Isiiiring all the mhabUants, 
those excepted who sheltered themSplves in the temples, and 
to set fire to every part ofy>Te. Although tliis order waj 
^ published bv sound of tinn'npet, yet not one person who car^ 
,tted arms fiew to the asflums. ' Tlie temples were filled 
•wldi such old men and childreji only as h^i remained iu 
thje c^ty. The okl meu waited at th^ ddoi-f of th^ ir houses, 
in expectation every infant of beinfe satrificed to the rag^ 
of the soldiers. It is true; Jndeed, that the Sidonian soldiers, 
who were Irt Alexander's camp, saved great numbers of 
them ; tor having entered the city indiscriminately with 
tlie conquerors, and calling to mind their aniuent affiirity 
with the Tynans (Ag^nor^aving founded both 'tyvpoxk 
Sidou), they, for that rea^jod, parried off ' great pijihbers 
privately on board, their ships, and conveyed them to Sidon, 
By this kind deceit, 15,000 were saved from tl>e.ra|eof 
the con^uproi*; and we may judge of th^ greatness of th^ 
slaughter, from the number of the soldiers wjiowere'ci^tto 
pieces. on the* rampart, of the city only. Who amouhted tQ 
6000. However/ the king's anger not bein^'ftiUy appeased, 
he exhibited a scene which appeared dreadful even to the 
conquerors ; for 2p00 tnen r^fna^ing after tiie soldiers had 
been glutted wi^ll slaughter, Alexander ^ caused .tjieia' to be 
fxcdjipbn crosses along the, sea.siJipf^.\lfc rf^LVdoned* )?i« 
ambassador^ of Cartha;|;e, wK'o Wdife come to Iheir^m^ti'pp- 
olis, to offer" up a sacnAce^to HfirctiJeS, acco'rdhig to a^uaj 
custom,. The number 6f "pi^son^s, both fprqigneri .and 
citizens, amounted to 36,000; wfio wei-e.all sold. A§f9r th^ 
Macedonians, their loss was very inconsTcferabter '. j^ 

* Alexander himself saCdficcd.tQ Herc\^Ies,'aiidcQp4ucted 
the ceremony with all his land fofces'Under arjT^^,^ift cq^Q^rt 
with the fteet, He also . solemnised ' gynina:^ic exerlfis^s in^ 
honour of the sani^ god',* in ihe, tetnple* dedicated, fb hjrn» 
\V^ith regard to i^lie' statue of Apollo af)0>?^ ni^tione^, he 
took off the chains from it, Restored it to it's fdrm^r Jbefty^ 
jind commanded that this^god, should thenciforwat*^^;,be. 
surnamed Philaxander," thatlfe', the fri^hd'of j^^fexandeh K 
we may believe Tim atus, the Greeks be^an tb'pay him ttU 
solemn, worship for havihg Occasioned the takirtij^ of IVre, 
-which happened the day and Hour that' tKe CanMfflJ»!?«*. 
iai carried off this statue from Gela.' T*^^ 5lV/0' Ty''^ 
wa;* taken about the end' of September^' ajKet Jb(4v|9S,a>s? 
taineda sevVn nionths siege^ \[] ''. '^ \'-'^ \Si/ *- i 
,XUus were acdomplished the m^nafces whiclrGdd hs^a pt^ 
^imc^d by.the' mouth of his j^ophetii 4gaiast the i}^ flf 
f A. Mr357a, ADt. J. C 4$ihv ' ' ' 


Tyre. *Nabuchodonosorhadb^gUTi to execute those threats 
Jby besieging and taking it ; aiuj they were completed b/t 
the sad catastrophe "we have here described. As this dou- 
ble event forms one of the most considerabk passages in* 
history, and that the scriptures have eivcn us several very 
remarkabie circumstances of it, I shall dideavcur to unite » 
b'ei'e, in one view, all that tliey relate concerning tlie cit>& 
of Tyi*e, its power, riches, haughtiness, and irreligioii ; the . 
difierent punishments with which God diastised its pride. ^ 
£tfid other vices y ip iine, its last re-establishment, but m a. ' 
manner entirely different from that of others. Methmks, 
I revive on a sudden, when, through th? multitude" of pro- 
&ie histories which heathen antiquity, luniishes, and ia, 
eVery part whereof there reigns an entire oblivion, no^ ta« 
say; morCyvof thp Almighty^ the sacred scriptures exhibit' 
thems^veS} and unfold id me the secret designs of Godf^ 
over kingdoms and empires ; and teach me "What idea we 
aSrp to form of* those thmgs .which appear th^i most wor-^ 
thy of esteem, the rao^t' august in the eyes of men. 

■ But before i relate the prophecies concerning Tyre, I 
shidl here present the reader, with a little extract of the liis- 
tory of that famous city, by which, he will be the better cnft-, 
bjed to understand the prophecies, ^ • » 

; t Tyre was built by the Sidonians, 240 years before the . 
building of the temple of Jerusalcui i for this reasoi> it ia 
called by Isaiah the daughter of Sidon. k soon ;sjai^ssed. 
its mother city Jn extent, power, and riche^. : , ^ 

' J It was besieged by Satmanaser, and alone resisted 'tli«« 
united fleets of the Assyrians and Phoenicians. ; a circum-* 
staiice which greatly heightened its pride. . ". ^ 

; 5 Nabuchodonosor laid siege to Tyr^.at tl -e time that Ithg- 
halus wasking of that city, but did not take it' till 13 years, 
al^er. But before it was conqhered, the inhabitants bid re- 
tired with most of their effects into a neighbouring ifcland, 
where they built a new city. The old one was razed to the 
verj' foundations, ^d has since been no moi*e than, a villaj^e, 
known by the name of Palge-Tyrus, or ancient Tyre : but! 
the new one rose to greater power than ever. 

-. It was in this great and flourishing concUtion, when Alcx- 
afider besieged and took it. And here begins the 70 years 
oi obscurity and oblivion in which it was to lie, according to 
Isaiali. It was, indeed soon repaired, because the Sidonians, 

* Or Nebtu^ht4o€S9Br4aike4«<«llediJi e^frVeKlion;. . 

+ A/M. 2991. ^ Ant. J. C. ma. jofcph.^ntiq. ^^iii^i,^, 
i A. M. 3185. AntTj. C, 7i>. "'ibrd, 1, ix, c, 14 
5AM M3* Ant, J, C, 572^ Ibid I z, c, ix 

148 aisTORt or ALExiirirbirir. Jd<iok XK 

'Who entered thfc dty with Alexafid«fr'a atmy^'^vcd 15,000^ 
of their citizens, as was before obsetTed, who, after their re-* 
tuni, applied themselves to traffic, and repaired the ruins of 
their country with incredible application ; besides whidh^ 
the women' and children, who h^ been sent to Carthage, - 
and lodged in a place of safety, returned to it at the same 
time, nut Tyre was confined to the ishmd ih which "it stood} - 
Its trade extended no farther, than the neighbouring cities, 
and it had lost the empire of' the sea ; and when, eighteen 
years after, Antieonus besieged it with a strong fieet, we do 
im find that tttt fyrianshad any maritime forces to oppose 
him. Thb second siege, which reduced it a second time to ' 
captivity, {bunged it intothe state of obHvlon ftom which it^ 
cnaeavoitred to extricate itself ; and this oblivion pmtinued 
the exact time fbmtoM by Isaiah. ^ . 

This term of yearS beinj; expii*ed, I'yre recovered it*: 
Ibrmer credit, and at th^ same time resumed its ft>rmer 
vices ; till at last, converted by the preacfifng oif the gospel^' 
k became a holy and rfllgiou's city. The sacred, writing* 
acqxaiut us with part of Ux6se revolutions, and tills is what* 
we are now to show. 

* I'yre, before tfie captivity of the Jews ih Babylon, was 
considered as oneof the ttfost-anritht afld ffbi|tishing i^($es' 
tf the world. ItViiidifStry and very advantageous ^uatioix 
had raised it to t^e soviei'elgnty of tjie seas, and pnade it the 
tcntre of all the tradfe in the universe. FrOip the eStreloe^ 
l>Hrts of Ai-abia, Persia, and India^ to the most remote west- 
ern coai>ts ; from Scythfe, and the northffrn CQUrttries, to ' 
Rgypt, Ethiopia, and the southerti countries, all nfitions con-* 
tributed to the increase of its richer, spietKlour, and power. - 
Not o^ly the several things useful and necessary to society 
which tliose various regions produced, but whatever they 
had of a rare^ curious, magnificent, or precious kind, and . 
best adapted to the support of luxury and pride 5 all these, I 
say were brought to its markets. And Tyre, on the other 
side, as from a common source, dispersed this varied abup-- 
dance oyer all kingdoms, and infected them with its corrupt 
iTcmners, by inspiring mankind with a love' for ease, vanity, 
luxury and voluptuousness. 

t A long uninterrupted series of prosperities had swelled 
the pride nf Tjre. She delighted to consider herself as the 
Gueen of cities ; a queen whose head is adorned with a dia<^ 
dem ; whose correspondents are illustrious princes ; whoK 

• Eiek, MvK tend ttv^, tlirevg^otit. IkIs. «Tii. 4^»X. 
t^sek. ixvi, 17. tsvii, 3,41 «jr— a«i $J^ , 

mSeC^l PL HJ^TORy^r ALEXAWDKR. ' 149* 

iri^Mi^dera flispttte for siipendrity With Itings ; Iffhoscefi-ev- ' 
ery mai4time power, either ias her allies or clq>en<lajits ; and ' 
■who itiadeheraelf iicit^isaryorfomjidable to all nations. 

• Xyr^ had now* fifiedxip the meaBUi'e of her iniquity, by her • 
impiety^* a^nst- God J- ami hei* barbarity exercised against his 
people. ,She had rejoieed over the ruins of Jerusalem, in* 
the insulting 'words fi^owing: ** ♦Behold then the gates of - 
*^ this so 'populous city are hrfiken down. * Htr inhabitants • 
"•stifiatcome tome,^ and-I will eiiricK mydf 'with* her spoils, I 
*' now filieiS'laid waste. '* 'f ^e wais rtot satisfiM with hav-'* 
ing feduced tb* J6W9 to a- ^bate of captivity,' notwithstarid'* ' 
ing tl^e alBanc'e bet^vean them ; with' seMifng them 'to the* 
Gentile§,-and'deHf\ieriBfg*%hen* up to thfeir most cmel cne-* 
mies t |she Hkewise had befeed upon the irtheritancc of the 
Ijord^ atid caitried away'ft*om his 'temple the most precious ' 
things^ to 4Bnfieh4<lierewkh the»teiEnple5 of her idols. ' 

S'ftiis p*^oftaiation and ci^uelty drew down thd vengeance ofi 
God upoii Tyre.' God is resolved- to destrcyher, beca\ise* 
die rfcBedMSOiiwchuj^orille^ owh strong^ ^h^A- wJidoiti, htt:^ 
T^che^^nd'h^riUHances. H^- therefore brought iagaitist her' 
NabiBchodidnosor, that king of "kiftgii, to 'Overflow her with* 
liiA^i^y hoMfJ; M Witli- watei'«Wat pyel-^tfead tl^ir banks/ 
in <i*^ei* to dtmblls*i-1iet*'i*a<n^¥t^ *0Viii« iie'r proud pM-' 
aee%'t» deliver' up htr tn^rchandised arfd treasures to the' 
soldiers^ and to rawa Tyre to the very founclalions, afler ' 
Having sol iire* to ity atid- ei««er*^<Jirtlrpfetcd or dispersed kU 
itslnhabitaiks* ;. ■ - * : . . . ! » 

' ^ By 'thisi«ounexpected'ia^fei1l^»the Alm%hty will- te»eh' 
the^astsnlshofl ^atlOns,'-that h^ fnOrte evidently dispfeys fiia* 
|Wivia<^iCJbib5*4he'i*festinfcr^Me'i<ev61uUoi^ oP states-* ahi 
that kb ^iU'Oh}y-4i4'c^tft tho'titkerpriees of nVen^ and gUideaf 
t»ifr^afi(l^jpfoa^^ 4fierdetto'1iUTiBbkii1iie'|)r6ua;" * 

Bblf Tyi^e^ aJfiKer^she kud fecoviered hfer !AS*s,'kfi^ t*CTiair- 
cdfeeriniins^forgo^hef fewiia* Aate of hunaifiation, j(nd the 
l^ik which hafd rǤvtUCdher%o' it. f.She stiH was puffed 
«p *with the ^Ufty'of possessing the empire of the sea ;- cF 
ISeihg-CI^ ««a« €i rtik^rsal d^merce r of giving birth to the 
HkM isLiximt M^iki ; ifif IfciVfrig w4«iin fieflf^alTs merchanti^ 
l^hC^^Jbdit, vkMis^ 'knd J^Mdouf", . eqaaU^ tliem' to thd 
!'■.,♦ ii..... 'i..'".' ' .iix^ry; .\ -j v . r - .'• •■ 5 " J '-r. ' « 
* Ezek. xzvii. t. ,zc>/j.:..'- . :;.,'»» 1 -• ' ' "i 

5 Jerem. lUn, s, 6. £zek. xxvt, 3— la, an J 19 xzvii, 27, J44 
r I jMdb^ci^srtrvx ^4 Jutland xtviii.33,'36^^ ISmk uaL ^,'^. * 

pcincet And great men of tbf caith ; «^ being fl0v«iii6d 
Dv a monarch, who might jmitly be entitled god oft^ ^ea > 
ot trackig back her origin to the ino^ remotf^ antu^wtjr ; and 
having acc^uired, by a long scries of ams e Xiad ok eteraity ; 
and at having aright to proaiiae bn^vwm aaother socheteru- 
ty in tiroes to come. 

t But since tliiscity, comipted by pride, by avarice) and 
li^ury, has not prof^ed by the first feason which God bad 
given her, m the peraoR of the king of Babylon ; and that 
after being fsppresacd by aU the forces 0f the east, «he still 
ifoiild not learn to confide no loo^Eer m the fidse and itnsg^ 
ary 8tq)ports of her ewii45reatae8a ; % God foreieUs her as* 
oUier chastisement, whi^i Ke will tend u^pm herireia the 
west, ue^r 400 years after the first. § Her destniction wiQ 
come from Chittiro, that is, Macedonia ; from a kingdom 
so weak aad obscure that it had been des^v^^ed fti few years 
before ^ a kiagdmA whence she coidd never have expect- 
ed sudi a Uow« ^ Tyre, poweased with an opjpuen of ber 
H own w^Moiati, aaA p^md of l»r iMtSf of hei^ imieefM v^ 
^ ei,which she heaped up as mire ia the n^fee^" aed also 
protected by the whole power ^ the.Per8isMi empire, does 
»ot imagine she haaaaarthiog to ffsar from those new ene- 
Hiies, who beii^ ijtoited at a great, distance from her, with* 
out either ouxicy, strength, or reputation t hayijvg 9^\^^ 
harbours nor ship% and being quite unskiUed in. navigation, 
oaanot, therefore, ^ she iffiagines, miaoy her ^i^ith theif land 
lorces. n Tyre lo<dLs upon herself as impregiiaUe, because 
fljjie is defended by lolty linliifiieaj^s, end sHrroufided on all 
i^des by the sea, as with a mote anda girdl<» :: ptr^f^tiifi^ 
^Llesiander, by SUing up the avm,«f the sea whU^ mp^^^^- 
l^er from theeontiaent^ witt fpr^ off ber girdle, 0^ dflUB^^* 
if^ these ran^rts wlich served her us n second- iuc^^^^*^ 
TTyre, thus dispossessed of h^ digpity.a* queen^ «»«» * 
.§ep^ city, boasling bo n^ore her diades^ npi? her gii!die» wfl* 
lie reduced during 70 years, to the mean eoRd!Jition.of e w^^. 
•f 1 11^ l^vd hath PUS90M it,.to stain th^pyjide ef sttt^ 
() ry, and to bring u>te contempl ^ ^ jbanonvuble ei tAe 
ffedrtii." «»Herls«viV4rag«IWittb<i^rMia0Ctre4t^ 
ge»«ral, and she irill prqve Ift all ciljcsi % wW^^.eC "J^J 
and groans, by makmgthem lose the present means and tor 
fixture hopes of enriching themselves. - . • r * 

tfTo prove in a sensible uiamieu, te/Tyitt, tk****^JJIle 
pliecy coucetnaug her ruin ia nd ineradible,^ asdftbs^et v^ 

' ,« .'i't » • 

5 I Maccab. i, z Zee. ix, a, 5, ||.iii* ^OtMSk iPt *>•' ^ 
I lis. :iuau. 9. ^ Us. 1; 1 1, 24. ti Ift* Xi«>i ijt ^* 

pcfnd tfie puAkhment which Ocd lias m]iftrcd Ibr the pride 
a|Mi the ilMi^ol riehett keiAh tftB^beiore her the example 
eC QahytofH whose tenmction onriit ^ h«re hecn ea exsuft- 
pletoher. 'IIO* c^ m ^idi Niinmd laiAlhe fottulaticm 
of htsemptre, uree the imBMt aocient, the lAoat popnloM, and 
CKuhefiithed with more ediicei, both pnhUc and private, thaa 
aei3ro«fa«rci|f« She vmt ^leeaptal of the ftrat empire that 
ever existed^ and waa fiauwkd u order to command ever 
the whole envth, whi^icamed le he iobahtod m^hy^ fim- 
iQea, which<4he had hvoeght iorth. •Jod acbtontas 90 itmcKf 
colonies wlieiecemiiienpap«Bl«he was. NevertiielesB wpii 
the pmlMty ^ts ne'imcei aeither Bal^jdoa nor her*eiapiie«. 
liliecitiaeMef Sahyletf hedrntdypKed their rampaftsaiKl^ 
chnMii to. render evw theheaesbfc k aepraetksable. The 
iohabimia had raiMd pesipoae palacca, to make their oamea 
i9ieftorta ; hot afl theatfertificaiinroi were hot iainaiiydeai». 
ia the-Mt ol Provideace^ far waid heaats to dwell hi ;. aad 
the« edifices weyedaomed to tUl to deal, ar tise ta liak tx». 
teoable Qoitiv*. 

After so iq^ an cNamBle^ eeoteKs Htut prophet^ AaH 

Tyre, whach ia so much niirier to Baliyhw, in many re»>: 

pec:t%<liHreto titfie>thaft the meaaiees pmnemced by heave* 

agam«ti]ier5 Yia. todeprive her ef the ccnpinr of the sea, and 

^stfo^r her ieeti, will aol be ^dfitted ? 

T t To make i^r tiie more streii||ji seasible hww modi bhe 

has.abiitod her prosperity » God- witt vadnce her to a stato of 

Ihsimliatiaw and ehbvioB dmns royeara. IBat after thta 

•0assn etfohsGurity, the wiH again endear our to appear with 

theair of m h^ttiolf whose charms and avtifioes she shatt as- 

ewoe ; die wiU employ her utmost endeavours m cornipt 

3PBttkh, and aoothe^eir p ms in a i. To psomote hereom- 

me^se^ she wlH usei fraad^ decesfe^ and Ae.mest inridioiw 

mm. She will viint jeveey partm the wor]d,>to eoHeet the 

eMDSl. rare and. mqalddicioiupsodpcts of erei^ country ; to 

hispire ^e variotts natiralB of die oniverae widi a lore aad 

admiration for nmerfiuities and splendour ; and fill them 

with an arenton for the simplicity and frogality of their 

ancieat mamieis. '/^ she will sttiovei^t Engine at work, 

to renew her ancient treaties ; to recover die confidence of 

a BchoU dbe kod of the Chaldesas; thh people wss not till the 
AaifrisM fosadsd U for then Ihsc dwiU m dke wildafacfi. Tbcy 
set vp the fowcrk thereof* tbey rsiie^ ap tbeLpelecct thefsof ; sad 
hekreoghtittoniio. Howl, r«it»ip««>f1'«nbiih; for joarKrtagdl 
k M wstce. Its. xaiii, iji M- 

I tliisb attjii. 14. Ikid. 1^ 


abuDdimoft, tkesfeeHHtjrofrayeai^. sv »♦„, .'i .. - > ' 

? • Thus^ Itt t>wpoftioii as the Alml^htf »tshsill gi¥«?<T5^ an 
opportiinit)'* of rccoWrirfg htfr trude^d tjredftj ^e«8hall re^* -"* 
Uirn to her foi^her bhatnefol traiie^lifehObilliad'i^med, 
t^r stripptA^ her of the'gi^H pwisMllnM §Mf had applied to 
fnRh^:>emiciau:iU8es« • "» >•« -f n • v^- «•' » 

r^ Bttt at fast, Tyres convMed by the gotjyel, lihMl iMiiliortf 
bear scandal and a WtutnbMnfH^^oek tonati^ni^; ' HK^tfhdiruo ' 
lender sacHfiditier laboor t6 th0idoltttly''cf 'itr^eaHh^'tftit to " 
iheworMp of tha Lonl^ andlMe conift»t^ofihoieitfmt«rerv^ ' 
Mw; '^ieshftltiiro long«r fi^ndififlitrviimtalMfr^aii^^ ' 
l«n!bv detaining them ;'%cit<k1iall*ittMief thettl^MlfferMdtM* 
Stat, fimq tiie hao^ bf'Ml^veriaiid'tftlfik^r^eMii^^Cftp^ ' 
: 0|[ God's d^idgii*^ la ^hb pTO]^eiOl«B jtii<immr4[:il«d^9i ' 
to give ug a just ideal of. a tratffiic iHfot^ only ^tA^clve-iir'aTaf* ' 
rioeylaad mh»e ftvdin aiHrplifiiisurds^^miit^^^^^nd infmo(«1lcy». 
Htfankind look upon cides eitriiitobd''^»«thr«;'c^ilvtn«rce'1fte^ 
that of Tyre (aad itai t^o sameUviMl-piivaie '^Mi^> tiff 
happier than any other ; as worthy of eiivy,>aia|'iUPAt^JmMiaJ 
their' iff dtistry^' laffeur^ aAd.the*nipoiir'(i^tli6liiittpfai«ad«iis 
and pro^kitid-ftspattcrhifirJornhe^^^^sr^' 
ater :> bat God, on the eotitnm,tiifhltoilt^^h«in«br'W\i«Aer* 
tbe ^hamcAilinageJof m wbmaa losC t|»«aU:: sense oC^irtll^? 
as a woman, whose only viliw i^ to 0educeandoot<i*ilf4f ^fottCh ^ ' 
who only soothes th« pas^ioDS "and flatters the sonset ; w6o^ 
labors: inodfstyiandrevei^ setitiTnent of honi^ait'; aivd'WkOf ^ 
banishhis &001 her counCenase»' ev^er;^ ^cHaractetiMle^ 
chastity, gipries lin ignominy.^ 1 W« saN^rBOtiaft Inlet*- IHrtii' 
hence tkaftraffic^ is niaM insi^a&i^Aiuk^ifH^aukM kpaiull*^ 
firam Ahe essentisl^cmnilMiantoftHid^sWlricti 1^ ]«i^»tft)d Hm^ 
faX wbenVightly used,3niepttssioHis;otin]l9nP'itldch/ik|tefilil«^ 
iK)thv^«iid;by>tt)Mift iiiesiiippentjei;iii(Mi^ovdier«nd&<iad«^lQ^ 
Tyre, c<mvert€lci;t0 dMristiaaity^ teaobetfmei^dMnMiln wIM* 
manner tbey '/o^tcr carry, on their traffits, 'aQdnto'«s^<ir 
which Uie^r ovghtto apply their pvofits^: ^. »:..> i.v -n -fd 


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SECrflOTt VK. 


Whilst Alexsttider tv^h carrrfttg onthe sitg« rfTyrc^ 
he had received a second tetter* nt>ni I^ai-ius, who at last 
fSBLve him the Vitfe of (Ling. ^ Me dQered him lO^UdO talents" 
^ (SO mHlton^) as a rites^^ for the captive princesses, iaiii' 
^ his dau)g;hter Statira in marriage, with all the country he 
^ had comquttred as far as the Euphrates, Darius hinted to! 
^ him the inconstant of fortune ; and described, in the most 
^ pOmpoos tenns, the nunnberl^ss troops who i^ere stSU vm-] 
^ aer his command. Could he (Alexander) thhii, ti^atit^ 
^ mwtf so very easy to cross the Euphrates, the Tigris, the 
^ Araaces, and the SSydaspes, whicli.were 9^ so many bul«i 
« wark$ ^o tjie Persian empire f That he shcaild not be 9I' 
^ ways shut up between rocks and parses : That they ou^Ufc 
^ botn to appear \rs a plain, aiid that then Alexander wouMk. 
« be ashame4 to come before him witlj only a handful o£ 
•* men.** The kltig hereupon summoned a cooncil,.in which; 
JM*menk) tJ^as of opJnifm' that h,e, ought to aC9^t of those of- 
fers, declstring he himself would agroe td tjiem", 'vtere he: 
Alexander. " And so would I,'* repUed Alexander, ** were 
•• I P^rmenio.** He therefore returned tl^e ioUowing api^wer^^ 
*•■ that he did not iwari^ the money I)arip§ offered him ; thai 
•*^ ft did not become Barhis' to oJBer a thiK^g he n^^ longer pos-^ 
^ sensed J or;tf6.pretefid to distribute, wh^ the hAd eoUvely lit,- 
•* That m Case he was the only persoh who did not know 
"which of them was superior, aDa':tle would sooi> determijael 
«' it. Tliat he should not think to intimidate whh rivears. a 
^^ man who had crossed so many seas, That to whatsoever 
** pikte he might find it' prOpei* to retire, Alexander wcadd;* 
^ not fail to find hhnr ojit.*' Danus,^ Hp(>n receiving tliis ans^ 
•wcr, lost all hopes Of accommtkktioo, aftij prepared again 
fbrwar. , ^ * ^ ^ 

t From Tyft5 Alei:ande^ tnarch^io Jerusalem, ftriplyrc- 
solVed to Show ft no ihore fiif oftr that? he had donfe the for- 
meir city ; ahd fbf tliis feason ; the Tvriaixs were so muchl 
employed in traffic, that they quite neglected husbandry, and 
bro«feht mo4t of their com and other pi-ovlsions from the 
couhtriei in their neighbo«rhpod/ | Galilee, Sam^a, ai^. 
Judea, fermt hcrf them Svith the greatest quantities. At tW: 
same time that Alexander >id.siejj;p to their city, he himself 

•Hat, in Alex. p. 681. Qi^Cait. I. iV. «. y. ArirJaiii t if.jj, iW 

f loi^h^ Ant><|. l.xi* ^^«. ^ . I Am^ir ^ . . • 

fj* frffrd^ oi- AttH^tti". Book XK 

was obltged to send for .pro\i$iaDs> &om tliose coimtries ; he 
therefore sent commissaries to summon the inhabitants to 
aubmiti and fbmish bis .aroiy with wHittei-ef tlitf might 
want. The lew», however, desired ta be excused, alleging 
Viat th«y had taken an oathpf fidelity to Darius j and per- 
sisted in answering, that they wouJd never acl^nbwleage any 
6ther sovereigi^ sjs lopg as he was living : a rajne example 
4f fidelity, and woi^thy of the only pctogle whuo ia tHat age ac- 
^nowjedged tU^ true God ! The SamJar^taps^ l^qwevei*, did 
not imitate the^i iu .this particular ^ , for ' Jh^ey submitted 
\Vitli cheerfulizes to Alexander, and* even' sent him SO0(y- 
men, to serve at tlie siege of Tyi-c and in other pfeces,, For- 
^e.bettepAinderstandlngof whatfbllows, it may oe nectstaiy 
for U8 to present the reader, iu few words, with the stated 
the Samaritans at t^at time^ and thecauipe'of t|ie stroujg^ao-' 
Cpathy bfetw^^jr'them aiid the Jewj. ; . " . ' . , 

I dbfstr\ tS * elsftwhere that tlieSam^Htans did not descend 
tjroM the Israelites, but were a cotony of iddlatet'Sy'taken.h'om 
the countries! on the other si^e' of the Buphrates, whom Asa- 
taddon, klbg of the Assyrians, had sent to inliatut the cities 
of Samaria, af^er the ruin of the kingdom of the ten tribes. 
These people, whq were called Cuth9ci,ldended tl^^ worship 
of the God of Israel with that of their idols ; and on'aH occa- 
fions discovered an enmity to the Jews. This hatred was 
ijiuch stronger after the i'eturh of tl>e Jews from the Baby- 
kmiih'can^vitV. before and after the restoratiott of the te»- 

• WoJhif^disUwdlngJtherieformMlion which the helyjaanNe- 
Bemiah harlwrgught in Jeruiale;n, with regard totfec mar- 
t^h^'bf Strang^ or fcreioi womieh, thp evil hajd iprcad so 
ftr," that the high priest^ house, which ought 'to )iavc been 
preserved m6r«,t|iMi any other. from, t^sc crjoimal inipc- 
ttircs,' was itself polluted with them", t One of the son*.of 
Jdioida the high priest, whom Jpsephus calls Mana^ses, 
Had tnarriedthe daughter of Sanballat the Jlfcrohitcf, and 
many, moj-e had fellowjed .JU5 example. But N^e^miab, 
sTeMoua {ot the laW of Godi'Nyhich was so shamefully violat-^ 
ccj, commanded, without exception, all who Imd naarficd 
slrange women, either to Jmt them away immediately, or de- 
part the country, . ^ Slanasses. chose tq 59 ii>to tjawsji™^^ 
rathei^ than sepai'ate'lupiself from his wif^ and iQCQT^^^ly . 
withdrew to Sarhari^, '.whither he Was Sillowed'by great 
cumbers as rebellious as" himself : he there settled them un- 
der the protection of Sanballat,' his' fhtiher-in-law', who was 
governorofthatijouytiy.^, , ^, .. .^>^^t* 

• Vo!. ii. of tlii*AB«yrtlto' * t a E«d;isf.i«r f Jes^ph^EntiV 


The JaUcr djt^infdof Baijus JSTothus, -wlioin pfpkably tl^ 
^ar which brokti out b*^t\vcen figypt And F*ema Kad forc^ 
jntQ I^op3uioia,l^ve tobnndqijii:i5i(yntGariz,im,ji9^rSa^, 
tia, a temple like that uf Jerys^epn, aad^'t6.ap56ipjt M 
sf s; hk^ soii-iii-Uw, prieiit thieregf. Frgip \J;iat; timei Samai;ij. 
jbecinne jh^ asiluii of ;J1 ihe^?J<;pi^epte^/ijpea*- And if 
was tiiia th^t rUisi^tl %lie haticf^d qf.tli^?ewfi aga^at tW 1% 

JeVuVaSfe^i' 6a£t'wEy/?rtheles^ raised 'aUar against- altaj^an^ 
temple agajn^t teB(iple 5 and refvged all, wliQ fledjfrom Jen*f 
^em- tQ sprecn 'tliemsQlve§ .from Ji(ifg punishment Vhich 
would have, been. inflicted oi tli^?iy Forjf/plaling the lawv , 
S\|cU was tiie §tate of Jude^^yhen Alex^derUid^iege to 
yre^ ■ .T*T\q S.amantanfi, as wp before 'ptj^evycd,^ had^.seioj: 
. im acanbj^ei^able t>6dy oi tr:9opsi wl^ereas th^ J^ws.thought 
they could pot submit to him, ^s:,long. as Darius, ta whoi^ 
they Had taken an oath ot allegiance, should be ^ive, 


Jy aftevlie liad obtaijieci so many victories, and tlunkmg that 

all things ought' to boW before him, resolved, the instant he 

had conquered Tyi'e* to marcb ^gain^ tiie Jews, and punish 

their disd^^ience as rigorpi^ly as 5^^.,^^^ ^9^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

Tvriaiis " > .1 • .. \ , , ■ ' * 

In tills imminent danger; iaddi»s, tl^p hjgli-priest, whogor 

vemed uiiOler the P.erbians, seeing himself exposed, with all 

the inlxabitants, tolhewra^h of the conqueror, had recourse 

to tl^e protection of tlie Almighty, gave orders for the offetr 

ing up public prayers to impjiore his assistance, and made 

sactifices. The night after, .God appeared to l?im in a dream, 

and hid him " to pause flowers to,b^ scattered np and do^i) 

'* the city ; to s^t opea ajlthfi gates,. >pd go, clothed i|i his 

M p6ntihcali6bes, w5th all the pi'iest^ drefised alsp m their 

y- vesimentsj and all»tlVp rest ,clQthedia- white, tp jpect A^ex^ 

'Sander, ayid not tp'jfear any evUfropi thatkingi .i^iasmi^cH 

" as he would protect them." this command was^punctu, 

ally obeyed ; ^;id accordingly this augu^. procession, the 

very day ^ft^^, i^iarched out of tjip city ^o ^1 eminence calU 

Pd &apha,» whence ther^ wa§ a yiew of all the plain, as well 

as of the temple anj} city of Jerusalem, ,H^r^ tl>p whole pro^ 

t;essionwaitedtUfean'ivalQf AtondVr-v ^ .. . .; . , 

" Ther Syrians and JPhcenici^jis who w.ere in his a.rroy, were 

persuaded tiiat the wratH of this prince was sq ^reat, tha^ 

• Tlie Hcl^^w word. Sap^a^, iiga^ci Ip 4if<:oycr i\^^% ^ 

jtoi HffTOttT OTMJtxJaftfzn. ■ Moi^ IK 

|iaomer,aadde5trctjrthat cit^.in the ptitne mimti^r aft beba^ 
jdone Xff^'f ^^ Qu^ed tHth jof trpon tlmt i^ccocmt, thej 
:9»ftittd ift expo^ta^ipp rfrtutttng.theirjcyes withth<; tjttimif 
jbcs of a_p6ople ttf yrlLoni t^iey liare a moiit^ ImtfM. At 
kooQ as die fcws \ieard of the ktej^a ^proadi, ti^^ «ct otii 
,ta nwrt nlm with att the tiolnp tetfo^e dbsctit)^. Afciaii.. 
ider wa/* atrock %t the «igM 6f the high-priest, in «irhote rof- 
fre atidforchetd a golden plate was fixed, on' which the 
JDAiqe of Cod was written. The monaent the ki«^ perceiv- 
^ tiK lU^ pnc4t| .he advanced towards ^t^ ^f^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 
;^ most i»r6foijmd irespect, bowed iAs bolSy, adoted the au> 
ki»t tiame \ipoii Ms Mnuafid saluted hit^ who woi^ it mth 
jBL reBgrops ve«f akHtooL Then the Je'ws, surfoondinj; AW- 
jttider, raised thdr viiices to wi3^ |]t{m eveiy kind di pros* 
tjcHtjr. A9 tlie spectators >Keit seized with inexpressible 
tarpri«e ; th^' cotild scarce believe thclr,ey:es, atid d&l liot 
know how to acconnt for a^|ht s6.^£intraiy to tiieir expec- 
tation, and so va^y imprg^ole. 

' Pattttenio, who tqoM not ygt recover froiii Uis astonish^ 
^cnt, asked the king how |t canjje to pa$s that he, who was 
aSdored by every one, adored the itigh-priest off the Jews, 
.*• I do not/^ replied Aiexaiidfer, « adore the ftigh-pnest, but 
,^ the Ood w^ioflfe mhus^er h« x^ ; for t^Isf I ti^as at Dia i9 
** Macedonia, (my mind whoHy jixed on ^c great design of 
f^ the Persian war) as I was tifetolvirig the methods liow to 
" conquet Asia, ^s venr man, dressfed in the same robes, 
« appeared to me in i drteim, ekhoned me to banish evefj 
.** fear, bid me crois the Hellespont beld^^ i.nd assure^ tne 
;♦ ttwtt God woMtd mattfi at the head of my army, and give 
f* me tlie victory over that of the Persians/* Alexander ad- 
ded, that the instant *e «aw thi^ priest, he ktie^ bin* by Ws 
jiabit, his stature, his a«r, and Jjis ^ce, to be the sameperr 
^on wliom he had fc^n at Dfa ^ ;tl:;at he wits ftrn^ perscBid. 
ed it Was by the commatidj aodnnder the immediate tbnr 
jdnci of heaven, t^at he had. undertaken this >irar ; that he 
Was sore hfe Should c^ercome DaHus het^ealter, and destroy 
^empii:e of Ifce Persians ; an4 that this was the reas^ 
why he adoned tbh God in the person of his pi^cst. Alcxr 
ander, afberhavin|^ thus answered Parmet^o, embraced the 
liigh-ptiest, and all hh brethren ; then walking in the midst 
fii therai, he arrived tt f er^saleih, where he' <Mlbred sacrifir 
iCes to God, in the t^wpie, alter the maimer preacribcd by 
«^e Mgh-prfe^. *^ 

The high-priest afterwwds showed him those passage^*? 

Aeprojft^ <tf p^]£^ wtech are sj?ok^ of Aa^t flfioniCf?*/ 

Seer. FIL iKSTORr of alexanber, 157 

r shall here give an extract of Ihem, to show how conspicu* , 
oiisly the most distant events at^ present to the Creator. 

* God manifests by the prophjecy of Daniel, that grandeur, 
empire, and glory, a;re his ; Uiat he bestows them on whom- 
soever he pleases, and withdraws them, in like manner, to 
jmnisli tlie abpse of them'; that his Visdem and power solely 
determine the course of events in all ages ; f that he chang- 
es, by the mere effect of his will, tlie whole face of human 
affairs ; that li^e sets «p new lungdoms, overthrows the an- 
cient ones, and effaces them, even to the veiy footsteps of 
thorn, -ijrith the -same ease as the wind -carries off the sraall- 
cst chaff from the threshing-floor. 

\ G<JdTs design in subjecting states to such astonishing rcv- 
dations, isto teach mefnthat they are in his presence as no- 
thing ; that he^ alone is the most high, the eternal king, the 
sovereign arbiter ; who acts, as he pleases, with suprema 
.^Kiwcr, both in heaven and in earth, f For the puttmg this- 
de^gn in execution, the prophet sees an august council, 114 
which the angels being appointed as spectators and overseers- 
of govemipents and kings, in(juire into the use which these 
make of the aythonty that heaven entrusted them with, in 
quality of his ministers ; and when they abuse it, these ||spi- 
Tits, sealous for the glory of thc^r sw^ereign, beseech God ta 
punish their injustice and ingratitude ; and to humble their 
pride, by casting them ftrtfnpk the throaje and reducing them, 
:to the most abject anjong raanldnd.. 

- *♦ Gbd, to Taake these inpportant truths atiU more sensi*. 
;lde, shows Daniel four dreadfuV beasts, who rise from a vast 
sea hi which the four winds combat together with fury j and, 
under these ^mbols, he represents to the prophet the origi)X% 
the characteristics, and fall of the four great empires, which 
are to govern the whole world successively. A dreadful 
Imt.too real imagc-i For empires rise out of noise and con^ 
fustoa ; they subsist in blood and slaughter ; they exercise 
their power with violence and cruelty ; tliey think it glori- 
ous to carry terror and desolation into all ])laces ; but yet^ 
in sphe of their utmost efforts, they are subject to contiuua! 
vicissitudes and unforeseen destruction. 

•ttThe prophet then relates more particularly the charac- 
•ter of each of these empires. After having represented the 
^inpnre of the Babyloniauis under the image of a lioness, a&4 

♦ Baniel in ao, M, 37. . t ^^»^ 35' 

!* Daniel IV 31,3^, 3S» 3^. ' § Ibid 14* 

II it was St the d«*irK of thete tngek thtc N«buchodono|0^ WW 
4nveft.frdm the society of mpmo lierd with wild bdttttv 
** JDaoid' vii, », 3. tt "bid 4, ii ^. 


us . DISTORT Of ALEXAKO£|t. Bfipk XF* 

tlut of the Modes and Peruam under the form of a bear 
greedy of prey, he draws the picture of the Grecian mon- 
archy, by presenting us with such of its characteristics as it 
is more immediately known by. Under the image of a spot- 
ted leopard, with four heads and foi^r wings, he shadows A- 
Icxander, intermit wjth gocjjl and bad quaU^es ; rash and 
impetuous in his resolutions, r^pid in his conqne^ fiying 
with the swiftness of a bird of piipy rather tlian marching 
>yitli tiie weight of ao army lad^n with the whole equipage 
qi war ; supported by the yalour and capacity of his. gene- 
rals, four of whoip, ^er having assi&t;ed him ip conquering 
liis empire, divide it among themselves. 

^ To this picture Jthe prophet adds elsewhere new tjooclies. 
Re enumerates* the prder of the succession of the kings of 
Persia ; he declare^ in precisis terms, that after the three 
f>i*$t kingS; y}^. Cyrus,' Cambyses, and Darius, a fourth mon- 
arch will arise, who is Xerxes ; and that he will exceed all 
his predecessors in power and in riches ; that this prince, 
puffed with the idea of Uis own grai^deur, which shall have 
resQ to its highest pitch, will assen^ble all the people in his 
boundless dominions, aj>d lead them to the conquest of Greece. 
iftut as the prophet takes notice only of the n^arch of this 
inultitude, and docs not tell us what success they met with, 
1)C thereby ^ves us pretty clearly to understand, that Xerxes, 
a soft, injudicious, ^nd ^rful prince, will not have the least 
success in any Vf his projects, 

t On the C9ntrai'y, from among the Greeks in question, at- 
tacked unsuccessfully by the Persians, there will arise a king 
of a genlus'and turn of mind quite different from that of Xerxr 
es ; and this is Alexander the Great, He shall be a b<rfd 
vaUanjt monarch ; he shall succeed in ail his enterprises ; 
he shall extend his doniinion far and wide, and shall estab- 
Msh an irresistible power on the ruins of the vanquished na- 
tions : but at a time when he shall imagine himself to be roost 
firmly- seated oi^.the throne, he shall lose his life with the re- 
gal dignity, and not. leave any posterity to succeed him in it. 
This new njonarci^y, losing on a sudden the splendour and 
power for which it was so renowned under Alexander, shall 
divide itself towards the foi^r winds, of heaven. From its 
tiiins there shall arise not only foi^r great kingdoms, EgypU 
%ria, Asia Minor, and J\{acedoQ, bat also several other for- 
eigners, or barbarians, shall usurp its provinces, and fcna 
kingdoms out of these. • . " ' 

i In fine, in the. eighth chapter the prophet completes, the 
<Jj5cription in still stroiiger colours, the character, the*at- 

£eC(. Vtl. HISTORY or ALEXANDin. 15^ 

ties, tfie series of successes, the rise and fall of these two tu 
val empires. By the image he gives of a powerful ram, hav- 
ing two horns of an unequal length, he declares that the 
fir^ of these empires shall be composed of Persians and 
Medes ; that its strength shall consist in the union of these 
two natiorts ; that the Persians Shall ncvcttheless exceed tlie 
Medes in authority ; that they shall ha-^e a series of con- 
Guests, infthottt meeting whh anyopposhion ; that they sha|l 
first extend th€m towards the "vVest, by subduing the Lydians, 
the provinces of Asia Minor*, and Thmce ; that they shaU 
afterwards turrt their anns towards the north,* in order tp 
subdue part of Scythia, tnd the nati6ns bordering on the Ca.y 
pian Sea. J in ftnfc, ^at they shall endeavour to enlarge their 
dominions towards the south, by subjecting E^t and Ara- 
'XAa ; but that they ishall riot intade the nations of the east. 
The mionarchy of the Greets is afterwards exhibited to 
l^aniel) under the symbol of a he-goat of a prodigious size ^ 
lie perceives that &e Macedonian army will march from 
the west, in 6|:der to inva^ the empire of the Persians j 
'that it will be headed by a warrior famous for hfs power and 
glory ; that it will take immense marches in quest of the 
enemy, even into the very heart of his dominions ; that it 
shall advance towards this enemy with such rapidity that k 
will seem puly to skim the ground ; that it \ViU give this em- 
pire its. mortal Avonnd, ; entirely subvert it by repeated vic- 
tories, and, destroy the double power of the Persians and 
Medes ; during which' not one monarch, whetlier its ally oc 
ne^boi^r, shall give it the le«'kst succour. 
. But as soon as this monarchy shall have rose to Its greatest 
height, Alexander, who. formed its greatest strength, shaU 
be snatched from it ; and then there will arise, towards tl;e 
four parts of the worlds four Grecian monarchies, which^ 
though vastly inferior to that of Alexander, will, however, 
be very considerable. 

Can apy thing be inofe wonderful, morfe divine, ihar a 
scries: of prophecies, all of them so clear, so ex.ict, and so 
circunistantial, ^ prophecies, which go so far as to point out 
that a^>rij[ice shajldi^ without leaving a single successor from 
among his own family, and that four of his generals will di- 
vide his empire between them ? But we must peruse these 
prophecies in the scriptures themselves. The Vulgate agree* 
a few places excepted, pretty nearly with the Hebrew, which 
I shall translate * agreeable to the original text. 

*' Wie have not followed Mr. Rollio's traoflation here, beli«T*Dg 
it ffiore proper to oiake life of our own vcrfiba 9^ d)f Bi^ie. 


^' * In tlw tlttrd year of the r^gn of th€^ Vm% Bekbtz^ar, 
^ a vision appeared unto me, even ooto me Daniel, after that 
*' which appeared unto me at the firsts And I saw in a >i- 
*'sion, and It came to pass when I saw, that I was at Shu* 
** Shan in the palace, which is m the province of Uaro, and 
^ I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai. Then 
*' I lifted up mine e>'^ and saw, and behold there stood be- 
^£ore the river a bam, which had two horns, and the %m 
** hoiiiB were high ; b«t one was higher than the other, aiui 
** the higher came up last I saw the ram pushing veat' 
^ ward) and northward, and southward s so that no beasts 
^ mirht stand before him, neither was there any that could 
*' deliver eut of liis hand, but he did according to bis Trill, 
*' and became great. And as I was considering,' behold, an 
^ he-goat came fi*om the west, on the fiace of the >vhole 
^ earth, and touched not the gronnd ; and the goat had a 
* notable horn between his eyes. And he came to tlic ram 
*^that had two hoiiis, which I had seen standing before the 
** river, and ran untoliim in the fury of his power. And I 
•* saw him come close unto the ram, and he was,moved witi 
^* choler against him, and smote the ran», anej brake his two 
•• horns, and there was no power in the ram, to stand before 
•* him, but he cast him down to the ground and stamped 
** upon him : and there was none that could deliver the ram 
** out of his hand . Therefore the he-goat waxed very great, 
^ and when he was strong, the great horn was ijrdtci ; aod 
**from it came out four notable ones towards the foorwit^ 
** of heaven." ^ 

A great number of very important refiections migftt he 
made on the prophecies I have now r^catcd ; but these I 
shall Irave to the reader*s hnderstanding and rdieK»> ana 
will make bat one remark, on which however I shall not ex- 
|>atiate so much as the subject might de&erve- . . ^ 

The Almighty presides in general over all events which 
happen in the world ; and rules, with absolute swaj;» th< 
^ate of all men in particular, of all citfes, and of all empires ; 
tut then he conceals the operations of his wisdom, a«d the 
wonders of his providence, beneath the veil of natural cau- 
ses and ordinary events. All that profane history exhibits 
to us, whether sieges, or the conquests of cities -battles ^^cn 
er lost ; empires established or overthrown ; in afl these,! 
«ay, there appears nothing but what is human and natural J 
God seems to have no concern in these things, and^c shooja 
be tempted 'to beliieve that he abandons m«n entirely to vbP'T 
views, their talents,. and.theirjpassions ; if we, perhaps, «*" 

J^ect:Ttl, ItflSTORY of AtEXAHrDEir. Idi 

' <5fept the Jewish natfon, whom" he considercd as his own pe- 
culiar people. 

' • 'To J)revent our fellmg mte a temptation so repa|;nant to 
l^ligioi>-a«4^CYen reason itself, feod breaks at every interval 
Itis silence, and dispei'ses the clouds which hide him, and 
condescends to discover to ns the secret springs of his prcv- 
idenoe, by causing his prophets to forctel, a long series of 
years before the event, the fate he has prepared for the dif- 
ferent nations of the earth/ He reh^eals to Daniel, the or- 
der, the succession, and the different characteristics of the 
foOr great einpires to Which he is determined to subject all 
the nations of the universe^ viz. that of the Babylonians, of 
tlie Pcraans'and Medes, of the Greeks j and, lastly, that of 

It is in the safhe view that he insists very strongly on the 
two most famous conquerors that ever existed : I mean, Cy- 
rus and Alexander, the one founder, the other destf oyer, of 
the powerfal empire of Persia. He causes the former to 
be called by his name 200 years before his birth ; prophesies 
by tiie mouth of Isaiah, Jiis vi(itories ; and relates the sev- 
eral circumstances of the taking of Babylon, the like of 
'Vhich- had never been seen before; On' this occasion, he 
points out -Alexander by the mouth 6f Daniel, and ascribes 
such qualities and- eharactenstics as can agree with none 
but hiiBi and which denote him as plainly as if he had been 

•These passages of scripture, in which God explains hiin- 
self clearly, should be considered as very nrtcicus ; and 
sen'e as so many keys to open to ite the fath to the secret 
•methods by iVKich he governs the worid. These faint glim- 
inerings of light should enable a rational and religiciis man 
to see eveiy thing else clearly ; and make him cbnchiac, 
from what is teidof the four great empires, qf Cyrw and A- 
lcxancJer,of Babylon and Tyre, that we cnght to acknow- 
' ledge and admire, in the several eyent^ of profane histcr}', 
God's perpetual care and regard !P6r a!ll men and all states, 
-Whose destiny depends entirely on his wisdom, his pcwer, 
and his pfcftsaM». • 

'We may easily figure to oiirselve« the great joy and ad- 

fniratiott with which Alexander was fiHed,*upon hearing stlch 

' clear, such drcumltantial, and advantageous promises, ^e- 

' 'fbre he lefl Jerusaletn, he assembled the Jews and bid them 

' ask any favour ^vhateoever. They answered, that iheir fe- 

quest was, to be- allowed to li^^ accoixiing to the Ikws which 

ttictr ancestors had left them, and to be exempted, the ecv* 

<nth year) from^ their usual tribute ; and for thii j^eason, be- 

2 a , . ... i 

I^ inSTO&T OF Ai.KZAV9ZKf Jtoo^ XV^ 

cause they were forbid, by their laws» to.sowtbeir fiddsyan^ 
<u>nscqueutly could have no harvest. Alexander granted 
, tbtir request ; and, upon the high-priest's beseeching him 
to suifer tlie Jews who lived ia Babylonia and Media to live 
likewise agreeable to their own laws, he also indulged them 
in this particular with the utmost humanity ^ and said fur-^ 
ther, tnat in case any of them slK)uld be willing to serve un- 
der his standards, ha would give tliem leave to follow their 
own way of worship, and to observe their re^>eaive cus-^ 
. toms : Upon which offer great numbers listed themselves. 
He was scarce come from Jerusalem, but the $amarita|^s 
waited upon him with great pomp and ceremony, humbly 
entreating him to do them also the honour to visit their tem- 
ple. As tliese had submitted voluntarily to Alexander, a^d 
•enC him suceoiu*s, they imagined that they deserved his &- 
vour much more than the Jews ^ and flattered themselves 
that they slioold obtain the same, and even much greater in^ 
didgenct. , It was in tliis view they made the pompous pre- 
cession above-mentioned, in order to invite Alexai\d^ to 
their city ; and the 8G0O men they had sent to serve under 
him, joined in tbe request made by &eir countrymen. A- 
Icxander thanked tliem courteously ; b^t said. that he was 
obliged to march into Egypt, and therefore had no^time to 
lose ; however, that he would visit their city at his retuni, 
^ in case he had oppoitunity. They then bc^ught him tocx^ 
empt them fi*om paying a tribute every seventh year ; upon 
which Alexander asked them whether they were Jews ? 
They made an ambiguous answer, which the king not hav- 
' ing tin^ to examine, he also su^ended this matter till his 
I'etum, and immediately continued his match towards Gaza. 
♦ Upon his arrival before that city, lie found it pnw'ided 
with a sti^ong garrison, commanded by Betisjone of Dariut^' 
cimuchs. This governor, w1k> was a brave man, and vtry 
faithful to his sovereign, defended it with gi^eat vigour 
against Alexander. As this. was tlie only inlal or pass int& 
Egypt, it was absolutely Hec^ssary for hin> to conquer it, 
and therefore he was pbUged[ to besiege it. But altbcugh 
every art of war was employed, notwithstapding his soldiers 
fought with the utmost intrepidity, he wlks howeyer forced 
. to lie two months before it. Exaaperated at its holding out 
' so long, and his receiving twQ wouiidt, Jhe was i»esolyed to 
treat the governor, the inhabitants, and soldierf, with a bar- 
barity absolutely inexcusable ifw he cut lOyOOOmea to pie- 
ces, a^d sc^d all the rest, with their wives and children, ior 
slave*. Whem l^tis^ who had been taken ^isoner in tlic 

. , *» Diflri. havii. p* 516. ArrhnJ^ n..p. I0<«^zos ^^^^t ^** 
)» iv, c. 6. Flat, iowAile^t. p. 679, . w 

tast asssMlty waftUronght before him^ JMex^itder, uwt^ad of 
iLsing him kindly, as his valour an<^ iide^i^ justly morited, 
this yoTSng moiiarchy who otherwise esteemed 'bravery even 
in an eneuay^ filled on that occasion i^'th an hisolent joy^ 
spoke tbi^ to him ; ^'Betis, thou shalt not die the death .^iiott 
^^ desiredst. . Pi*epare therefore to suffer all those tormcntu 
*^ which revenge ean invent." ,Betis, looking ppon tlie kingy* 
not only with a firm, but an haughty ail*, did not make t£e 
least reply to Uis menaces -; iqton which th^ king, more en-' 
raged thap before Ht his disdainful silence-^^'Observe, said 
he, ^'X beseech yoU) that d^mb ^rrog^nce< Has he beudcd 
t^^the kfhee I l^&.he spoke but one subisJB^ive word t B\|t 
^^IwiU Gonqiierthifr obstinate silence, and will force groaits 
*^ frota him» if X ean draw nothing else.'' At last ^^lexai^ 
der's * anger rose to fury.; has coadiict.QOw beginning tp 
change y^ ith his fortune :. Upon whic^i he ordered a hole tp 
be made through hi^ heels, when a r(4)e beings put tl^rough 
thern^ .and this being tied to a chariot, he ordered lus sol-' 
diersto dra^^ Betis round the city till he died* . He boasted 
his having imitated, on tliis occasion, AchHles, from whoii^ 
he wa$. descended .; who, ^s Homer relates, caused, the de^ 
body o^ He&toir to b^t di^agged in the same manner round 
the wall^ of Tro)' f ; as if a man ought ever to pvi^ie hiii)-> 
self for h9;ving imi«£^ed^so ill au example. Both \vere very 
barimtoivf, but Alcxand^r'V w&s much more sp, in causing 
Betis to b« dragged aUve ( .aiid for no oth^t reason, bu| be« 
cause he had served his sovereign with bravery and fidc^ty, 
by defendil^g a city, wi^ wliich he had intrusted hi^i ; a 
fidelity^that ought to hafe beqp admired, and even rewarded, 
by ?ui enemyv rathejr tl>an punish^ in so cruel a manner. 
> He sentftheigre^te^t .p%rt of the plunder he found in Gaaia 
to01ympi999 tp Clpopa^ra his sister,, and to his, friends: He 
»lso presented .I^sifpnida^ his precep^r, with 500 quintal^, 
or -one cwt.of frankmcense, and 40p quintals of .myrrh ; 
^^ing to mlttd^ c^n^ioQ Leonidas had given him when bot 
a chiSl', and which ^s^med^ even at that t^me, to presage 
the conqviests this monarch had lately achieved : for Le^i- 
das ot^Berving Alexander take. up whole handful^ of incen^ 
At a sacrifice, aodtHrow it into the fiLr,Q, said to him, ^^Alex- 
^* %ndc^, wheii y^l^iaH have conquei^ed the country which 
** pro^ce» tibLese spij^es, you tlien<may be as profuse of in- 
«« cense .as yon please^ but, till that day comes, be a|»aring 
^ uf wbfklytfu h4ve." The monarch therefore wrote toLe*)- 
^^aidas^as follows i *<I sendyi^u %J(arge quantity of i^cepte 
^Irtei^iade vortlf ioYa^kn,,j«m turn pwtgriaosiittts novrM; 
«i»t« fostuoai Quint, Cltft. 

f Drcipit eaKiapUi: vitiii iautftbUCf .Hci»aTt 

nH ' tfVsTOBY OF AttltllgtikZ.' Aook Xfi 

*< and my rrii, Hi order thaty6u may no lon^r bfe so teserVe ^ 
«* and sparing in- yoor aaciifices to the gods." 

*Aii 8000 as Atexander had ended th^ sie^ of Gaza, he 
left a garrison* the #j, and turned the whole power 'ci his 
arms towards Egypt. In seven- days raarth he arrived be- 
fore Pelusiumj \#iiitJier a great number qf Egyptians liad as- 
sembled, with aU imagiiri^e ditigenoeyfeoTecc^ise him for 
their sovereign. 

The hatred thes^peopleboi^ to^l'^rslans'was so'great, 
that they valued* very little who ^ould be their king, provi- 
ded thsiy coufd blit meet with' a* hero to rescue them'from 
the insolence and indignity wUh which' themselves^ and thoso 
who professed' tlieir risligion, wfere treated ; for hoiv f^se 

•soever a religibn may be (and if Is searcis possible to imag> 
ine one more abtord than that of tli^ Eg>'ptians)> so long as 

■it oobtinttes to b^ tiio established reli^onj th6 pec^le will not 

•suffer It to be insulted ; nc^hing affecting their minds sd 
strongly, nor filing them to a greater degree. Ochus had 
caused tkdir god Apis to be m\irdered,in'a manner highly 
injurious to them^U^etf and their religion y and- t^ie Peruaas, 

»to whom he had left tlie govenim«ht, Oonnnued to mak& the 

'same mock cf that detty. Thus severtil cireumstansces had 
rendered %he Persians so-odiOus, that, upDii(^ Amyntas's com- 
ing up a-little before with- a handful of irten, hfe feond them 
|>repareid to johi, ahd asslist him in eitpOlliiig thfe P^rslabs. 
This Amy tttas had deserted fn»m Adexaiidery alid entered 

I into the service of Darius. He had commanded the Gre- 
cian forces at the battteof Issos : andhUvingftied into Syria, 

tby the country lying towards TripoH, wi^4O0Q toen^ he had 
there seized upon as many vessels aS he wanted, burned tkfc 
rest, and immediately sef'sail towarifts the idaad of Cy|>rus, 
and afterwards towards Felusium^ IThlch he took by sm^ 
prise, uport feigning that he had be^ bdfioared with a com- 

. mission ftt)m Darius, appointing himgovernor of Egypt,m 
the room of Sobaces, killed in the battle of Issui. As soon 
as he foohd himsdf possessed of this anportant city, he threir 
off the mask, aftd made public pretensions to the crown df 
Egypt ; declaring, thatthemotive'OfhiscWttkig'Waa to ex- 
pel the Persians. Uporr this, a multitude of E^^ians, wlio 
wished for nothing so earnestly as to free therriseWes from 
these insupportable tyrants, went over to him. He 4hen 
inarched directly for Memphis, the capital t^ the^iftgdom ; 
when coming to a battle, he defeated the Pter^at^, and-shm 
them up in the city. But, after he had gained this victoiy, 

■•> • A. M 3673- Ant. J, C. 331. tK«d, h xvii. p* 546-^W 
Arrtao I, ili, p 104^110. Plot, ta AlexV p 679--681, <)«*• 
Cwt. 1, iv^ c, 7, 8. isQiOi IX} t, !»♦ , 

Sect. VII. iifstdaSLrwikVEattmiitL.- i!ti 

haring neglectedibD to6p lijs soidiervtoj^er) t^ similized 
ep and down in search of plundery^vhtchr the cncny Kcing^ ' 
they nified <Mit tkpoor smch as irea&amed, and ovt thsm t»' 
pieces, wifii Atnyntas their kader.- 

Th» evantysoiarfromlestctiiiigtheavevsiea the Egyp* 
tians had for^^ie Perftlans^ intfreassd it <tiU ttiore ; ao diat 
the jmdraent AlsxanderappearBd sptm tlic froxvtim, the 
peopiev irhD weire }all dkp£«^ to reoeiTt that monarch, raa 
m Crowds ta w^miityiih!^. His arrival^ atibe h(Mid of a 
powevliii asimy, pn^Miled'thfcni with a sactik-e pMotttoTy 
which Amyntafi could vmk afford tiicm'f «ai^ from thtocani 
fiidcr&taoh, thiey ail detikared' openiy in liia f avobr. Matittn^ 
who commanded' ifrMan^Sy findiaif it wbcdtd b« to.nop«r« 
ppie for him .to reaifit ao tri u m ph aH t m vrmjj and that Da&^ 
f iuk, his STvareigh, watf iiot- inr-ftcoadidoa .» aadtour (lim ;( 
he therciliire Btt open dief^afectof thecity totheccnq^cnnv 
And <gaH& i4> B0»ia]ettts, about 140,OO0L and ^ the kBi|:*i 
farniture. Thus Alexander possessed himself of alV£gyp%' 
wtthfOHtiartc^giiHt^'theirtft <tp p o iiti<m . ^ - 

At Matafkhis he formttd-Kdes^ of via&thig fhe tdiaple of 

Jttpiter-AiBmoii. This temple vras situated hi the midst aC 

te saady deserts of LybiA,.aiid twelve days jtnRMy fhom 

Memplmu- Ham,* the aon of Koah, first peopled £|(}^ 

and li^l^ aftto thfe fiood ^ and when idotattry began to gaia 

KTOimd in tlte ^orld some ttitte alter, he leas thex^ief deity 

of tfaeae two coa^trifis^ifi^ vhidh iiis descendants had con- 

tioaeab Ji .tSempdie waa buih to his liionoor is ihe mtdst Df 

|heaa desfertB, upon a spot bf .^iretty gaod gronndt sbont two 

lugiies f bnaady 'wfalth fonned a idnd of aniUaad in a sea of 

tand. It i^. te iirhocn'4to Ckroeks oeA 2: Mt Ji^itcr, t :«nd 

Ihe fie|lyptBUis> Ammtm:. £a rafooess of. time thcsrtwo nanea- 

weae j^ed> and ^e f^a^ camd Jn|>lber<iAjBmtti;' 

. The modre of tlm jouhaeyf nMsh iras aqutaHf tasAi nod' 

dangerous, was owiajf to a lildlicnlaus i^^onty.^ Alexander 

^ying i^ad inHnniefV and other iabidausrstithars of anti- 

^laty^ that rao«# of tfetear keroesTrere r^paesfeDted aS aons af 

tome d<edty,'aat^ as l^e^lftiself was da^raaaiol passing for an 

hero, he was dfeterroihed tohavcrstane godlbr his fethcn 

Accdrdihgiiir fee fl»ed'Up6n'lupiter*Ainiiton.f6rtiiafc ^arpese^- 

ftnd begdiTby taibte^ thepiiesli^and teaciUKg them;th0pa1«^ 

fiiey were tbatt. • . . * • -«*' , • v .- . * 

»P1«,l,ir, * : fFoftf hrrbag s . » 

fFor thit rsafoo ttb^aity t^^ltsgf^ «lkh tfte I(t4>ta«c«f' call Ke«r 
AmmoD, the city of Ham, or olAnmoD, h ctHed by the Grcck^ 
»«<3tf ofj«pittr *:'"'-'■: • .i ^' ^ 

tjeremiah^xlvi. 25. Essklel, sauC !•»* Niliamyia. i^t 

Itt «I5T.0&VQFfALE>AXDSR. .Bikklf, 

ft ^nrettld teive«bteiitcy«o'{)arpoife,liad JOijr oneendeavour- 
ed to divert him from a. design which wa6 great in no other 
ciFCiimttttceBthsm the |iride and extraragance that gave 
birth to it. Pufied up with his victories, he had already be - 
pm t6 aailime, as Hutarch observes^ that character of tena- 
ciousness and inflexibtlkv which wili db nothing but com- 
mand v which cannot suffer adrii^ ahd mildi less bearop^ 
position ; which knows nthher <A)st!a)des nor dangers ; 
which makes* the heautifiil \xi consist in ioapossibUil^ ; in a 
wofld^ which 6adet itself tSM'Ui fote, noten^ eoetfiies, 
bm fortresses, seaaonsf aiid!thn'wfatals oit^tr of fiature ; im 
iuu«l effect of a long ieries.ftf jsros^nicies, which subdaes 
the stroorat, and maloes thcw ai length fo^lget that they ait 
men.' we ourselves h^vses^en a^famous * conqueror^ whtf 
boasts his tceadingrih.tiv strpsi of Alexander^ cany fiirtbef 
than he had ever done this kind of savage heroiani, and uy 
it down as a* maacim to himself^ nc^'er to recede £roiB his i-es^ 
^ttOB. ....... 

t Alesiander therefore siets oat ;'and going doKm from thS 
Ihiytt MemjihB, till he can)^ to the sea^ he coasts it ; atid, af: 
ier having passed Canopas, he observes, opfKisite to the isl- 
and of Pharos, a spot he thought very well situated for the 
bbiklihg of a city. He himedf dr^wthe}flan of it, aii'd mark- 
ed out the several places where the temples afliU 'public 
squares were to be erected. For tlic building of it,' he em- 
ployed Dinocfater tfie architect, who had acquired great re^ 
potation bv his rebuilding^ at Ephesas^ the temple of IHana, 
which Bferaftrattts had burned; This cil^*^ be caBed after h« 
own name, and it afterwardji' rose to be the eapitiJ d^ 
kmgdom;^ ^' its haibour, whidt was verv co«modious,^liad^ 
^e MeOfterriuMean on' one side, ahd.the Nile and the Red 
Sea in its neighbourhood, it drcW afl the traffic of the earf 
fend wfest ; ahdthereby became, inr a very little tiime, one of 
the most fiourxsfaing cities in thennite^. 

Alexander hada jodmey to goof 1600 stadia, drfiO French 
leagues, to the ten^le of Japiter-^Aromoni and iriost of the 
.way w^s tfarough san^^deseq^s. . The soldiers were patient 
isaough for thfe two fiwt days iharch^ before they arrived irf 
the vast dreadful solitndes ;bi|t liar soon as they fii^andthein-' 
ad^^ m vaUt plailis,*^ comed wi^vsandka of a prpdi|:i<'a' 
depth, they were greatly terrified.' Sdrroundedas with th« 
•ea, they ^paed round as for as their sight could extend, to 
discover/t^f^ostfUey^^e place that wasi inhabited \ »at m 
an vson, for they ^eoi^d Rfltpsvoei^ aomnich as a single treejc 
*■- - . . * : • . '• 

« CKarlc^ XII. kiDg'of Stredea. 

tA.M. ^^^' Ant.J..-Oi331; -. . • ... 

Sect. Fir. . . ifxsiiOjRY ftr* ALiEXAKDM. icr 

riior the least footsteps of any Itfnd'tl^t had b«^ of^vMed^ 
To increase their calamity, ^e wfiter that tlicy had broi^t 
in goats' skins, upon camels, now £aUed9< andtheiie was aflt 
so much as a single drop, jyti all tha|t s^y. desert. They 
therefore wer^ reduce^ to^^he ^.condition ol dyii^ aknost 
witlv, thirst J not to mention the dwiger they wef ein of besrig 
buried nnder n)<;^ntains of sand that were sonpietioies raised 
by the wmds, aad which had forn^erly destroyed 50^000 of 
Cacttbyses' troops, : Pyery thii^ was l>y Xhis tijAe scorched 
m so violent a d<^^} aj^d the air hee9J»e so hot, that tbB 
men coaid sicarccly breathe ; wh^n <Sn a sudden, whether by 
ch^ce, say the ^^tprjajis, or the ijnjnediate indulgence of 
heaven^ UjLC sky wag §o completely overspread with thick 
clouds, that they hijid the »ini;which was a great relief to the 
ariny ;. thoi^h they were Miil in prpdi|;iows want of water. 
But the storm having t^spbarged Ji^elf \\\ a violent rain, er^. 
ery soldier got a^ m^ph as he wanted ; aad some had so vi- 
olent a thirst, that they stood with their mouths open, and 
ptched t]^e rsfc^A *s it.fejl. .The)t|diciQ)^3,reader lOiows what 
judgment he i^ ^ forn> of these .maryelloMS incidents with 
which, historian^ have thought propjBr to pmbeliish tliis irela* 
tion, ' ., \ _'.'-,• .;, . , " 

They w;»re ^eyer^I days inxirossing thesfe deserts ; aad, tip* 
on their arriving near the plaoewhere the oracle stood, they 
perceive a ' great number of ravens flyijog* befiDtti the most 
advanced standard. These ravens sometimes ilew to the 
ground, when the army mar<^bted slowly ; and at other times 
advanced forward, to sei*ve them as guides, tiji they at last 
cam© to'the tetnpleof the god. A vastly swirprising circumr 
stai^ee ,is, that although tjiis oracje be situated in the midst 
of an a^mo^t boundless solitude, it nevertheless is snrraiunded 
with a p'ove so very shady, th^kt the sunrbeanis can scarcely 
pierce it ^ not to mention that this grove or wood, is water- 
ed with several springs .of fi^esh water, which preserve it in 
perpetual verdure, fi is related^ that near this grove there 
IS another, in the midst of which is a fountain, called the wat- 
^> or fountain, of the Sun. At dayAre^kitislukcrwarm, at 
noon .cold, but in the eyenijig it grows warmer insensibly, 
and at jnidpight boiling hot ; after this, as day approaches, 
It decreases in heat, and continues this vicissitpde for eyer.^ 
The god who* is worshipped in thi^ .tenjjAe, is not repre- 
sented ujnder the .form which papiters and sculptors g!»ieral. 
^y giye to gods ; for he is made of emeralds, and other pre- 
cious stoiies, ^odjront the head ,to the navel * resembles, .a 

* This passage io Qoiotus fjurtiitf If pretty diffi^Iti aad k |ni^« 
^'«*y explained by iatcrpreteri, / . * ' 

^flie kias being oomeitito <1^ temple, the aeiuor priest 

declared him tO'be thfi( son of JApiter ; and assured, that the 
fod himsdf bettewed^hki n&meen him. Alexander accept- 
ed It with fOf ) A«d aeh^^ewltd^ Jupiter as his father. He 
^fterwardb asked the pncBt ii^Mther his f.uher Jupiter had \ 
not ^aUottcd him the etnj^ <^ the wjioie world \ To -whkh I 
Hie priest, w^ was as much a 4fotterer as the king wsks f 
miivflorioosy answered, that he should he monarch of ^ 
imlverse. At last, he etK|«irBd, whethev all his Cither's mtir* 
ierere had been po^^shed; but the priest replied, that he 
bbu^emed 4 that his father was immortal ; but with regartd 
to the murderers of J^tlfH they had all been extirpated ; 
adding, .^at he shoald tie invincible, and afterwaiads tak< 
lus seat among the deities^ Having ended his sacrifice, hi 
ofiered faftgnificeat presents to the ^, . and' did not* ia\ 
the priests, who had been so faithf^ to his interest. 

Swetted with4he splendid tiHe t^ the son of Jupiter, ai 
fancying himself raised above the humu> species, he retu] 
<ed from his joeniey as froin a 'triumph. From that time. 
all his letters, Ids orders and decrees^ he always !iyrote in ' 
etyle following : ♦ Mextindei'i kin^i sdn if JHpittT'Anrm 
In answer to which, Olympias, his mother, one day madej 
very witty Temoastraivce v^ a tciy words, by desiring h;-' 
not to ooarrel any looger with Juno: 

Whiifst Alexander prided himself k» 4hese ch4meras, 
tasted the great pleasure his \'anity*fnadehim'eon€;eive i\ 
4tliis pompous tit je, every one derided' him in secret ; 
some^ who had not yet put cm the yoke of abject flatte: 
•ventured to reproach him upon that account ; but they pi 
ytet^ dear for that liberty, as- the sequel will ^ow. Not sat J 
isfied with' endeavouring to pass for the son of a god, and at 
t>eing persuaded, in case this were possible, that he ideally 
•«wa8 such, he himself would also pass for a god ; till at lastj 
.providence having acted itiiat part, of which she was pleas* 
ed to make him the instrument, brought him to l^s end, and 
thereby ](eveUed him with the rest of moitals. 

Alexander, upon his return from the temple of Jupiter- 1 
Ammqn, being arrived at the Pahis Mareotis, which is not 1 
far fHwn tiie island of IHiaros, made a -visit to the new city, 1 
part of which was now built. He took the best methods pos- \ 
aibkito peojfdeit, inviting thither ^11 sortfs of ixzxsons, to whom \ 
lie oifered the most advantageous ^conditions, t He drew to | 
it, among others, a .considerable number of Jews, by allow- 
kx^ them very great pi^vfiegesf for he n4t only left them th^ 

# Vamapiid A. Qel.1; »». c. 4, 

^ JoNpb, c^trs Appi«o, 

id ISJLE of PHAK O S* 

Isle ofPhaws E. The narrow way 
7tt Port 


free escercise of tjieii: religion and laip^Si bat put tliem on the 
same foot in every respect with the Macedonians, -whom he 
settled ther^. From thence hje went to Memphis, where he 
spent the vrintet. ' 

Varro observes, that at the time this king built Alexan* 
dria, the use of papyrus, for writing was found in Egypt ; 
but this I shall mention c1 if wlicrc. 

* During Alexander's ^tay in Memphis, he settled'the af- 
fiilts ofEgvpt, ^utfoing none but Macedonians to command' 
tJie trpops, ' lie divided the country into districts, over each 
liwjSidl hc! appointed a Heiita^Jinti who received ordefs^from 
.^LittBetf only ; not thinking it Eirfr to intrust the general c.oi»- 
lEi^tid of all the troops to one singfe person, in so large and 
j'opulous a tomitrj'. ^\^itU regard to the civil government, 
tie invested pne^Doloaspes with the whole power of it ; for» 
being de^rous that E^rjit should still be governed by* Hs an- 
cient laws and customs, he was of opinion th^t a native of 
Egypt, to whom ihcy nnist be famHiar, .was.^erfbr that 
office tnan any foreigner jv^hatsoevor. 

To hasten the building of his new city, he appointed Cle-' 
omenes inspector over it ; witjx orders for him to \&vy the 
ti-ibute which Arajbia was to pay. But this Cleomencs was 
a rety v^ickedVrttch, who abused his authoi'i^y, apd pp- 
ipressed the people with the utmost barbaritv. 


, , . •-^XliE F^iMOUS BATTLK OF AR:ai!:LA. 

Alexander having Sctifled the aifairs of Egypt,f set out 
ffom thence about spring-time, to march into the east against 
liarius. In his way through Palestine he heard news which 
gave' him great Uneasiness. At his goinginto Egypt, he had 
appointed Andromachus, whon% he highly esteemed, gover- 
nor of Syria ahdPalestine. Andromtujhas coming to Sama- 
»;ia to settle some afl^irsin that country, the Samaritans mu- 
tinied, and setting lire to the hous^e in wjuch he was, burned 
Mm alhre. <It is very probable, that this was occasioned by 
^^ rage ivith Which that people were lired, at their having 
been denied -the sam« privileges that had been granted the 

• Arrian. L iii. p. 108—1 lO, Q^Cuh, 1. iv. c.^8. 
.fDidd. I. xvli p. 530— 536. Arrian. 1. iii. p. m—i^f. 
fl«t.inAlcx, p. 68x— 6S5. (XCoft 1. W. c. 9.-X6. Juwia, 

irp HISTORY or llitANDE*. '^fCok IK 

Jews tl>cir enemies. ' Alexander was higlilj' exas{)eratcd a- 

^HM\si them for this cruel action, and accoi'dmgly he put to 
death all those who had any "hand in it, bam5i.ed the rest 
from the city of Samaria, supplying tlji^ir rfcdm with a color 
ny of Mapcdoniajis^and divided the rest dftlieir lands among 

the Jews. "^ i^ . 

. He mide some stay in Tyre, to seU'e the yaxloiis affairs 
qfthe co^ntrieii l^e left "behind hin^, and ^dvahced^towards 
new cQuq^ests^ . " 

, * He was scarce ^t out, "when ah eunuchliroui^ word 
that Darius' consort was dead in child-bed. Heani^ Ihis, 
he returned back, and .went into the "tent of Sysigambw> 
"whom he found bathed In tears, and lying on the ground^ in 
the midst of the young princesses, who also were weeping ; 
and near them the son of Darius, a child,t who was the more 
Ivorthy of compassion, as he was lesfe sensible to evils, which 
conOBerned Jiim more than any other. Alexander consoled 
tiiem in so kind and tender a manner,as plainly showed that 
he himself was deeply and sincerely afflicted. He caused 
licr funeral oJ>sequies'to be performed with the utmost splen? 
dour and magnificence, Ohe of the eunuclis "who sujperjfl- 
tended the chamber, and who had been taken with thcprin^ 
cesses, fled from the camp, and ran to Darius, whom he in- 
formed of his consort's death. The Persian monarch was 
seized with the most violent a^iction upon hearing tliis 
news ; particularly, as he supposed she would not be allow- 
ed the funeral cerem oiiie?- due to her exalted rank. But the 
eunuch undeceived him on this occasion, by telling him the 
honours which Alexander had paid 'hfa que^ after her 
death, and the civilities he had alwj^ shown herinbcrW^ 
time*. Darius, upon hearing" these woi^s^ was -fired vith 
suspicions of so horrid a kiikl, that they did not leave mm 
a moment's quiet. ' u 

' Taking the eunuch aside, he spoke to him as follows : " ^ 
" thou dost still acknowledge Darius for lord and sovereign, 
" tell me, by the re^)^ and veneration thou owest to that 
" great splendour of 4 Mithrea, which enlightens us, and to 
«' tills handAvhich the fc^ng stretches out to thee ; tell me, 1 
•• say, whether,' m bemfoaning tl>e deat)^ «f Statira, Ido,»ot 
♦' bewail the least of her evils ; and whether^as-shc ^^^ ^* 
** the haad3 ofa ybUDig monarch, she did not trst lose, her 

•A.M. 36-M' Anf .. J. C. 330. • •...*'- . ; 

t Ob id iptum misenbiiis, quod noad«Hn tsnt1«bM calM»^*^'' 
BdaxtmA ex parte ad ipium redondaatem. Q^ Cart. 

i The Perstaofr worshipped the sao iTttder the umM of Mic^>^ 
•nd the moon under Ui^t of Mith^. 

^ect* Vtit filStORY OF ALEXANDER^ 171 

** honpui", and afterwards her Hfe.^* The eunuch, throwing 
himself att Darius* feet, Wsoiixht hiin^not to think sq injuri- 
t>usly of Alexander's^ virtue^ nor: dishonour his wife 4nd sis" 
ter after her death $ and mft^^riveiiimselfoE the. greatest 
consolation h^ Could phsvibly jhare^ ii^^ kis misfterUiftes^t 'wiit. 
to be firnStj jievsoadM tluit the t>tince^ .^ho had tnumtdied 
oyer him, vrkfS ^Opierior to the fndldevvC oHher cnen .;. that 
he ought rat^r toadimre Alekandevy a8 he hadgim th« 
Persian U^s much strongcir proofe of his virtue and c<mti* 
nenQe than he had given the Persians themsehnbs of his val- 
oar. Afiep this, h^ Confirmed all he had before said Ujie the 
most dread^l oaths and imprecations ; and tiien gave hima 
paMcalaT aoCount of Whavpnblic falne had related, cmcero* 
iBg^e Wis€loi^,'tempi3iiai|c«,'and magnanimi^of-Alexahder. 
- Parknit netuming into-: the hall where his eourCiecs .wert; 
^^mbled, and lifting u^'hb kaifds to heiaivcn, he broke intt) 
the following prayer x ^Ye gods, -vvho preside over the bjrth 
^ of men, and who di^ose iS. knigs and empires, grant that, 
<^ after having raised the f(»*tune ^i Persia fiom its dejected 
^ state, I may transthlt it to my destendatits "with the same 
*< lustre in which I received it ; in prder that, after having 
** triuni^lied over my enemies,'! may^ acktrowlcdge the -fa- 
** vours -vchich Alexander has shoUrii in my caktmScy, to per* 
^ sons who, of all others^ are most d^r to me ; or, in ease 
^ the time ordained h^ the lates is at last come, or that it 
''* must necessarily happen, from the anger of the gods, or 
«« the ordinary vicis^tudeS of human aflTaiPs, that the empire 
^ of Persia mttst end ; grant, great gods, that none but Alex- 
** ander may ascend the throtic of Cyruls;'* 

In the mean time, Alexander having set out upon hfe 
inarch, arrived -with his whole army at Thapsacus, where he 
^^sLdibed a- bridge that layaciross the Euphi*ateiS) and (jontanti^ 
ed his journey towards theTigris, where he expected to come 
tfp'with the enemy . Difiiiakad already^ niade overtures of 
peace to him twice ; but finding at last that there were no 
hopes of .their concluding one, unless' he resigned the whole 
empii'e to him, he therefore prepared hinnseif again* for bat- 
tle. For this purpose, he assembled in Babylon- an army 
half as numerous again as that d^ Issus, aiid marched it to- 
-wards Nmeveh : his forces coVjere^ all the plains of Mesoi 
potamia. Advice being brougjit, that' theencmy was not far 
off, he caused Satrot>ates, colonel of the cavalry, to advance 
at the head of 1000 chosen koi'se ; and likfcwise gave ^000 to 
MazsBUs, governor of ihe proVhtce ; allofwhbm,wel'e to pre- 
sent Alexander from cussing tiie nv^er, and to lay -waste 
the country through i^hich wt raionai'Ch was to pass j l>ut 
}ie>rfiv<od4;oolat<^« . . , ^ 


Of all the riven of the east,* tlds » the most rapid; and 
not iwAf ft great nunber of rivulets mix in ito waves^ but 
tlhoBe alio drag aioiigi^rcat'stfnes; notiiat it is named Tigris, 
>f reaaoft of it$ prodigiowrapiditjry an arrow being ao caUed 
intlieFenauitiaigqa. Alojomder aoniidad tliose parts of 
the riTcr whidi trevs liirdMe,:and tliero.the water, at tbe 
•cAtvancf vCame op to Hie Htx^es'bidaeav and in the middle 
NtottieirhrMatS) Harog^^wnw his inlanlrfui the form 
of a iMilf fODon, and potted his carafry on the two wingartbey 
«dmnced to the ourrent ol the water with .no gf^t diffieulr 
. tj^ aanyipg their arms Over thdf lie^s«. The ki^g ^^^ 
on teit aoMng the ifi£uit!7y aaid waa the first who a||)^md 
on theoppQsite.sbore» where he pointed- out with his hand 
the fond tofthe soldiers, it not being possible for him |» make 
tkem hear him. But it wea with^ gt^nfest diiRcal^ ihef 
kept dtema^ves above water, boeanso of the slipperioess.of 
ihesioneaiaadtheiinpeitiMMltf oftiiesdnenoa. Sucheoldien 
na not oxdy oarried their arms, but theiv dothiss also, were 
much more fatigeed ;.for tb^ae^being unablo to go forward^ 
were carried into whirlpools, nnlOss tfaiey tlMMv, airay tbeir 
t^irdent^ At tho same time, . the great nuioberof dothei 
Aoating op and down beat away theburdei^ of several *, and^ 
as every man endeavoured to catch at bis own thli^ they 
.♦nniiyedjone another more than ^^ river did. Itwas tona 
purpose that the king commanded Uiem, with a loud voices 
to saw nottung but their arms .; . and assured them, that he 
himself would compensate their other losses ; for not one o£ 
them would listen to his admonitions or orders, so great was 
th^ noise and tumult. At last, they all passed over th^t part 
of the ford where the viraier was shallowest, and tiie stream 
less impetuous^ recovering however but a smaHpart of their 

1 13 certain, that this army might easily liave been P^t^^ 
pieccp^ had they been imposed t^ a general who darfed ta 
conquer : that is^ who made ever so little opposition to their 
passage. But Maz«us, who might easily have defeated 
them, had he come up when they were crossing the river ia 
disorder and confusion, did not arrive till they were ^r^v^ 
up in battle array. A like good fortune had always attend- 
ed this prince hitHerto,^botl> when he passed, the Granictfs ^a 
sight of so prodigious a multitude of horse apd foot, ^ho 
waited his coming on the shore ; and also on the rocks « 
€iliciay when he- fcund ^e passes and straits quite opep atid 
defenceless, where a small number of troops mi^' ^*^* 
checked his prfjgress. . This ^circumstance may lessen oat 

♦ Atidacucquo^se, qua manune Tigatt, ratio miottifetet | ^8* 
nao^am in dit aimen vaaiti an tcmcre fcciitct^ ^Ctft^ 

Seu. Pitt JHi^TtJtt or At&KAM9Xx. ar3 

surprise at .'that 7exe«9& of bold^Qs^ ^vbich vas his peculiar 
charactemtiC) and which perpetually prompted bim .to at* 
tempt blindly tbe great^vt d^igers ;,»hioe^ as lie tvas always 
fbrtuiK^te, he never liadonce room to su^ect himself guilty 
of raslioi^Si ,....., 

The king, having encamped two days nearthe.^iverjCbm* 
Inanded his sob^etsrjio-be ready for marching oi) the mor* 
row ^ but abppt Dine or bai in ^e evening, the xooon first 
lost it3 light,, and a^eai*^ aftet.wards quite sullied, and, as 
it were> thictui^ed with b»lood. 'Now as. this happened just ije-* 
fore A great battle was going to be fought, ttie doubtful sue* 
tx%% of which f^led the arm^ with sufl&cjent disquietude, they 
were first struck with a rehgioos awe, and» being afterwards 
sdsed with. f ear y they cried out, ^^ that beavendi&played the 
*^ Wt^ks of Us ^ger ; .andtthat tliey W-ei-e dragged, against 
" Hkt vrUI oi it, to, the jbxtreouties of the eartli.; .that rivers 
** opposed their passage } that the stars tefused Itu givQ their 
^^ usual light ; aiid that tliey ^omld how see nothing but des- 
" erts and solitudes ; that, merely, to satisfy the.aEDbition of 
^ Qne.raan9.60 many thousands shed their blood ; ^and that 
" for a man who contemned his own country, disowjued his 
** father, and preteivJed to pass for a god.** 

These murmurs were rising to an o|>en in-^urrection, when 
Alexander, whom nothjin^ ep^dd intiraklate, suramcued tlie 
t>ifico*s oflJne apBy into his .tent> and conmianded such <^f the 
£g)5pftiaa soothsayers as were be^t skilled in the. knowledge 
of the starlit to Jkclare what they thought of this phscnome- 
hon. These knew very lyell the natural causes of eclipses 
of the moon ; but, .wjthout entei-ing into physical enquiries, 
they contented theniselves with saying, that the sun was on 
the side of^he Greeks, and the moon on that of the Pensians ; 
and that, whenever it sutfered an eclipse, it always threat- 
ened the latter with some grievous calamity, whereof they 
Mentioned several examples, all which they gave as true and 
indisputable. €upe!i*stitioQ .has a surprizing ascendant over 
the minds of tlie vulgar. - How headstrong and inconstant 
sotevertluBy mayibe, yet if .they are once struck with a vain 
inaage.of religion, they .will sooner obey soothsayers than 
' their leaders. 'Ilie answer made by the Kgyptians beii>g 
dispersed among the soldiers, it revived their hopes and 

The king, purposely to take advantage of tliis ardour, 
hcjgan . his march, after midnight . On his right liand lay the 
Tigris^ and on. his. left the mountains called Gordyjei. At 
day^eak the scouts,jwhom he liad sent to view the encfmy, 
brought word that Darius was marching towards him ; up- 
on which, he iinratidiately'dreif up hisforces in battle array, 
P 2 

tM arsTORT OF hhZSAttks^: Sc&k XV. 

*md set himself at tiieir bead. However, it vas kfterwards 
found, that thejr were cnhr a detachment of 1000 horse thaft 
^eas flpoiag upon dncoverus, and wtiich eooa Tetiied^ts<tlft 
laaiD BTtny, Nevertheless, news was brought ^te kjagthat 
Darius was now but 150 stadia* from the place wliere thejr 
•then were. 

Nos^long belbra this, some letters Had been intercepted, \rf 
wludiJlarius solicited the Greciaiirsoldiers ekher to kill or 
betray Alexander. Kothing can reflect so great an odium 
on the oiemoiy of this prince as an attempt of> that kind ; 
an attempt so abject aAd'blaak, and moro than once repeat- 
ed. Alexander was in doubt wi(h himscdf whether itwodd 
be prc^r lor him to read-tbese letters in fuQassenblf, re- 
lying as much on the aflection and fidelity of the Gte^i as 
en that of the Macedonians. But Parmenio dissuaded lum 
from it ; declaring that it wonia bedangefous even to awake 
such thoughts in the minds of soldiers ; that one only was 
sufficient to strike the blow ; and that avarice was capable 
of attemptbig the most enormoua crimes-. Tlie ktogfc^km*^ 
ed this prudnit ceuncily and^ordeped lus army to muxh for- 

Although Sarins had twice sued arrTain for peace, and 
imagined that he had nothing to trust to but his amt ; nev- 
ertheless, being overcome by.the advantageous circumstanc- 
es which bad been told him concerning Alexander's tender- 
ness and humanity towards his family, he dii^tdied ten m 
his chief relations, who were to offer him ft«ah condi^ons of 
peace more advantageous lhai>the former, and tothaak him. 
for the kind treatment he hadgiven his family. Darioshad, 
in the former proposals, given him up all the provinces as 
far as the river Halys ;..but now he added the several terri- 
tories situated between the Hellespont and the £tq>hrat^ 
that is, all he alrea^ possessed. Alexander made the fol- 
lowing answer t. " Toiyoor sov^^ign that, thanks between 
^ persons- who make war against one anodter are txsp&m' 
^4 ous ; and that, in caae I have behaved with clemency to- 
. ^< wards his family, it was for my own sake, and aotiir bis ; 
yi in consequence of my own inclination,^ and not to plesse 
**him. Tb insidt Uic unhappy, u a thing to me unknown. 
*^ I do not attack either prisoners or women, and ^^"^^l 
*» rage agahist such only as are armed for the fights J^ 
** Darius sue for peace in a sincere view, I then would de- 
«* bate on what is to be done ; but since he still oontiniieS) by 
^ IctUrs and by money, to spirit up my soldiers to^W 

'hfla€, and my friends to murder me, I therefbic «a de»r* 

^ Srfta er efght IeagQ««». '' 


Stcf. mi. ttrtMt #r AitxAyDxi: 175 

**' mined to|mniie him with ^e utsiiost Tigoar ; and Ihst 
^ not as an enemyybot apGifooer and anaatasin. It indeed 
^^Secomes him to oflkftoyield up to «ie what I amalrea^hr 
«« poatessed of i Wmdd he be satisfied whh Tanking himtetf 
^^as second to moy withoal pretendhii^ to be itty equals I 
<^ might possibly then hear faito« Tell him, that tiM woiM 
^'wiu'ifotpMnit tsvD smfCf nor two sovereigBB* Let hinv 
«^ therefore .-oheoK eidier to sn w ^rtterta^day ar fight »e 
^ 'to^morrcMr^ and not flatter himfielf wHb the hopes of ob^ 
^ tainmg;bettersi»ee«s than be has hitheito had." 1^' 
inos^s pnopesal^ aic certain^ not reasonable ; but then, 
la AleicandePs anawer mvch^ more so h In the former we 
bdxoid a prinee wfio irnotyet^seRsiUeof his^wa weakness, • 
.or, iit^leak^ whaamnotpterail with hntaelf to own it ; and 
hot the kutter, we see ft mosBaroir quite inteodoated with his 
.. good fbrtOKS^' and earty Idd pride to-subhatf excess of fi^iiy 
Asia.DOt tnbe paifiOkled i ^T:he wttf^ wiM not 'peftrmit two ' 
^ suns, nor two soverci|;ns.'* If this be greatness, tind not "■ 
^rtde, rdonot*knowwhatottn«ver deserve Hie latter naine. ' 
'Phe ambassadors having leave to depart, retnmed back, * 
and tbid Dariod that lie nuitt now prtpBLver lor battle. The 
. iatufrpitcbedbb camp near a vfllage called Qangamela and 
the tivev Bttmela,'in a plaiy& at a considerable, distancef torn ' 
Avfo€to» He hsid Isefere kvdkd the' spot which he had 
pitched upte te the field of ' battle, in order 'that his char- 
jota and cavidry might llaYe^ftlU roomtomoye-.m ; reed- - 
lecting, that his fightitl^in the straits of QtHcia had lost hisi ' 
ikm famtfe Sanght there. At the same timey he luad pre- ' 
pared cct>ws feet* to annoy the enemy's horse. 

Alexander, vpon 'heanng'this nefws, contibiued fiio^dayain ■ 
tfie place he then was, to rest his army, and surrooad hb 
•amp wi^ trenches and palnades ; for he was' determined ^ 
to leave alHns baggage, and the useless soldiers in it, and 
march ^le renutinder agaiast theenemy^ with ho otBier'eqQi- - 
page than the arms they carried* Acoordin^y, he set out 
jiboiit nine in the evenings in order to fi^t IHriUi at day 
Hreak ; who upon 4his advice, had drawntap his army in or* ' 
der of battle. Alexander also nftarohed ia battle array ; for 
tooth armies were wilAiin two or three kaenes of each other. 
When he was arrivisd at themontams, where he could dis- 
cover the enemy's whole army, he halted ; and having as- 
sembled his general officers, aewdl Macedonians as foreign- ' 
evs, he debated whether they should engage immediately, or 
. pitch their can^ in tinat pibte. The latter opirion beings: 

^rowt feet it an iDftmoieDt coopofed of !rofi fptkes. Sevenrof' 
thcib sre laid io the flfldi throttghwbiebdk^fsviky iitOBilffchii- 

Allo w ed, became it wftt.ji]d|;ed pf«per.for theiii«to ^newthe 
field af battieyand th6. nmrntr m wliic^i'itiie tAvmy was 
drawnup, theavmy^XBoainpatiin the same-girder . in whidi 
ithad: inaMnd^idurial; whiflhvi^teand£r;'«t)ftbe^faead o^ 
hia ialmtTVi liigh^ mttisd^ roy^FtgiiriJDiits^iDaroh- 
JBd iwund ttapUki ia iMiich the batde. jms jbe be fou^t. 

' BelB^ retsnied he aiwAihled.ktt generaioificesK a Second 
Intiet ajid txM t)hcm^€hat:th«re ivv&iioioeeaaioaji ior iiis mak* 
•itis a ipeech, bectese their oovragfe and.'gneal: -sctiDiis were 
•akne Sufficient to excite tfaein te glory | -tktft ihe desired 
.tiieiti iHdy .-to repMieat jto rthe aoldtcrsfthat Ihey i¥ei e not to 
-fight on:tlii8.occaisiGi]f?fbr Phoniisia or Egypt,* tinit lor all A- 
.sia^ witich .wauici btrponesBCid bf >him nnrfaso shenld ccsiquer ; 
andthae, after faaring cpoae*thTO«^isiii3rf»nclvioces^ .and 
iefi behiiifcl them 4a g^roattaavnibcr of nveiVfi&dtnbaDtaifls, 
tiiey oQuid lecilre -their retreat am otfaer^^/iaethaiL'tiyigahujig 
B 'Complete victory. Aiter ttih* apeetk, lie- ovdestd them to 
take sDune repose. '^ n » . ^'. . : - . 

It is said that Famoenio advised idoptio attack the*, enemy 
in thenighttiaae, alled^g that they might easSLy be defeated, 
if £^lleii upon by aurprtae, aadiu'DliedarlL.; hat tbe king aas- 
'wered'8o,iosd tiiat all present nd^t^hear hiitt^ tiiatit did 
.not « becottie - Alexan^r to- stteal >.a victcory^ . and - therefore he 
•ilras resolved to fight and mnqaeron beo^d>^ayclight.> This 
ivas a:jhangjhty^ isutiat thelsaine'^iiY>e,*at<pnid€p«t:aii8wer; 
for it vas nmningf great haaard to fall upon - aa iNKaerbus an 
army in the nij^ttime) and in an unkncy^irti cduntt^.^ Dari- 
asfiiarin^ be idltould be attacked at /nsa»rai?ies, fhtESBXise he 
had not intrenched himseify obliged bis ftokiien to Jcoatiniie 
ihe u»li«le aight under anmB, ■'v.hich proved fOf the highest 
prejudice to bimin the 'engagement. ' 

Alexaiider,<who in the crtsis ef jlffiir»nsed sAways to con- 
. suit.aDathaayers, observkig very/ejOKAly.'whatever^th^ eft- 
}olnedi in order to obtain- ther fitvoKu*.oJthe god^ finfliag h^« 
•self upon thjS point of fighting abattte, the success of «hi(th 
was to -give etnpire to the coaqueror^^aent for^Afistander, in 
^^hdm :he reposed the greatest- confidence. H&' then ^^ 
. himself op-- with the^ soothsayer, to 'hmkealmiGfiecret sacri- 
fices ; and afterwards offered -Tip vioriins^to Fear*, which 
he doubtless'did to prevent his'army fi»m being seized with 
- dreadat the sight of the fonttidable iarmy of Darius. "Tlic 
soothssayer, dressed in his vestments, holding vervain, witli 
.'his head veiled^ first repeated the' prayers the kingf wfls»ta 
T) address to Jupiter, t(r<Mineric&:,\'ali)£torVictory . ■> > ^fhs^whiple 
. being ended, Alexander went to bed,io repose himself ^ 

*1^e BuJBt read la j'lafti^ tkpbthriiA^ D£%Pilf ift^ «^ -^ '^ 

Arftr. vAl. Jitsri^Lt oj^ axe Jtaimsa-; Hf 

femsdaiii^ psittt^ the nig^/ Ab he levolred in hii miadf 
txdtwiUMNit^ofmeeiiiotiofH 4iie odcisefiiCfioes of Uieba«tle 
vhkh iha ilptti fflie |io)Atof teisgta^it^lie cmld not tktp 
immedtftelf . Bat hid body teaig' appfOMA^ ta » nsuiBcr^ 
by the sineikr^f kib'itiMyte flqpt wondly the wi»lc iii|^ 
caatnrjf to faisitftttal oeMiiiQ : So tiiet '^rhca his genmls 
^*<ere«Meflti>lcd'at day-breek before hae tfeaMo Aceftve hift 
ei'dMrtf, they' Xftt^ Igtaa^ m^priMd tO' find b* wht .not 
awake-: mpoti ^vfal^ they themfseli^ oommaaided tfiesol* 
dieiv to ^Ice seme refre^tetoaif. Farmea^ heivm9 ai hist 
awakfetf httkr, ahd sdMnbg Hm j ell ed tixind him in feo eidm 
«mr9>»^Mt«a'jAe^jittrfltftewMeQiii|^to&ght&h^^ in 
^vhic^hili^^lfrfe^ok^.fertD^ Uyat stake, ^^hoar conld it he pot^ 
« !A>^^*-^'^aid- A'li^ander, ^for m net to. be .calm» since the 
^^^im^ m dMiiiig to deliTer himieif into our hands i'' Inu 
inediat^^ he^ tbcO: up hii araiSy monnted his hcntKy and rode 
ep.aad down the ranks, esdioitiBg the tnops to Miave gal** 
wiuy , afld, if possible, to -suriiass thehr ancient itme and 
HMf^ theyliad hitherto ae^eived. Sdldienonthe day 
«f biMfe itbeeine they sse therftiteof the dngagemeat painted 
inthe&iiiei their general; As for Alexander^ he had 
Mi^s ttp^eared so cahn^so gay, nor so resolifte; Theise*' 
)?eDlty' a«d security '^^kieh they observed in him were ia H - 
na^ihier so inafiy assttrances of the victory.^ , 

There urcie agrtot difieteoce between tlK twa artoies 
irHh respeet t& mimbcrfll^ bvitnuch more so ^aritk regard 
^ eoorage. Thar of Baritts consisted ut * least of 600,000 
^Kt, -UiTOdAOyfWO horse ;and theothei* of no more than 40^000 
fo^A) and 7 or 8000 horsel:' Btit the latter <was all &re. and 
^^ra^';; iJirheiiea9,*4a'Utf side of the PersianSf it .was a 
f*^(nigloMaa»BS(bls^.af i«ien, n^ soldiers f}'^ empty 
j^hsMm'^a^dier tiMsk avreiiaarmy. :^ 

- doth Bidm were di^rsed in yiery-iiearthe,same arrayt^* 
The forcer T^re draiim* up in two Hnes^ the caivahy tti the 
^o wings^ and the infantiyin the middle ; the oat. and the 
^ther being- under the particular conduct of the chiefs. of 
<iftchof'^editf)[iirenfnati(BiS' that composed them ; and 
commanded in general^ by. the princijpal crova-of&cem 
Tbefiront of the* battle^ under Darius, vas> covered with 
300 chariots, armed ^iirith scythes, and. with .1^ elephants, 
^^l^ng Pairing. his {xistia the centre of the ^cst line, Be-r 
^^s the guards, which were the flower, of his forces^ h^ 
*3«o had fortified' £imsielf with the Grecien itifantty*. whonv 

^Auorim^ .ta\ fevasl hiftorisai ii smaaoted to vgvsfisai^ 
>)eoO|boo ofaco. .,. . ., ^. 

t^SBiiaafcrtai^nim tvxilisi Q^ Cart, 

I lifc-' ^ 

Urn Ind dmivtt vp Btar.hi$ pqrm, « b^«ti<% 4l«b bo^ 
OBly.xafable of oppopbg ^e >|ao^ti|>tfan yhai^ttji^ As^ 

tkat o£tiic tmOtay^he inXmSi»^ M> ourno^^ anjk.j^ ch&rge 
Ihcu at oiv and tkewtm Mm^ bo|l)>9 $?^ ^,l^^* . 
But MnuuoOut had guards agfM^ist thify-Wvi^i^^^^ 
der* to Ae rcmmaadera o£ thf 9ec<m4 Une^ to^t la cat9 
ttiey^ahoiikd be diarg^d bahiod) to iace aboHtto thatode; 
^ elie to dnuv iipll»altt:tc(N|^ in foima. of a fi^ibe^ ai4 
Coveir: the iringBf httHUe th^'fai^wv ^loqld charge ,4^^u» 
llimk. Ha Iwdpoitedi in ttelwt (»f.ia».£r^ Um^y^f l^' 

•oythes, and' 

•hdwer of aii-owB^ jaAr#lioMind attwea*.. Vhm fchP^W pn 
theivkig&wereonlarcdrtotoaeadtli^m «s w«[*.aa.fQ«*iej 
but xn sueli'anmimciv'aa oist to.wQakaii.Ufe^|i^My» ^^ 
lor tiiebaggage and the captive^,, ajooee wl^ow i»«Jr« P*^ 
l^tift's ttother and thUdren,tiiay «f«re left iii «^<ir 9«mWf 
def k Steal! guards FaDveiiio cooim«»d9(^aii^Ju4^ 
#aysidibnctthe left "wing, aAd Alfn^D^er lh» iiSi^k^*;. 
• Whan the vwo aisnies MmeJn vJK^i. ^U^HfUii^^. ^)^ 
had betfla ahovm the fieveral plates wHere;tht ^ff^m ^^ 
Vere hid, extended taove saii msae. tom^trifiii^ fk^^ 
Avo^lthcm ; aadthe Ferfiiana a#mncadi^ri7adnd;iii;pr#l)<>f' 
ticm. Darius, being afraid katthe M«eed0fiiaos:^9bmlA ^^ 
himfri>iii tiiesp^Jt of ground hehadtevi^ledy juid.^nirlMin 
hito «amithier tint was itiugh and nneTea, co9ai9^EpM^ 
tavahj in hte left yffim^^ vhidi spread looch fa^t^ tiisd 
thatofiha eiieinT^ rights to marahiig^tjfonr^ aO^ilM 
9bQ«t' u|Mm tlxeMacjKdoaiaas in iaiic,^ finexcsl^ ^^^^^ 
extending their troops faitiien Tiien AteaodecdiffW^b^ 
ai^Mt them the body ef .diorai^ in his aemoe «0m«^ 
by Menidaa j Mrtysa ^iheser werfs. not ai>le to -w*p: 1>^ 
agamit dieenetny, because of iheir|irod%ia«&jauiBhei5S, b« 
reinforced* them ti^ith the >P«oneaxiS9 whom Afetas ^^\ 
lnahded,«md with the forel|^.cavaivy*. Bestdeatii^J^cb^ 
ttge of iwxnberS) they hadthat also c^ theircoats p£ ma^ 
t*hich secured themselves, and their hOxses wueh if^^ 
Alexander's tavali^'-vas prodiglouidy annoyed ;.hQff«» 
«»c^ matched to the diacge with great ktmy^^MJ^ ^ ^ 
|^t4hem tofiight. - < w .' 

«' Upoa,ty% the f)ei!a8nt.4p|>ofe9edthe Gi^ivMl!s«nafid^>"* 

'^ ♦ •SomeVehte tfiJt At fc«rl^ria&9 giiTe way at 1h(E» >«tftiA*«; 
earned to thf cbargs. 

w!i9 "if^m- 4%httjK«Mndedi| omde^^.^triking their swonia 

4Bidesfffigtitttljed thelibtseS) ipid made a great .Dumber of 
tliem tcim butk agakwt 4^cir owatroops. ^Others, lajdi^ 
hoUl of t^6 hm^^eg'bridtts, pallpd tl^e'xidets dtywui^andcut 
them to pieces. Part of the xh^ots drove between the bat« 
talioiiSi Wtimh^^o^^ to vmake^ay fiirAheoi^.as^jthisy haj 
been ottlei^ tO'>4e,-bjr '«?4neii meaat ifiey.aid iittic orno ei^ 
ecotion.-' -'■ ■ - ••' .'•••'■- .■..•, :.-. • /•' • : ■• 

'Ajiekattder, seeiiig^pQsrius^set.his iwhokizrvoy in motion m 

<)raeVto ^^cfigfe hJ«ft, emf^oTBBd »-«^ 

tiis scrfdietMs. °Whor?ttteib^tiewa^at.flie4itttcstyaiidti^ 

^at^^(^lans in the greatest danger^ Atistander^.the isooth* 

«aycr, cteftUed^ln hi^ white robes, hotding a branch of laurjel 

in his hajiQ, ' advscrftes among the combcitants, as -he had 

been ii^tnictcd^by Usrking \ -and crying that he saw ^n eas» 

y;\e hoV^ing over Al^fianderfs^head, a sareoipcnof yictory, 

Wshi^ed withhis^ingtfrthepretpadeaiilrd-tfrtiie soldiers.; 

^hot^lyinguporithe MBOBiitycrfAhe sootiBayer, fancied th^ 

ehos^-W'jt ; attd «i*i?etfpoif ronttwwd'tijc «1*a«k. witk grisater 

cheei'flLitoe»s't«jd;ttr*3!urttiaHitVi5r. 'Iten« the Jdng pcr^ 

ceiving that Arenas, after iiatingi dtarged tfec cavaky, juid 

pot them Into disorder, opon'tiicir advancing to surround 

'^his light' \vm^,' had b*^ ta break the foremost, raaiks of the 

inain body o€ the barbarian arwiy ; he marched after Arctas, 

^iththe flower ,©f his troops, irhen fee quite broke the ene- 

jn/s left wing, whidi had alreadjrbcgun to give way ; and 

^i:houl piifsulng thefe'ces vMon hevhftdr.throwaiiiitoidis. 

^orderyhe \*^lieeled td tlaK left,in owJerto faM upon the b«ty 

in which* Daritts had po«tc*hi»«eif. /The presence of the 

iWo kMgs inspired both sides iwith new vigour. J>arhis was 

Tnounted «n a chariot, and lUexanflertm horse^baok ; both 

'snrroutwied wl* their bravefet officers arid soldiers, whose 

•Anly eijdeavaat"i;Vas t« save die lives <rf their, respective 

princes, at thehassard of thdr wvn. The battie was obsti- 

«a^ artd 'MoOfty. Alexander having wowxded Darius's 

eqtx«rry -With a jaf\*!ln{ ihe^Peraans, as weffl as fthe Mace* 

^-Aotrl^rts,' itnagj'ncd liiattheftklngrwas fciHed ; upon, which tlie 

. -form^, ''breaking ' ^ud inio 'the rwiosti dismal sounds, the 

Nvholearmy wai sftteedwithtHcf greatest conateniation. The 

feMtionsof Dartus, <wW We»*dailcfti»and,iaed away 

^*w$th4lie*'guaydS,»artd^*>abandO]iifed the chariot ; but those 

^vho were tJt his right, took him into the centre of their body. 

"'Historians relate, that this prince hainng drawn his sdmi- 

IM wtMaT'oy msxansu; :fiwk XT, 

ydttnG£;r9Am thaaH^ M an iffMrnaiom ni«iHr t Uat pef» 
MiftQ^ from lliB chafiot chat Jiit tsokfiers altll fniglm be 
WW ai h a m o^ to fonAe thesL ; an4 m -lie vrfts diivjded be* 
tweM kope and dnpi^, tt&ePleniana retired imeniiW^tand 
thimnd thm> ranks ; whte it omM nn Icnf^ lie c^M a 
^atUe, bat a slaughfter. 'Hicii Banna tuniiiig about hii 
•ckarksty fled with the 'i^ert ;'aod the canqiieror was now 
whoUf emptoy«d4n pueuinc: hiai. . , 

Whiist all 4t» was dttngna the right : w^«of the Mace- 
•doniam, where *Uie ^^timry wai not doBbtfiiVthe kft wing, 
commanded by Parmenio, was in great danger. A detachr 
.meDtoC the FersiaiH Aidian, anWairtiuiMk terse^ whkh were 
•the best in aUrtheiPeraiaa arsty, having brake through Uie 
•infontry tm the left| advanced to the very, baggage. The 
inoinent the captWes saw them arriYe in the /Canpy ther 
armed themselves with every thing that.^inne 4ir8t to ]iaj)4 
and rdnfor^g their £avahy> rvshed upon the Macedo- 
nians; who were. nQ?r.44»»rged Ufoe «ttd iH^aiiA They at 
, thesame tin^ tD(d€j*8igamhi8, that Uarkia Jbad-aron the bat^ 
.tie (for this tlieydbdieved) ; that the {-whale baggage w;^ 
plundered, and that riie was now.gmg .4o recover ner Jib- 
:«rty . Batthis prinoess^ who was a woman of great wisdos^ 
thqugih this hews a&cted heasn the strongest manner, could 
not easily give credit ta it^ and Wlig.iin,wiliing te exaspe- 
rate, by too hasty a: joy, a conMeror.<w^io had trc^ated her 
.with so much humanity, die did not disopv^ the least etac- 
.4]on ; did not oiice change eoantenance, nor let drop a uQr 
gk word ; but in tver^soalposture,* calmly ^^tpd,ti)l tte 
•event should deacnnce-her-lite* ^ ' 

Parmenio, upon t|»e ^nit rqmtef this itttack, had dj^ 
patched a messenger to AJexanderf to j^cquaint him wit^ 
the danger, to -v^ch the^jcaaip wase^moj^, and to receiT^ 
chis orders. '<Above all .tfamg^' said the prino^>*let him 
<<not weaken his main body, $4et him not mind the b^" 
,*« gage, hot apply himself wboDy/to the engag«:mept j^ mt 
<« victory wifi jiot mly reOore to ns our own V^ssasa^ 
<« but also give Ihoie of the enemy mtnoar bands.** IT* 
-general officers, who^efinimanded the iof^pftry yhichfonDea 
the cea^tif the seoondlhie^teehig the eaemyviere gone 
^6 make themaehres nrniffcarsof ^ camp and ^/^^gg^fSf^ 
a half.tnm>to tkt in^uin diedlems to thec»rder«WAA^ 
been given, and M npin thePei^iana )iehiod, many « 
whom wei!e.jcnt to pieces, and the reifcjWiged.lo retire^ 
but as <theae. were bone, the Macedonian loot am not i»^ 
iowthem. . . _^ 

Soon after, Parmeniohimsdfwasescnosedtomucbi^^^ 
^(Ksril. Maz95ushavii9,MiM^po9.lP9l.|r]f|^«Utiiav; 

fihy, chaffed ^thte Mactddpfeins in flarik, aiid began tosur- 
rbund them, innncdiately Pamfenib sent Alexander advice 
of the dahger he \ra^ in \ declaring; that in case he were 
not immediately^ s^iccou^ed, it >jvould be impossible for him 
to keej) his sdMiers together. The prince was actually 
pursuing DariuS) and fancying he was almost come up with 
him, ^rode with the utmost sji^eed. He flattered himself 
that he' shbHId abSoltttely put an 'end to the Wair, in case 
lie should bttt seize* his persofi. Bufj upon this news, he 
turned about, in order to succour his left wing \ shudder^ 
ing"w4th*ragfe, to sefehis prey and victory torn m thiis marit 
ner from hxiti 4 andtortplainin^ against fortune Tor. having 
. fevoured Darius more In hfs flight, than himself, in thfe pur- 
suit of tha'f monlsirch. ,-;. , ' 1. 
Alexarider, in his marcli, met the eiiemy's hor^ who liad ' 
ptendered'tlie baggajge ; all which were returnt^ng in gdpd 
order,- and^etfrfhg bac*ki net as soldiers whoTiaid l>een de- 
feated; but almost 'as if 'fhlBy had gained the victory. And ' 
now the bAttlt^ bfec^ine m^fe obstinate than before ; for, the 
barbarians tharchlrig. in close columns,.not in order of bat^ ' 
tie, but fhatWa march, it was very di#licult to break thro* 
them ; and tliey rfid not aimiise themselves with throwing 
javelins, nor 'With wheeling about^ according ,to their usual 
custdm ; ^t man ; engaging agamst man, each did all that 
lay in his powi^r to'^tinhorse his eiiemy. Alexander lost 60 
of his guards'iri thiis attack; LJephae^stion^ Cceiius, and Me- 
nidas, were ' wouftdedtn it j. horsv^ver, lie triumplfied on this 
occasion,, and all the barbarians Hverc ciit to pieces, except 
such as forced their way through his Squadrons. 

During this^ne^^ had t)een broiight to M^'^aus that Da- . 

ritis'was defeated ; upon which being greatly alarmed an4 

■defected' by the ill success of that mopai^h. though the ad- 

"Va^tage was "entirely on'liis side, lie tfeas^'d to charge the en- 

'jCiliy,^ who were' now in disorder, so' briskly as before. Par- 

mefii0 jcbuTd not conceive how it came to pass, that the biit- . 

tJe^ wl>ic][i before was carried on. so warmly, ^ould slackeri 

on a sudden: ho-sVever, like ^n able commaiider, who seizes 

'ev^y advantage, and who employs his utmost endeavours to 

*inspxr€5 his soldifsfs'with fresh,' yigoui-, he observed to them, 

.iJiat tble terror \yhTch spread' throughout the whole army, 

was the'foreininner of t^eir defeat"; land fifed them with the 

notion, how glorious it would be for them, to. put tj\e last 

^and t^the victorv. Upon his exiiortktions, they fecoVcred 

their former* hojics and braVery ; when,' traps^rmed ihto 

' jother men, they gave their horses the rdn,and charged the 

""*'"' ' Irtfh so mtich ftiry,as^hi%Vthctp ihto the' greatest 

ef aiid^ig^flienito^^. Altgtaiid^ pfMie^tlmi 

instant ; and, overjoyed ;to fifid -the scale turned in bis&* 
vQur, and the enemy .entirely defeated, Jie rfaewed, 19 
ftoncert with Partnenkn the pursuit of Darius. He rjode 
as hx a8Arbela,wheT::^he fancied he should come iq;> wi^ 
ihat monarch and 2$l l\is baggage ; hiot Darius had only 
just passed by it, and jeft his treasure a pjiey ^o the en* 
emy, with his bow and shield. ' 

' Such was the success c^ this famous batUe, ^faiph gave 
empire to the conqueror. Accoiiding to Ai^ian, the Per- 
sians lost 300^000 hien, besides those who were taken prisr* 
oners ; which at least is a proof that tfce loss was very 
great on their Mdc. Iliat of Alexander was very ioom- 
siderahle, he not losinf^,. according to, the last-menticnied 
author 1200 men, most of whom were horse» *Thi8 en.- 
gagement was fought in the naont)^ of f October* id>Gat ^e 
»arae time, two years befoi^, ^t the battle 91. Issus was 
fou^t. As Gaugan^da, in Assyria, the spot where tjie ^vo 
Mrmies engaged, wasasriaall plac^ c^ very little note,, this 
was called the battle of Xrbcla, that city t^ing nearest t^ 
the field of battle. 


CITIES. '. ' :.' 

Alexander's first caVe | after his obtaining die vic-^ 
tory, was to offer magnificent sacrifices to the gods by way ' 
ofUianksgtving^ He after Wards rewarded such aa had sig- 
nalised themselvesr remarkably in battle ; bestowed riches 
upon them with a very liberal hand, and gave to each of 
them honses, employments, and governments. But being 
desirous of expressing more particularly his gratitude to the 
Greeks, for having appointed him generalissimo against tlie 
Persians, he gave orders for abolishing tlic several tyranni- 
cal institutions that had started up in Greece i that the ci- 
ties should be restored to their liberties, and all their rights 
and privileges. He wrote particularly to the Plataeans, de- 
claring that it was his desire their city should be rt;built, to 
reward the zeal and bravery by V«rhica their ancestors had 
distinguished themselves, in defendipg th^ common liberties 

•A. M. 36;4. Ant J. C. 330, 

4-The month called by the Greeks BoedromioBaDTwen paMlf t0 
oarmooth of prober. 

iDiod. 1. xvii, p. 533-^^40. ArrUo.!. iih' p, xi()^^i33. Plot, 
, AI^. p 6ii«*688.^ ^ijiit, Cart.l.v, e.x-^. }«ftin. l,il.c. xf 

^Sci.IJf,, « AiSTOai or ALExAyocR. 18^ 

of Greece. . "^He also sent part of the spcula tp the -people of 
Crotona in Italy ; to honour, thoi^;h so many years after^ 
the good will'aud courage of Phayllusthe champion, a na^ 
ti ve of their country, who, whilst war was^rryingon again>t 
Greece, and when aU the rest of the Greeks that were set- 
tled in Italy .had abandoned the true Grecians, imagining 
they wei'e entirely undone, fitted out a galley at his own ex-^ 
pence, and sailed to Salamis, to partake of the dangers to 
which his countrymen were at that time exposed. So great 
a friend and ehcqurageiv says Plutarch, was Alexander of 
tvery kind of virtue ; considering himselif, says the same au- 
thor, obliged in a manner to perpetuate the remembrance 
of all great actions ; to give immortality to merit, and pror 
pose, them- toposterity as so many nKxlels for their imitadiw. 
. Daritte, after his defeat^ havm^ but very few attebdantSf 
had rode towards the river Lycus. After crossing it, sevr* 
eral^advised hina to break down the bridges, because the en-^ 
emy pursued lum. . But he made this geperous answer, 
'* tdiat Me wa^ not so dear to him, as to make him desire 
^^ to preserve ie, by the destruction of so many thousands of 
<^his subjects and faithful allies, who^ by that means, wou)d 
^<bc delivered up to the mercy of the enemy ; thatth^y had 
•* as much* right to pass over this bridge as their sovereign, 
" and consequently that it ought to be as open to them.** 
After riding a great number of leagues full* speed, he arri^ 
ved at midnight at Arbela. From thence he fled towards 
Media over the Armenian mountains, followed by a great 
number of the nobility, and a few of his guards. The i-ca-. 
to of his goini^ tbiit way was, his supposing that Alexander 
would proceed towards Babylon and Susa, thereto ety'oy the 
fruits of his victwy j be^des, a numerous army could not? 
pursue him by tihis road ;. whereas, in the other, horses and 
<^hariots might advance with great ease ^ not to mention 
that the soil wais very fruitful.: 

A few days after Arbela surrendered ta Alexander, who 
foimd in it a great quantity of furniture belonging to the 
crown, rich clothes,- and other precious ihov^abl^s, with 
^♦000 talents, (about 775,0001.) and all the riclies of the army, 
i^hich D&rius had l«ft there at his setting out against Alex-' 
^ader, as was'before observed^ But he was soon obliged to 
leave that place» because of the diseases that spr^d In his 
camp, occasioned by the infection of the dead .bodies which 
covei^ all the field of batde. This prince advanced there- 

• Her^otot rehtei thii hiftory to very fiw wordt, 1. f lil c. 4/. 

tjNoB ita ft lalnt it fos velU coofaltttm, at tot millta fociwam hcAt' 

*^jiciat } debcre tt idiU fug» vibd ptt^«i yiae fstnerlt fibl Juftfn» 

184 ^ISTOBV or ALEKAKDCll,. J^O&k JFPl. 

fore over the plains tollrard* Babylon, and .af^er. four days- 
march arrived at Meitinis, where, in a caye,4s seen the eel- 
Crated fountain whicK throws so vast a quantity df bitumen, 
that, we are told, it was used as cement in building the 
uralls of Babylon. 

But wivat Alexander admired most was, a great golf^ 
whence streamed pcrpetnally rivulets oTfire, as fi-om an in- 
exhaustible spring ; anda flood of naphtha, which' oyerflow- 
ing from the prodigious quantities of it, formed a ^eat lake 
pretty near the gulf. This naphtha is exactly like bjtumen, 
-but has one quattty more, viz. its catching fire so vi^ry sud- 
denly, that before It' to aches a'flamc,^,it takes fire mpWy 
from the Mght that surrounds the flame,; and sets Ihe Sir be- 
tween both ton fire. The barbarians beiiig desirous rfshow- 
in^ the king the strength and subtfltv 6PthiS:Com6ustjhIe ^ub: 
vtance, scattered ^fcVeral (Irops up atid.dfljwn after his 
•arrival in* Babylon, in that street ;whk:(h i^eht *ilp' to theho^ise 
Ac had thos^ti for his residence. ' After' this, gqiife^o the 
dthcr end" of'thc street, they brbugl^t torches near the maoqs 
Vhcre those drops were falleii (for it WsUl nfght)*; aM^the 
drops which weft mghest the torches taking' fite on ^snid- 
^ea, the flame ran In an instant to Ihe otfiei* erid s fy j^*^^ 
iaeans the whole street sieemed in piie'gefi^itiVconfiamtioDi 
•* Wlien Alexander was' got n^ar feabylon; IWiiiiis, wjia 
had retired thither after fie battle '^fAr'belij^t^ndered 
himself; i/ith'hls children, who >v^re gi^bwn i^, and^ay/Jthff 
tity Into his hatods. The Khg was veiV* well pleased with' 
hi% arrival ; foi^ he would have met with ^rcat ^fficjiJUe^ m . 
^sie^ini^ a dty of siich importance^ and io wcD^jpi^w^ P^ 
ifvery thmg.' Besides his being a person of '^reHt'tjii'Suij^v 
ahd very brave, he had also acquir^ ff^ hqnour in the 
iast battle ; atid others might have been promjpitedy frofe ,# 
example he setthcni, to imitiatehim: Alexander feiitercd 
the city at the head of his whole afmYi as if he hadoipen 
marching to a Iwrftle. The waifs of Babylon >ye?^"Jined 
with peojHe, notwithstanding tlie greatest bart pfAe citi- 
zens were gofte bat before, Tfrpm the impatJefit desire tfigy 
luid to see their nfew Sovereign, whose renolvri had J&t oq^ 
stripped his'mardh. ' Ba^phahes, gdvcVnbr 'pf thli foiWsSi 
mid guai-dian bf the treasure, lin Willing to discovei*" zeal 
than Mazidns^ strewed the streets* with flowers^ and'raiscd 
on both sides of*'thc Way silvfer alfars, wWch smoked not 
only with frankincense; but Uie n^bst fragtiht perfunie* of 
every kind. Last of allcame the presents which were to be 
made to the Mug;- viz", h^rds^^of ^dttte,' krfd i gffeat' nTiMber 
of horses j is also lidns and pknthei-S-; WMch'^Wfe^^ ic&lflW 
in caj;cs. : A1terthes|i thjiibas^ WAaafcdj't^fi^nghymas'afBer 

4liie mattoer of t their country ; then the ChalfldeinS; acetjm- 

pai^eNd^by^tbe^Babylonish'sobthsayers ftnd fntt«*cirna. ''Itvfi» 

Gustoffnaiy for ^H'latter to singthe '^i**dses of tKcir king lb 

<tiieir instraments ; and tlie CkaWeate to observe the' fndion 

of ^le^ planets,' and ihe Vicissitude, of seasons. TRerearwtis 

bixmglvt up by the Babylonish cayaliy, ^hidi, both men and 

hpi^s, were so^ suipytubus that imaginatkjh can scarce 'rcadi 

. their magnilicwice;^ -Tlie ^hig caused 'the people to walk 

after*' his infantry^, and* hipisen; surrounded with his guartfs, 

and seated tea chariot, enter etJ the fcfty ; and from thence 

' rode to jke palace fis in.a kind.of triiimph. The next day 

\ he took a view of alJ Dafrofs money ^'and . moi^eable^. Of 

the monies lie found* in ^Babylon, he gaW,.by way of extH- 

©rdinary i*ecompchcc, to each- Macedonian hofseman, six 

mina&^al^eut 151. j Jo cacl> ^ofij:cehafy horseman, tSvominse^ 

about 51. ; ^o every 'Macedonian foot* soldier, t\yo minsc ; 

and tQ every one of the; rest two months of their ordinaty 

pay.. He, gaye orders, pursi^nt to the "advice of the raati, 

witlt whc^ he had several cbnferej^Qes,for the rebuilding the 

temples whicli Xerxes had demolished ; and among others, 

that ©f feelusL who was m gi[;eater veneration at Bab>'lon thiin 

any/otlier deity. He ga^e the. government of the province 

to A^azqci3s,.^Tid-t][ie conunand of th^ forces' he left there \o 

.. Apollodbrws cf AmpfiijjoUs^^ 

.Alexaniaeri in the midst, of the httr;;y and tumult of war, 
gstitf PT^s^^^*^^ .^ Jove' for the s(;iences. He used often to 
j^gnvj^rse wil;h the Chaldeans, who l^dialw applied them- 
selves to^ie study of aatronomy from its "origin, and gained 
~i;rerat jfanie by tjieir^kriowledge jii'it. ' ^They presented him 
^ith astvonomical observations taken by their predecessors 
.during tJI^C/^pajce of 1903 years, .which consequently went as 
-%r.b?L^k isrthe age'of Nimrod.' The^e .were sent by Cal- 
,Ji5tien^s, who accompanied Alexaiidei-j to Aristotle. ' 

Thc^]^ingre§^fdcd. longer in Babylon than he had done in 
any oflier. pity^twhiC^i Was ot great prejudice to tlie discipline 
ot his forces. The .peopW, even from a religious motive, 
abandoned themselves t^ pleasures, to voluptuousness, and 
'^he mj>5t . inf?imctus ie:fcei^s ; nor did ladies, though of the 
iighest j^i^ityj pbserve any decorum, or. show the least re- 
^«erve in their jmmprsaacti<;HJS,J)ut gloried therein, so far 
."from endeavquriog to conceal them, or Mushing at their en- 
...ormity. It must be confessed, tWt this army of soldiers, 
,^»hichliad triumphed over Asia^afte^ having thus enervat- 
r€d themselves, and rioted, as it were, ip the sloth and liix- 
,ury ^if the city ofBabylon, for 34 days together^ would hdvc 

• Porphyr. ipnd Sioiplic. in !ib, ii. dc e«\ 
Q2 V 

IM Mtsr&Rt OP JIL«ZAirB«R. JMt XTr 

liotD tcaroeable to complete their exploits, bad they beat 
Apposed by an enem^. But a» they were reinforced from 
time to time, these I'rregularitieB were not tavisiUe j&r 
Amyatas brougHt 6000. foot, and 500 Macedonian bone, 
which were sent by Antipater ; and 600 Thracian hones, 
with 3500 foot of the same nation ; besidee .4000 mercena- 
ries from Peloponnesus, with near 400 horses. 

The above mentioiied Amynta^had also brou(|ht the king 
50 Macedonian youths, sons to noblemen of the highest qual- 
ity in the coootry, to serve, as his guards. The youths in 
question waited upon him at table, brought him his horses 
when in- the field, attended upon him in parties of hunting, 
and k^ guard at the door of his apartment by tnms. And 
these were the first steps to the hig^iest employments both 
in tlie army and Uie state. 

Alter Alexander had left Babylon, he entered tfie pro- 
vince of Sitaoena, tlie soH of whicK is very fruitful, and 
j^roductive of every thing valuable, which made him con- 
tinue the longer in it. BcX lest indolence should enervate 
the courage of his sol4itrs, he proposed prizes for such of 
them as should exert the greatest bravei^r ; and appoint* 
ed, as judges of the actions of those who should dispute 
this honour, persons, who themselves had been eye-witocs*^ 
ses of the proofs of bravery which each soldier Had given 
kk Che former battles. ; for on these only the prizes wetc 
to be bestowed. To each of the eight men who were pro- 
nounced most valiant, he gave a regiment consisdng^f^ 
1000 men ; whence those officers were called chiUarcWi 
This was the first tfme tiiat regiments were coinppJ^^ 
so great a number of soldiers, consisting before 10 of 500, 
and had not yet been the reward of valour. '^^ soldiers 
ran in crowds to view this illustrious sight^ 'not only as 
eye-witnesse» of the actions of all, but as judges over tnc 
judges themselves j because they might ^i-ceive very eas- 
ily whether rewards were bestowed. «iii merit, or ^^^^ 
by favour ; a circumstance in whioli soldiers can ^^^^^K 
imposed upon. The prizes seem' to have been distributee 
with the utmost equity and juj^ce. 

He likewise made severaVtery advantageous changes »i» 
military discipline, as established by his predecessors ;!(»■ 
he formed one single body of his whole cavalry, without 
- showing any regard ta the diflference of nations, ana ^j 
pointed such officer* to command them as they themseiv^ 
thought fit to VioiHinate ; whereas before, the horsem«iw 
every nation used to fight under his own particular stan- 
flard, and wa* commanded by a colonel of that countjy- 
'Hie trurap«<*s sound used to be th« sijpal for thf tnarwt 


Beet. 2X. Histoftt OF alsx^^Tdsji. Hf 

but as it veiy £re(|uentl^ could not be well heard» beiifuiae 
of the great n<ufie that is made in decaiaipiBg; he gave w 
-ders that a 4taodard should be set \kp over his tent whi^ 
night be seen, by his "wbole army. lie aI$o appointed £re 
to be the signal in the night time) and smoke in the day. 
Alexander marcked afterwards towards Susa^^ivhere he 
arrived twenty days after his leaving Babylon. As he 
came near it, Abutites, governor of the province, sent ^s 
son to meet him, with a promise to surrender the city into 
his handsi^ Whether he was prompted to this ft^itl hi». 
own inicdiiatiQn, or did it in obedience to the order? of 
DariaB, to amuse Alexander with the hopes of plunder;* 
the king gave this young nobleman a very gracious reception, 
who attended him a& far as the river Choaspes, the waters 
of whichr are so famous, on accoimt of their exqusite tKste. 
*The kings of Persia never drank of any other ; and Whith- 
ersoever tBey went, a quantity of it, after Having hem- 
put over the fire, was always carried after them in silver 
vases. It was here Abutites came to wait t^n hiniy 
bringing presents worthy of a king ; among which were 
dromedaries of incredible swiftness,, and twelve elephants- 
which Darius had sent for from India. Being come into* 
the city^, tie todL immense sums out of the treasury, with 
1 50,000 tsilents of silver in ore and ingots, besides move- 
ables, and a thousand other things of infinite value. T^is 
wealth was the produce of the exactions imposed for sev-- 
eral centuries upon the common people, from whose sweat 
and poverbf immense revenues were raised.- The Persi^i 
monarehs fancied they had amassed thena for their children- 
and jposterky ^ but, in one hour, they fell into the hands of a 
foreign king, who was able to make a right use of them ^ 
for Alexander seemed to be merely the guardian or trustipe 
of the immense riche^ which he found hoarded up in Persia^ 
and applied them to no other use than the rewarding ,of 
merit and courage.. ^ 

Among other things, there we're found (5000 quihtals.of 
Hermione S purple, the finest in the world, which had been 
%reasurin^ up there during the space of 190 years ; npt-* 
withstanding which, its beauty and lustre was no ways ^- 
minished. . s 

* Hcro4, fib. f . c. 1 88. f About a>500,ooel. 

% Th^ reader will have ap ides of the prodlgioui value of tWib 
wbeb be it told, that tbi« purple was toM at this rate* of ibo It^rus a 
foend. The ^aiotal is one cwt. of .Paris. > 

S HcnaioDC was a city of ArgoliS| wbsr« the bstt purple wavi!^J» 

Here Ifite^ise was^foondpart df t|ie:«aritie» xHudi^Xet^iKs 

tad 1>roitt(hrfram Greece ; Mdj atnoog^. Others,- fhe 4mKeD 

sGctbes' of Hannodius and AwPgitob, vfladtk Alexander 

^aent afterwards to Athens, nrhere t^ey^were atapdinj^ ia 


The 1dn$, being rea^htd to match ifito Ptraia, apfyp^ted 
Archelaus governor gf the city of Sosa, ^Hh. a ganismt of 
'SOOO men ; Maaanlfi, one of the-loMs of his^qui^, wasniftde 
governor of the chadel, vrith lOOaMacedoni^i^toMKerSf-who 
could not follow him bjr reason of tlieirjgreat a^e^^'l^egftve 
the government of Susiapa toAbutites. 

He left Darius* mdthcr and children in Sum, and^ving 

received fi«om' Macedonia a great quantittr of ];nu7le'SUi(f& 

' and rich habks, made afker the fashion di the coputiy, hf^ 

• presented them to.3ysigambis, together with' die .artiftcers 
^vho had wrought them ;^ for he paid her every kind of hon- 
our, and loved her as tenderly as^if shehad been his mother. 

*He likewise commanded the mes$eneer8 totell ber, that in 
case she fanded ttose stufis,.ihe might make her. grand- 
Children- learn the art-of weaving them by way of amu^- 
jnent j and to give them as presents to whomsoeverijiey 
' ^ould think proper. At these words^ the teara which -ftll 
^ft'om'-her eyes showed but too evidently bow greatiy she-was 

* displeased wHh these gifts ; t*ie working in. wocd being icon- 
'Sidered by the Persian women as ithe highest ignominy. 

* Those who carried these presents, having told the king that 
' Sysigambis Was very much' dissatisfied, he thought' hmiself 
^^1}^ to make an aiPOlogy for what he h^d done, and ad- 
':^ninistcr some consblatibh to her. Accordingly, he paid her 

avUit,Whenhe.g)okethu&: « Mo&er, tli)eatitfrin<wlnch 
' <* you see me clothed, ^as not pnly ja gift of my sisters,' ^t 
' «* wrought by their ingers. flencif I beg you to believe^tlbAt 

• « the custom of my country misled me ; an<^do not consid- 
*' ^ «r that as a» ihsUlt Which was owing entirely to ignorance. 

•< J believeX have not, as yet, dope anything whicb I knew 
•"•^|nte«fered with your manners ^nd customs. I was^ld, 
*^ that an>ong the Persians it isa sort of .crime for a son to 
*:^ seat him himself in his mother's presencej withqut.first 
" ^« obtaining her leave. *You arc sensible how eatrtSoiB I iave 

« always beca in this particular ; and that I never sat down 

^ till yotf had firstlaid your commands upon me to <^ so. 

* j^nd every time -Ihat ybu wai^ goingtofs^ proatrate before 
•-* me, I only, whether! would stfffer it ? As the 

* Whst Aniiau, Al^na^cr in regard to |^ Hr 
«Ms of fisrawdmt and AriiMritfii is attiibaw^ hj oth«hbii«M«0f 

Sect, ^. HtyrORY <HP ALtXAV^t% IW 

'* highiest testimony (if the veneration *I haveifbr youj I .al- 
^ ways call yop t>y thfe tender name of mpther, though th^i 
**' belongs properly to OiympiaaoBly, to whom I owe my 

Wh£^ I have just now related may Suggest t^o i^c^ections, 
both which, in my dpinion/are'vei^ natural, arid at the same 
time ctf the utxhost itnporUmce. 

First, w^\see to hrow great a height the Persians, jso vai^^ 
and haughty ia other respect^ carried the veneration they 
showed^e^r parents.' *Fhe r^der, dou$tle^s, repierobers, 
that Cyitis tjie Oreat, in tlife midst qfhis conqu^its^andthe 
mo[st exalted pitch to winch fortune l^fi raii*B(i hipri, >puld 
not accept of 'the ^dvantageoujs offer fhade him by €yaxares» 
his uiiqle, vicV of giving Kim lijs daughter in Wrrpta^, aiur 
Media fpT, her dowiy^tiJlhe^adiirst s^dvi^d w^^^^ fetji- 
er aiidipotli^r^-ia^d ob^ined their Qonsent. History inforyns 
ns here, ihiat am9ng'thG PersiiinJB* a spn never dared^^o set 
inmselir-beir6rel\i&^o^r till^he had first otstained her le^e \ 
apdth^tto dp oilierwise yasoonsidered.iis a crime! j^tasl 
how wij3^ilo .^ur maju^ii ^0kr friawi so'e^cellc^t ap in* 

stitutiQnt " '^^ ' 

' Beqindly, I discover, 711 the &nmc relation, several valiia- 
hie fpo^fepis orthat l\a;ppy simplicity which prevailed in an* 
cleht timtJs,T?hfc^ ^ ^r^astfce custo;?! fer ladies, tjiough qf the ; 
grejitest'flistjrictidn, to'" einp)ov tliemselves in useful, up^ j 
"^me^ines labqirioi^ yfc^s tvery one know5 ?vi^^t is tol^ 
|isin"scrlptureJ to ihis pu^ose concerning Rebecca, Raclidj ^ 
ani several others. 'Wie read in HomeVj of princesijefe draw- 
iiiithemse\v^es]wateriV^ift ^^^^^^ J ^^ w wishing, with thcii* 
ow]\ hands, ^e Jiihen of tlieii' rHpectivje fan}iiie&,t tfeve the 
«stei^ .bJTAlei^nSc^* that isj the daiighters of a powerful 
^Tmc|,''ife efm^Oy w dotl>es for their brpt(it;r.' 

T^e ceIebi:ate^LyicretJa m^d to jspm in the midst tif jier fe- ' 
irialc aCteud^ts. Au^^tus, w Jio was so ye re i gn of the' yrorld^ 
SvoT^," for spvefal years together, jio other clothes tjut yifi^t 
his iwijfe and si^f el's ipade,bim. Jt was a custom in the north- ' 
efn parts di tjje world, not many years since, for the priii- 
eess^ wl\o then sat upqn 'tlw^ thr orw J to p r epar e Bc\^er al of t h e 
^shes "at every meal. ' Tn a word, needle-worlc, the care of 
'd6ihcs^c.*ateirsj a' wipus and retired Ufe, is the proper 
^nc*aon of women, and for this they were designed by^ 
proVS^ncjB. Tfiii depravity of the age has indeed a^xccj - 

^^'Soio ftpud vos, 61iotn in cootj^^t^ mmu ^^^fm ^m^^i' 

1wuter.^c ▼estetii,quam mdQCini«kii,iO«»|iip^D |(J9^ 
^>o>i led ethus optn ^det. (^ Curii 

. :^0 , iklSTOAT OF ALKXAJTBXf . AoJt XT, 

to tiiete custom^ whkh are verjr near as old as tte cre- 
ation, an idea ef meanness and cdntcBipt ; but tken what 
has it substituted In the room of the harsh and vigorous 
exercises which a just education enabl^ the sex to un- 
dertake>. to that laborious and useful life which was spent 
at home? A soft indolence, a stupid idleness, frivclous 
Conversations, vain amusements, a strong, passion for pub- 
lic shows, and a franUc.Iove of gaming. JLet us compare 
Chese two characfers^ and then pronounce which of them 
may justly boast its being. founded on goood sense, solid 
judgment, and a taste for truth and nature. It must, ner- 
erthelessy be confessed* in honour of the fair sex of our 
nation, that several ladies among us, and those of the high- 
est Quality, make it not only a duty, but a pleasure, to 
employ themselves in needle^woito, not of a trifiibg, but 
of the most useful J^ind; and tx> make part ofthdr fur- 
niture with their own hands. I also might add, that great 
numbers of these adoii) their minds \rkiir agreeable, and 
at the same time, serious and useftd studies.. 

Alexander, having takea his leave, of Sysigambis, who 
now was extremely ^ell satisfied, arrived on the banks rf 
a river, called by the inhabitants Pasi-Tigris.* ' Having 
erossed it wiUi 9000 foot and 3000 horse, consisting (rfAgri*- 
ans, as well as of Grecian, mercenaries, and a reinforce- 
ment of 3000 Thraciansi he entered the country of the 
tJxii. This region lies near Susa, and extends to the fron- 
tiers *of Persia, .a narrow pass only lyiag between it and 
Susiana, . M*dathes commanded this province, t This 
man was nbt a time-server^ nor a follower of fortune, but 
faithful to his soverei^;^ he resolved to hold t)ut to the 
last extremity ; and tor this purpose, had vrithdrawn iuto 
his own dty, which stood In the midst of cra^;y rocks, 
and was surrounded with precipices. Having been forced 
from thence, ^ he retired mto the citadel, whence the be- 
sie^ sent 30 deputies to Alexan4er to sue for quarter ; 
which they obtained at. last, by the intercession of Sysi- 
gambis. The king not only pardoned Madathes, who was 
a near relation of that princjess, but likewise ^*^t ail the 
cap(iv,es, and those who had surrendered themselves, at 
liberty ; permitted them to enjoy their several rights asd 
priyjilegi^s ; would not suffer. their city to be plundered, 
out let thetn plough their lands without paying any tax or 
tribute.' Could Sisygarabis have possibly obtained more 

^'ilikrfvtr dflTers 'from tls^ Tigris; 
^ t H tnd tape temponuo homo » ^uippcultiftw pfoilc e^*»' 


irom her own son on this occasion, ^ad he been the vio* 
tor? > • 

The Uxii being subdued, Alexander gave part of his ar- 
my to Parcaeiito, and commanded him to march it throagh 
the plain ; whilst himself, at the head of Us.light^rmed 
troops^ crosised.the mountains, ^hich extend as far as Per- 
sia. The fifth day. he arrived at the pass of Susa. Alio- 
barzanes, with 4000 foot and 700 horsey had ^tahea posses* 
aon of those rocks, .^Hiiioh are craggjr on all sides, and 
posted the barbarians at the summit out of the reach of 
arrows; He also had built a wall in those passes,^ and en- 
camped: his force* under it M soon as Alexander ad- 
vanced, in order ^to attac|: hire, the barbarians tolled, from 
the tGp of the naoiintatoa, sttHies of a prodigious ttze, whidi' 
faUing ftomi rock 4to rock, mshed forward with the greats 
er violence, and at ..once crushed, to pieces whole bands o^ 
soldiers. The king, being very much terrified at this sight, 
commanded a retreat to he sounded ; and it was with the 
utmost grief he ^aw hitnself not o6ly stop{M at this pass, 
liut deprived of aU hopes of ever boing able, to force it. 
■ Wh'Jlst he was i5eMol*jing thiebe gloomy thoughts, a Gw- 
cian prisoner surrendeted himself to AleScander, with a 
promise to conduct ^im to the toprof the .mountain by an-< 
other way. t^he Mng accepted of: the «^r, when, leav- 
ing the superilitendence of the camp and of the army to 
Cratents, he cosnmafided^him to cause a great number. of' 
iires to be lifted, h> order that the barbarians migjht- 
therdby be more strongly ind^iced'to believe that Alexan- 
i\er was there in person. After this, taking some ohoaeai 
troops with him, he set out, going through all the by^ways^ 
as his guide directed* But, besides that. these paUis were 
Yery craggy, and the rocks so slippery that their feet 
could scarce stand upon them, tlic soldiers were also very' 
inuch distressed by the snows which the<winds had brought 
^geUier, as^d which were so.high that the men fell into them^ 
as into so many ditches ; and, when thetr comrades endea- 
voured tojdraw them out, they thems^ves would likewise 
sint into them ; not to mention that their fears were greats. 
ly inc-reased^y the horrors of the night, by their, being in: 
aa uti^nown country, and conducted by a guide whose fidel< 
ity was doubtful. After having gone through a great num- 
ber of difi^culties and dangew, they at last got to the top of; 
the mountain. Then going down, they discovered the enc-- 
[ny*s corps-de-^rde, and af^ared , bebiod them sword sii' 
hand, ata time when they least expected>it* Soch as madec 
the least defence (who were but few)* were cut to pieces ; by 
^hichoii^^jlilis^e Gri«t^af thedyii^ oacDesideyandoh th^ othei^ 

the frigHt of those ^v w<breil^ing to their maSn boflys «pi^ead 
so gteat a terror, that they fled without striking a blow. At 
thit oblae^Craierus advanced,' as Alexundcr had command- 
ed at his going 4way, and ^zed the pass, whkh tiU: then 
had resisted liw attacks ; and at tlk same time/ Pttilotas ad- 
vanced forwards by another wajr, with AtfiyritaB, Coraus, 
and Polyspcrcon, and broke qiute through the t}aYbarians, 
who now l?cfc' attacked on every side. The greatest part 
"tof them wfercctit to pieces, ^nd^those 'whofied^fell kfto prepf- 
i^ces. Ari<Aarzaiies, with pak of the cavairy, escaped by 
flying over the moui^ains. 

Alexander, from an- effect of the good ftwtone winch con- 
Mitly attendied Him in all his nndendkings,' having extri- 
cated himself happily out of tiie danger to which be was so 
iat^ exposed, maMied immediately towards Penia. Be- 
ing on the road, he received letters from "Tiridates, goretnor 
of Persepolis, which informed him, that the' iidiabitatits of 
'that city, upon the report of bis advancihg towards^ it, were 
determined to plunder 'Dariiis' ti^fl6iir^s,%ith which he was 
Intrusted, and therefore that it; wis necessary for" him to 
make all the haste im!^nabi<Q to sei^e them himself ; that 
he bad only the * Araxes to croSs^ after which the rdad was 
'smooth ar«d easy. Afexander, -upoh tins newi^ leavfaig hits 
iirfantry behind, mashed the whote night at the healt^flih 
icavafty, whd werte very n^vdi'hshTassed by tlife 'length and 
swiftness of this march, and passed the Araxes on a bi'fdge, 
wtinch by hi» order Had' Seeiibailt some 6Ay& before. 

Bat, as.hef drew near the* city, he' perceived a large body 
of men^ who exhibited a memorable example of the' g^eate^ 
misery. Th*se w^ about' 4000 Greeks, very fef advanced 
'in years; who^ htfvi^gJbeen madeprisoil^ts tf *War, had suf- 
ftsred all the torments whidi thef Persiaii tyranny c^uld is- 
*flict. Tbe hands of^ome had becncntoir, the ftiatdf Others; 
and Others ttgiSiii ha4 lost their noses j^^ears : after which) 
tiiey had tKeiinlnmsaiMty tpkpeptbemasso.mair^ 
Stocks, with which they - imported, ^tpetbiilly'. Thfiy ap- 
j)eared like:so^many sbadoifs, rather tbanflkemeh ; speech 
being akhost the onlyHhrng by which they w€rb known t6 
"he sudi. Aiejcander coold not retrain "^rom team at this 
jiight ; andt as Ihcy unanimobsly liesou^t him to comm!^- 
ir ate thei^ condition, he bid them, With the utmost ten^rne^', 
not to de^^d, anditssttt^ them, that they«hpold ag^in se% 
their wivies atidcoutttty^* ^is propeisa!, wfirich one migf>t 
lluCTOBeshouia mrtuTidlf have iiafed them with joy, p^pl«- 

*d 0keiti •♦feiy tnueh, vario«s oflinioirt atising on this'occaston. 

-**-Hq^*»i^it'bepMiibi^;*' said atottie of ^em, <*forusto 

" appear pjaWielf before all*'Greec^, in tkc dt^aiJftil c<mdi- 

■" tioD 'to -which vf€ «re reduced ; a xbndjtiun ijtill more 

^ ^ttmd&ilafid-dissfttisfectory? The best wayto bear mis- 

^-ery is-to-ccmoeal 4t ; and ino countty is so sweet to the 

"-'^^retch^sd'as solftii^, tepH an oHiVion of their x>astealamf- 

*' itie$. -fiesid^s^hbir 'f^ill it'be^pos9iWe for \is to undertake 

** so. ldi>g ft Jowiey ^ ? Dinren to a ^eat tjistance f r«m E,u- 

**-r<^V^ahished-to the most remote parts of the east, -worn 

^ oijt-^ith -age,- and mqst ef par limbs mahncd, can we prc- 

^ terid to undergo latigues whieh' hare ercn wearied .a tri- 

** Tfftt]^ant army .? .The onljr thing that now remains for us, 

** Wtahide owr* misery, ami to end qtir days amonj^ those 

^^w^o-are alreadyso accustomed to our misfortunes.'* 0th- 

^i-s,- in whotti-l^e' love of tibietr country extingui^ed $31 other 

sentiments,- i^pTesen^cd, • **:tbat the gods dffered them \frhat 

-** theysh^d net-even ^hare-daredto wfeh, viz. their coun- 

^'•try, their- -wires, therr dilMren, and all those things for 

" whose sAke men are^lbrtd-Of lKc,9ndt3espi!5e d<;ath. Th^at 

**'theyha^ long lenough borne the sjcd yoke of slaver\\; 

^'-andiafiatne«3iit)g'h^piereouH;pT^5cnt itself, than tlieir 

"■bemg.irMhjig^the'Dliss of going at last- to breathe their 

'^'^ native tiir, tiresome thetr ancient ipannet:?, laws, and sa- 

" crifices, ai*i to -die hi presence ef their , wives and chil- 


Hawevet, the former opinion prcvg^il^d ; and. accordingly 

"they-ljcsought^hqiklng t& perrtit thenr to continue-in a coun- 

tr5rwherc^1*»ey *fed«pent so many years ' He granted their 

-rei^c8t,^and-p^eseTited.♦eatih of them'^SOOO drachms ; five 

i^ents stiks-df-el<*!ics, and the same number for women ; twn 

eoopte- ^ oxen to- fJiough their lands, and com to sow them. 

'Hecommandedtlie^ovemorofthepro\*inee tjot to fiulfer 

them to be molested in any rianncri, ^d ordered th?t th^y 

shotddbef pee from taxes^ and tributes jdf erery kind. ' Such be- 

hayiour-asUiis was* truly iwal. 'It was, indeed, impossif^e 

for*Alexanderto*rcstorelHem thefinibs of which the 'Per- 

t«*nsiiadi§oer«^ly'denm:ed Ihem ; hut -then he restored 

':<hem to liberty y ttancjfiiflKtv. and abundance. * Thrice happy 

^^ae prinees^who are -aiifrccted whji the pl^a^^ire which 

•arises^fromrthc doing good. actions, gntd who mi^lt with pijy 

'forthc-uilfortmTate i 

Aiexander -having called*to«l1ier, the next day, ;thc gjRi- 
erals of hfe army, represented to theni, **;^hat,no city in the 
•** -worid had ever beeirmorc fatal to the ti reeks tfiaiirPer- 

-•(AlHWt ijol. 


*^ sepolis, the ancient residence of the P^Fsiaa ipooarchSf 
•* and the capitJil of their empire ; for that it was frqm thence 
*^ all those mighty annies poored which had overflowed 
^ Greece, and whence Darius, and afterwards Xer^ces, had. 
^< carried the fire^^rand of the most accursed war, which 
*' had laid waste all Europe ; and therefore that it was in- 
^ cumbf Dt on them to revenge the manes of their ance&tars.*' 
It was already abandoned by the Persianfs, who ^ fled sep- 
arately as tear drove them. Ale^umder entered it with his 
phalanx, when the victorious soldiers soon met with inches 
sufficient to satiate their avarice, and- immediately .cut to 
pieces all tlibse who still remained in the ci^. However 
the king soon put an end to the massacre, and published an 
order, by whidi his soldiers were forbid to violate the chas- 
tity of the women. Alexander had before possessed him- 
self either bv force or capitulation, of a great number of 
incredibly ricli cities ; but all this was a trifle compared to 
the treasures he found here. The barbarians had laid up at 
Pcrsepolis, aa in a storehouse^. all t)ie wealth of Persia. 
Gold and silver were never seen here but in heaps ; not to 
mention the clothes and furniture of inestimaUe value ; for 
tliis was the seat of luxury. There were found in the trea- 
sury 120,000 talents,* which were designed to defray the ex- 
pence of the war. To this prodigious sum he added t ^00 
talents, taken from Pasagarda. This was a city whidi Cy- 
rus had built, wherein the kings of Persia used to be crown- 
ed. . , 

touring Alexander's stay in PersepoliS) a little before he 
.set out upoii his march against Darius, he entertained his 
friends at a banquet, at which this guests drank to excess. 
Among the women, who Tyere admitted to it masked, wa3 
Thais the courtezan, a native of Attica, and at tliat time mis- 
tress to Ptolemy, who afterwards was king of Egypt. About 
.the end of the feast,.diirin^ which she had studiously endea- 
voured to praise the king in the most ^rtful and delicate 
manner, a stratagem too often practised b^ women of that 
character, she said in a gay t9ne of voice, <^that it would be 
." matter of inexpressible joy to her, wera shei permitted, 
" masked as she then was, and in order to end this festival 
<' nobly, to bum the magnificent palace of Xerxes, who had 
^^ burned Athens :. and to set it on fire with her own hand, 
^^ in order that it might be said in all parts of the woild, 
<* that th^ women, who had followed Alexander in his ex- 
" pedition to Asia, had taken much better vengeance of thp 
*^ Persians, for tibe many calamities they had brought up<u\ 

; About iZfiQO,uoo st^tQ f Abost 9on,oo9# 

iftt. iXi HtSl-OkT OF AtXXAKOlSK. 1«S 

<< the Grecians, than all the generals who had fought fot 
" them both^bf sea and land *^ AU the guests applaaded 
the discourse ; ^hen immediately the king rose from taMe« 
his head being cro^vned with fVoMpers, and taking a torch iti 
his hand, he advanced forward to execute this mighty ex- 
ploit . The whole company followed him , breaking mto loud 
acclamations ; and afterwards, singing and. dancing, thejr 
surrounded the palace. All the rest of the Macedonians, at 
this noise, ran in crowds, with lighted tapers, and set fire to 
every part of it. However, Alexander was sorry, n6t long 
after, for what he had done ; and thereupon gave oi'ders foif 
extinguishing the fire j but it was too late. 

As he wa!^ natm*ally very bountiful,, hii ^eat successci 
increased' this beneficettt dispoSitioh'; and he accompanied 
the pi'esentsf he Tttade^rith such testimonies of humanity and 
kindness, and so obliging a carria|;ei a^verf much ehhanced 
their merit. He exerted this temper in a particular man -» 
Her towards the fif%y Macedonian young lords who served 
Under him as guards. Olympias his mothfer, thinkihe hitn 
too prorose, wrote to him as follows : "I do not blame y ou' * said 
she'^forbeirig beneficent towards yourfi'iends, forthatisact- 
" ing like a king i btit then a medium oaght to becAserved id 
** your munificence. You equal them 'all with kings, and by 
** heaping riches U|k>n them, ^Ve them art opportunity of 
•* making a great number of fi»iends, of all whom you de-] 
^ prive ytjurself *' As she often Wrote the saifte advice to 
him, he always k^t her letters very secret^ and did not' 
8ho# them to any ^person ; but happening to open one of 
them, and beginning to tead it, Hephsstion drew h^r td 
him, and read it over his shoulder, which the king observ- 
ing, did not oflfef to hindiir him J but taking only his ringj 
from his frngeV, hi put tlie seal of it upon the lips of his fa- 
vourite. ai& ah adtnonitloittb him not to divulgel what he h^d( 
tead. •' ' ■ ' .1 ■ ' * 

He us^d to send ntagfllflGfeftt presents 't#hfe mother • but 
tli^ri he would never let her have any concern in the affairs* 
<rf the government. She tised frequently to make very sc- 
'frcre QoiRplainf $^ upon that accotiht, but he always sabmitted( 
to her in humour with great thiMness and patience. Anti- 
pater having one day wrote a letter against her, the king," 
after reading it, replied, " Antipater doe$ fi6t know that One' 
•* *n^e tear ghed by a mother, will obliterate ten thousand 
** such letters as this.'* A behaviour like th*B, and 6Uch an 
aiMwfer,show, at one and the sliihe tteiis that Alexahder Was^ 
both a kind son and an able politician, and that he was per* 

199 KXtTtwr 09 AUBXAiTDnBik Btf$k XW. 

fcetly wmiUe h<M^ dangef^MM it woiiId'ha¥eb«eal»d.he. in- 
serted A wonftn of Oij-m^as^'dttstusler wUh the s«^reme 



AirBxANosB,*^ after he had taken Persefiolis^and Pasa- 
S&rda, was resolved to pumie DarivSf who wa& arrived bf 
this ticne at fichatatia^ the capital of Media. There ^pemain* 
ed still with this fbgitive prance 30,060 fbpt^ alQoyis whom 
were 4goa C»it(q]ny.wib wei^ &ia^fvl Co hii» to the il^ 
sides, thesey.he had 40d0 sUag^iNf and upward* of 3000 cav« 
ally, mostof^tlieoa Hactrians^ cooHnaaded 639 dessuS)> gover- 
nor of I&ctrli. Aarius marched' his forces arlihle out-o^tho 
eommoa road, hafvinp; ohlered his bamge ta go- be&FS 
^em. ; then • assembling . his principal' omcersy he- syofa^ ta 
them aA follows : '< Dear compantonsyiamoo^ sn naaiq^theH* 
^* saad^men, who composed my army, jiiou only liawe> B<ft 
^^ abandoned meduriag th^sr wht^e-conrsef of'my iiLJSvtime | 
«< andi in a little time, nothing, butr,ynqr ^leUt^raadrConstan- 
^ cy Witt lie ahle to mai^e-me failG)f:m|^seU^a isini^ UoB^rti* 

V ers and traitors^new ^em^hi mj^chies » notttot t^9it9 
^' thoHght woFtt^Foithe-iinntfur bB6towed'0»j£emVhH^*^ 
^ wards are" given* them-onl]^ inr the view of temptiBg yooi 
^ and to stagger yoop persed'erance. Yon stiflchme tO'fet- 
<< low my fortune vather than tiiat of the conqueroff &^ 
*} which yowcertainli^ have merited a repompence Ifom^tf 
*^ gods; and^Ide nqt dqMbt bnt Ui^^i^IK'oHrbenelicefit ta^ 
' wards you, inrease-that powen i^ denie^ma«« Widf saeH 
^ seldiers«ndoffic0nI-w<>^ldb!rav«).i*!ithQ^^ 

^ the enemy, how iorroidable soever he may be. What- & 
<f would aa)F4)iier have nae-s uiy e Md iff «i)9S^npktethcrO0«cy 
<^ of the oenquevor, and- expect from Him^^ui ^ i^k^t^ of x^ 
" baseness and meanaess-of spirit,* iSie govemmentef sottia 
^ pTOvinoe wHkh he may eendeseend In kAw^ niie^^- Nb^ 
^ never shattf be* in> the power ef any many either to tidse 
<< away^pr fee npda-my head the diadem I wear ;' th^ seise 
*^ hour shall put a pefioi^to my rsign And. lifcC Hyen bs^ 
* aU the*same covnig^ gild reaoMitMn^ whtchfeanmo-wtt^ 
M doubti I assure fia^^etf iha^ yoi» shall ' retain^ your .li6e^'^ 

V and ftfi^ heria^qmjedl^tbe pride and insults elv^t&Macc^ 

* Diod. I. XVII. p. 540-^546. Arrlan. I. i>i. p. 133^137* P^'*^ 
Is Ales, p. 6S9. Q^ Curt, i v. c. 8— 14. Juttto. 1. ai. e, 15. 

ieCi.X, . ftlSTORY of ALEXANDEII. 19/ 

•* donkti6. You have in ytnr hands the means either to re- 
** vcnge or tei'ininate all your evils.'* Having . ended tliia; 
speech, the vhole body of soldiers replied with shouts, 
that they were ready to tellow him whithetsocver he should 
go, and would shed the last drop of their hlpod in liis de- 
fence* ' 

SudI wftS'thei^esolution of the soldit^ty ; but Nabarianes^ 
one of the greatest lords of f qrsla, ancTgeneral of the hwsff 
had conspired with Bessus, general of theBactrians, to com- 
mit theblacSkesf cf all Crhnes, and that was, taseite upon 
the person of the king^ and lay hih> in chains ; which they 
imght easily do, as each of them had a great number of sol- 
diers under h» comimand'r Their design was, if 'Ale'^rander 
should pursue them-, te secure- themselves, by giving up Da- 
r'ms aii^e into his hands ; and, in case they escaped, to mur- 
der that prince,- and afterwards usorp Uis crowli, and bcgiix 
a new war. These traitors soon won over the troops, by 
repreaenthj^ to them, that they were going ta their destrnc-i 
tion ; that they would soon be crushed urider the nrins of an 
empire- which Was just ready to fall ; at the? same time, that 
Bactriana was open to them, and offfered them immense 
riches* Though these practices were carried on very se- 
cretly, they, came however to the ear of Darius^ wh^ could 
iH)t believe thetn . Patron, who convmanded the G^et^s, en- 
treated htm, but in vain, to pitch his tent among thMm, and, 
to ttnst thegiiard of his person to men on whose ^elrty he 
inight depend. Darius couM not .pre\'ail. whh iiimseif to 
put so great an aflS-ont upon the Pei»smn^j and thet^fdrti made 
this answer i? *« that it would be a less affliction' to him to be 
** deceived by, than td<condemn them. ' That he would siif- 
*' fer the worst of evils amidst those of his own nation, rather 
*' than seek for security annrng strangers, how feilhful ancf 
" afl^tionate soever he inight believe them ; and that he' 
•* could not but die too late, in case the Persian soldiers 
" thooight hirii unworthy of life.^^ It yirois iwt long befbfe.. 
Darius experienced thetrtith of this cidunsell 5 • for the trai- 
tors seized him, bound hint In chains of gnld^by way of htfn- 
<*"!*» as he -was a king, and then laying ttim in a covered 
clianot, they set oat towards Bactriana. 

Alexander being arrived at'Ecbatana, was informed that 
Darius had left that city five days Ijefore. He then com- 
icanded Parmcnioto Wy up all the treasures of Persm in tKfe 
tastle of EcbaUna^ under A Strong gtiard which he left ther^. 
Accordin^^ to Strabo*,- thieae treasures aipnounted' to 180,000 
<^nts, about ?7,00(),00«. fctlftrttng 5 andacocftiding to t JusJ 

* Strab. 1. XV. p* 74t* tJ°^^°» ^ '^^ ^« h 

cler^d l>im ta mar^bt aftevwarcU V^wanls Hyr^Mi^^ ^ the 

ers^ mi tb<: rest f>f t^e cav^ry, tbe royM p^iqpaiMi^ ex- 
cc^tecL :pe seiKt orders to Qkuny Ylpa stiiy«d, Nto4 » ^- 
sa, where he tell nck| that as soon as he was arrived at £c* 
hataoa, lw$ sliaiilil tak* ii^ £^F^eftw\»sikym»'h^'m^t^)i 
And ^q)A ^ }fim \fkP^i\m* 

. A)^3cm44Kr}Wittitlieire^ofbis»iK|^pprfiMc4P«>4m^^ 
jrrived Uvc; ^leve^th ^,aJL » KU9«^ whfcli i» % Ippft d*y'« 
jicuurp^ £rqm thft C^^^ i|traiis » but Oartes ^%«^ abt^aoy 
passim tluroQgh tbem. iUes^audev «oii!c (Jpp^jpg tp over- 
take him, what dispatch soever he i^iglit msiii^ wd thtrf 
$.ve days tQ rest hU fcirce$. £[« tne^ qi^g^4 ^£$^11^ tbi 
FarthiaiDS, aod that day pitpfied his PMup* BC^r the Caspiao 
straits, and passed tliem the i^ext. N«wi^ ir^^ inop h^ous:^ 
bifiK timtDai'vis h^ be^ seized byr the trailors i tb^B^^* 
«u^ haJd cawed him to he di^wik in a chariot* ^^ tiM Q^ 
\he wihappy nfic^yiLrGh beSbi^ iD ordev to bf( th^ st^iwr o^^ 
pejfsou ; that the whole army obeyed tli^ wr^h> Af^^ 
m^ and the Gveebs tx«^pt«d% >vhQ i¥3t having a i»Q^ &^ 
fnough to consent ta sc^ j4x>minable a ^icod, aird b^i^ ^ 
weak to prevent it, ha^ theref^s^ l§Ct t^f high it^Ms ^ 
(Darchmd tPwanH ^ i^ouoitHms. 

Tlii^ ^as a &«sh mcxdve for hinv t^ tl^t^n )^i«t ''^^ 
Tbe bai^i^jU^My ?^ bi» arrival wer^ 4eUf4 wMi 4^^ 
thou^ tii^ m^h iwjrtd not b?^v^ b«m e^u^ j«*d.jP«sa» 

been as re^oh^e ^f fighthisr as fo^r putting kv «¥««9^^ 
d^vj^sl^ble act abov^ v^ntiofi^d i for hl^ troops 1^^^^ 
the oqftflM botb v^nuifkbc^ s^ tix^^h^ and i^f^si^ ^^ ^ 
aod rcadar Iwr th« <;en)fc^ ; wherea* A\nm»^'^ ^^^fj 
Yere quite fati^ffied wit|^ ^e U^glh. fi£ th?>r W^^bi^ J?^ 
tiie na»Q and reputation of Al^awlep, ^ motive all^p^'' 
(pi in war, fitfed them wUH ^W(^h prodig^Qlia tm^QT tM ^ 
all iied. Be^>^ nad his n^^omf^Wes bf^iflg «09»9 vp^J'^ 
I>ariM3, ^hisji r^^^i^fafid hi^ ta W»»t his l«ar«9y ajBd^l^ew 
theen©i%' j biaVhi^i^^)B«m^?^t ft^god* v^r^ r«a*^'^ 
^en§^ t^e «Yji}%h%h«vd »|ffer^ r a#d bi^jje»QW«g^«i^g^ 
to do him justice, |^ if^feiied lo fc^^^^-a bwd ^ tw©'* 
At tha$# WQidirtJ^Qy «* iotoi sv^h.a toy»«Ja* a^ «^7 
t]i>cip dart? at hiip> and l^ft him ^ovoFe* iwtit v<w«4a. ^j' 
ter. having perp^rated this fafovvid wvs»% th«y ^^I'?* 5 
5% oKdfi? toOeavt cUabr4»|«wtot«^«fth©ii:%^ 
thidf^ ^.powbuU e^ thffe gmmih » ca«5 hi?: ^«^^,;rr?l 
t^nv; -01^ at l«(i^r dj^ic^ h^Hi %»^kite Jd§. fcrcfs. 5JW«; 
sanes took the way of Hyrcania, and Bessus that ot d^ 
» .^ ,. ;. . r \{ t;r >• * ' -• ' 

• Th» U th« cit; mcDtiODcd in Tobtt ^'.v|. 

Skii. X ^ niaaBMr «r AUx^mtK* 

tts tte teri>ami»^w«« b:r tbisiMi^ demteiCt «f Icaitens 

had strength enough before he dledlo caH fbr 4ffflifc, vhkil 
a Macedonian, Polystratus by name, brought him. He had 
a Persian prisoner, whomhctMaiiloyed as his interpreter^ 
Darius, after drinking the liquor that had been given him, 
turned to the Macedcuakn, mak aaiiA»**that in the deplorable 
".sm^e jtQ^y^i^U^iys^r^^duced^^e however should l^ave tJt»c 
"comfbrt to. ^c^ai t9 one who couBJ understand him, and 
" thiit his list words Wouldnot be Tost. He therefore charged 
'^hkntatf^AlMoztierjllfiitliedkd »likd^bc, Hioiigbh^ 
^ had Mevcn^ o&Ug«df hiM. That he-gav^ him a rotdttlude of 
''thanks'^drtiie great hmnanil^ he had eowteised towards 
^* Ms methep, l)4«^ w4fe, Md ld» tliili^ii, Whose^ llv«6 he had 
•' not' duly spared, but restored them «<► tiieir fermer s^en* 
«dowr. Thair he fcwdcwijgl* the gods to g^ire victory to his 
** brms, a«d» mtAe »d» tneMirtk ©f the unhferse. That he 
•* thoiigirt tee Heed net €ntrpat I^ift to jwrenge ^le execrai^ 
" murder committed on his person, as this wa« the common 

Atk^ tjife, taking Pb>)r«tKito^ by tfce hand, «p*e him,* 
«iid he5*»ttiy hana,^as 1 gWe tliee mine ; and carry him, la 
^myrmneyi^f^fmfy ^^«« ^ ateaWe to give ef my grati- 
**Hid^andaflfeetiori.'* S^lng Aese w«>rd^ he breathed hk 
la^t. AleaMtndet eott»i»g up a moment altei*, and se^n$ 
Darttt?* body, i^ept bkterlf ; and by the stroBgert testwKh- 
tnes of aRbcdon that could be gf veii Mm, proved how inJ». 
m&lety he wa^ alfecteA mtfc d»e unhappiness ef a pmce wh» 
deserved a* bcttei^ felei He immpcdialefy pi*ted olThis nril- 
itary cT^, and ^rt».cfw M^ Dirios^ btidy* / theif^iisin^ it 
^ be embaji^^, and hi* €<>ffia to be adbcai^ Wit* a ptf^rai 
nragnifteeiicev^^*^ ** *® Sffsig?ai*K in cfrder that Jtmi^ht 
bein^^iwtid with the hdaours iisoaMf paid ta th* deceased 
Persian roenarchs, and^be entombed wlt^hie ancestors, 

♦Thws died Darros, the third year of the l.lSth CMym- 
P«d» at ibout fAf ftkh of tt^9 sixof whfchhehad rctgnei}. 
fe was a gentle vttd pacific prfnce ; his re%n having been 
tms^JHe^'-s^ hijustlceer cruelty, which waA owing either tb 
W^' u&tui«l kmty, or to his not heeving^ had an ^portfuoftyr of 
•stttitisothenn^i from the perpetual Warhe^ad carrk^ o|i 

' ^AV^ifit4^ ADti|.C Jjb. ' * * • ' ;' 

UpiMMlt Mtwtaadtr all Hm dme Iieli9i4nt apdit the tlmsae. 
Id bim tht Perma empire endedj after having esdsted 209 
yean,CQdlptttiiie h^m the beginnhis of the r^gii of Cyrus 
the Great, the founder of it, UQder 13 kii^gs, vis. Cjrus^ 
CaBlyytesi SiAerdb Mages, Darius son at Hysta&pes, Xerxes 
]« Artaiorrxes Longtmaaos^ lUrxts II*. Sc^diaBu% J:>arius 
Kothuft, Artaxerxes Mrmiw, -ArtftaBernft^OcbMey- ArK% 
•tMl Dariue Codomaaut. 



. The death of Darius Codomanu^Kiay vety Justly be con^ 
siUered as the eta^but not as tb» s^ cause^ of th^e dfistruc 
iioaoftlie Per^a monarchy. . When we Sal^^^eral 
view of the history of the kingK above n^ntiox^ed, aad con* 
aider with some attention their diferent characters and 
methods of governing, whether in peace op war>. we ^^^y 
peixeive tliat this declenfi«(» was pntp^ered at a gjreat dis^ 
tance, and carried on to its end by visible steps which denot- 
ed a total roin. ...... 

We may declare at first sight, that the declension of th« 
Persian empire, and 'tis fally are-owii^g to ks origki s^nd pri- 
mitive institution, ,- It had been jfbrra^ by thtf UHiea of two 
nations, who differed very oMich in mafinera s^ in^inaticns. 
The Perbiaas were a sc&r, laborious, naodest pe<^Ie ; but 
the Medes were wholly devoted to pride, Juxury, softness^ 
and voluptuousness. The example of frugality aaid sioiplic' 
ity which Cyrys jhad set them, and their, b^ng ot)Iked to 
be always under. arms to gain so n^any victories, ana sap- 
port thenvkselveBrin tlie midst pf s^^any.en^mi^ypfrevfntea 
those .vices from ^reading for some time j but ^lei-; those 
nations had subjeC(ted all thingSx the; fondness ./y^hich thfi 
Medes had naturally for pleasures and magni'^cence, sqoq 
lessened the temperance if the . Persians, ajid became, In ^ 
little time, the prevailing taste of the two. nations^ , 

Several other causes conspired to this. Babylon, vbe» 
conquered, intoxicated its victors with her poisoned cupr ^ 
inchanted them with the charms of pleasure. She fuiiislie^ 
them with such nun^ters and instruinents as were adapte^ 
to promote luxury, and te ;foment and cheri^ ddights wittt 
art and delicacy i luid the wealth of the richest provinces 
m the world Wing at the entire disposal oif her "soverEJ^^ 
they thereby were enabli^d tp. satiate. aU, their d^siies. 

to this, witHfu^-pm^eimgi the capecqi^enoe o£U|, aiiili»re<r 
psa-ed nFiafi/» iiuml#rbfr't>Mi »gk&did brafuot he gav^ Wf^ 
having: cneud^fl'lsls ooi||ue«a:;, andU when h« shovad hisMelf 
in th« ii)M|9taf*IM^ti»op%: ^¥J^ had- s^rodiUi his viGt^»riai| 
with mmk &rp^nftp: ati4 oiteniAtiimi as.wevo moU capaUe. ol 
dazisrin^ tK&^Qfte. H^ b«0>iiib)9 iMj^iring theoi with, an ad«* 
miration fiMr: pcaiif) ia«d 9hifW) which thesy, hadhttb«itO'4es«^ 
pisecL Ha «»g0eiM ta tWnii tS^it iiift9iii£canoia.aiul<ricbe» 
w«ro wof^i^' «^r erowqtvg. th«>fM»st glonoiurexpkttU}: and the 
^ad hmd-ficmt ^ thevn: s^ bjFrthua in^pirtng. hia sut^cta 
wi% % ^tMinsr 4«0m> 6w fhiB0» liwgr aavis^ hi|^ €M|eme4 
W A .«ia0t^ jir«0m]ili9h«fb fwoMt hia< tiKapiglo avUiofiaoA 

UeialMi'ayiread thit) awJ) h)^.f)ldi^8:hift j|tdfQ%. <iflte«m^ 
amiig<»rerDaifft.«Cp«i;bi€«i|>txvap9itftt io spleiHloiu* befoca 
the iMt>]|]bs,iti»d^hielttep tonej^reaent themajetty <^.the ptdoee^ 
Qn onfr Mde^t t^hies^^magifltraUs^UHl oosn^iroajidera #a^; mia- 
took th^e«oisiik9^^t«»andftiffl!ppii}g9irQi^tl»aifi ampto^aoU Ioit 
tt^ iQpai «i9<ttitiial'|)a|sta ^il^^eni^eiHleavouiingito iU^tis]gp4&h 
theiiiai^h»€^ Ityp mithinfcbiab tfiia. giJi^iHrioe.outpido ;. fi^^ «» 
the !ati«eir'Mide» tnen'oT thr ip*oftlafl^waauh<m thfrfKV^^ 
PTa|mi^th«m««)»a(HMna)s piatt6iiifrS>riheir imyt^Mfm^iaMt 
>v«i«ra^i9iiiS6tt0WQA^'lpi|]aonAof«9attde^ fortune^ whoftt 

^ aMMiy . cati«a of^4Utg^MJ»«;y* uidtio«t togathfRvan^'hat% 

aMtbiit«0«d;pubUfll|iivaQ0ir daabro^ad'theafl^^ vtftiw.o£th« 

Barateoa. irhf^'flKd<no^aink».Uhi&.thaBiMnatMi), Iw ioioev^ 

M|y^iMie:)tetta3iFB)jf&iafehad.&Bar.lQi^ fore^aeni.aiiaeftesao^ 

paaed..Sc8»c»yas.€yi»adaad, hut there voiaap aa it»wan« 

Miaftheitnatiiifi, andrJdngaef^ ar <|piite^ dUEtt-ant ganitta am^ 

liiata^f^tat. M^hiriio tansar. 4ia»fas^td»i>f: Umt . inapl$^ than 

H^taeifidiicaitiaB^iirhtah va»hefttawt9dio»^ Persiai) y^oa^t^ 

of those public schools of sobriety, patience, and ero\itol:imi» 

^ initttiMK>a'ai^wer }^bai^ioatf amll wavHtee asfearcifeaa ^ of 

^ thaaerttenrdkl aet rensihi tter imaJkab tcaoas ;. theiff^ 

¥««mtnmi» bcdn^b«o«i|^1t«piBF8^tn^knraiid eifemiiiac^is 

ii^Wi' thejr Mw a»w wa»had*iai fa0niiiii:^.iinmediateiy: be-* 

m tfrdoipfeetfiehqtpy sixnpiioity ol tidsisr fisrc&thevs,, ai^ 

c»»H«4.imthei9pa«e of <aw ^raerai^c^ am entire ntrm ast af 

peofiitv vih^M' 8iaiiii6e9, incltaai&Qmy and snaxisna, ..weisr dn 

»<%](9f«lMtetotiiineTof:a»Giaitlanta TTh^y gjrevi^Haqghn 

^fi ^Rftia% eAfB««te, mhomoDyaaiL p c gfi d iea a in lre^^;;i 

iiMi4cq^]asd.lliih.pMmliarithaiafltar^ idmt «lwy> a^ aU paqK 

pie) were the most ahandnoed to^«plendo«rvte9«mi&as«aig^ 

«•*€!«» till AitokJwieaat arrtet we Ba^y affirm, tiM the 

^MKcflCtbeFenian* lUAy. ateo* at; Ite iiic^ 

303 BisreRT or alexaI^der. JSeok Xf^, 

empires erew up to th'Todgli length of Hme'onWj (ind "began 
where others end. It bore the principle of Its destnictioo in 
its owB bosom, and this internal vice lacreased evbty reign. 

After the unsuccessful expeditions-^ Darius artd Xerxes 
against Scythia and Greece, the princes theJr successors be- 
came iasensible to the ambition of making; conquests, and 
gaye themselves up a prey to idleness and effeminacy : they 
grew careless of military discipline, and substituted in the 
place of regular soldiers, inurea to' the toils of war, a confbs- 
ed m\fltltude of men, who were taken by force oiit of their 
respective countries. • The reiider may have iibsdrved, tat 
more than one occasion, that the whole strength^ and almost 
the only resource of the Persian iirmjf , lay in* the<yr«eks 1if 
their service ; that they properly depetided on them only, 
and always took great care to oppose them to the best troops 
•f the enemy : they were the only soldiers In Darius' army 
whb performed tlieir dutj, and continued faithful to him to 
the last ; and We have seen that Memnon the Rhodian vrai 
the sole great genei*al who* fought against Aleseander. 

Instead of choosing for the command of their forces, ofS-* 
ears of skiM and experience, they used to appoint persons of 
the greatest quality of every nation, who mqueiitly Ikad no" 
other merit than their Exalted birth, their riches dnd credit i 
and who were disttngmshed b3r>nothvi^bQt the sumptuous-^ 
neess of their feasts and mitertainments, by th\e inagbificenctf 
of their equipages, and by the croW^d \jvith which they were 
ever surrounded, of guards, domestics, euauchs, and wometr. 
Such an aisemblage, formed merely for vain show «nd ee* 
tentation, rather than for warlike expeditions, iilcumbei^d 
the armyy already but too numerous, with' ttseiess soldiers j 
Shade it slaw in marches 4^d movemenu h^r ^s : too heavy 
baggage, and rendered it incapable of subsisting. long in a 
country, and of completing great entei^rises in sight of ant 
enemy. > ' 

The Persian monarchs shutting themselves up'> in their 
palaces, in order to abanddn themselves to ^easHres, and 
appearing seldom, abroad, placed their whole confidence, 
and by that means all ^eir author! tyvhleunttch!^td^vd(ne^,' 
to slaves, and to flattering courtiers, whose isole thoughts and 
endeavours were to bannh true merits which was offensive 
to them ; to give the rewardar appointed for services to their 
own creatures $ and to intrust the. greatest eotpleymeBts of 
the ^tate to persons 4evoted to their interested and ambi^ 
tiotts views, rather than to such whose abilities rendered 
them capable of serving their country. • 
• Another character of these princes, which is but too fre- 
quent in that high sj^cre, contributed very, much »o tbs rs- 

Sect. Jil. . ■•: flSTpSV OF AX/EXANOBR. S03 

ID of the empire. They* were eccnstot^ed from their infau- 
cy to have tlieir cars soothed with felse praises, and the most 
Txtravtig^iit ^©[^^^►liments, and to have a 6lind submission 
paid tor their Will. iTiey -wcW educated in so exalted an idea 
of their own gratidenr, as persuaded them that the rest of 
saen Were formed- merely co serve them, and administer to 
their pleasures^ .Tbey mrere not taught their duties, nor the 
maxinm o|':a -wise, and ^dod goremment ; the principles by 
which men. judgff.oi soUd meint^and are capable of choosing; 
persons aUe rto f;oTem'Uiid6r them. They did not know that 
they -were raised to smreteign power, merely tof protect their 
subjects and make tlii«tR happy. They were not made sen- 
sible of the exquisite pleasure that monarch feels who is* the 
delight of his subjects and the public source of the felicity dT 
so vast an empire, as Gyrus the Great had been, who was so 
dear to his people^ that every individual family considered 
him as their father^ ^d bewailed his death as a puMic ca* 
iamity. So far from this, a monarch's grandeur was de- 
clai*ed to eoasist in making himself feared,: and^ in his being 
able to gratify all his passions with impunity. 

SoiW-ju^ed an education > mast necessari^ibrm either 
weak, or vieioas princes. . They^were notable to sustain the 
weight of so mighty an empire, nor to grasp the se%^eral parts 
of so. extensive and painMan administration. 'Idleness,;and 
a love for pleasure, rofade them careless, and averse tobusi^ 
ne^ of every; kind ; and they sacrificed matters of the high- 
est importance to their vain amusements. Some of them 
were bora with such happy di^ositions, that they would 
have^bc^come good priiices had tliey not been enervated by 
(he-charms' of a- voluptuous ^ife, and abandoned themselves • 
to the allurementsof artoo despotic power and an over-great 
pvospjerity. By flattery they- were rendered incapable of 
listening, in tlieir councUs, to any expression delivered with 
freedom, or of suffering t^e least opposition to their wills. 

It. was no. wonder they were not beloved by their subjects, 
since their whole study was to aggrandize themselves, and 
to sacrifice a& considerations to that alone. Darius, in his 
mislortuaes,/ was abandoned by the generals of his armies, 
^y the governors of his provinces, by his officers, domestics, 
and sul^octs ; aad did^ot.-findany where a sincere affection, 
nor a real atiacbment to hi» person and interest, The daz. 
zling splendour of the Persian monarchy ccmcealed a real 
I weakness ; and this unwieldy power, heightened by so mucli 
pomp an4 pri^> WJ^ abhorred .hy the people, so that this 
colossus, at the very first blow, fell to the ground, 


Mrartte brake .out in GrflOHedndrNfM^iedoolft. rftapiBoo, 

tUte, .the lme0dmmi9ASKT»^i!biimi^ 
to.thvow eff ^ievHM>cctewair,yij[ie, -wad c^flgyd Mtoost^ 
JMopcmiMiisr is. their dei^gn. < :lipm1BkTS^msm»iiMis9»^} 
«lter.lM^(rn^-««:ttedrtir.tiic^taett''of'-4]ii.' piniwrtliecilf&iv&of 
TluttceyTettemed lotkthe atiadtt03ip«aitii» into'Gteeee) 
%riMnce<he immedsaf^ifiipaUtect.c^UMefs^intfrder iQ'give 
lUeacitikder laa accmmt of Chne Mveral^trBiiBlieHoiis* As 

tovcstareabatth;. *S%fsI&ased9eincMiai]'>aj4iiyeoi^ 

Agis their kingr^ iwheieftKtiiat^j^^^mi^tor i(ia*^««fiee ftat 
•mmfber. Agis^sDtif9dert<HnflAcellili«ii^erktfi1^'Ol4M^^ 

iHttikf begmi wUkrgrcsityvigaur, eifetr pftTty' ^eiwleftirimmrt* 
ftlgnftlne • themtdves <in ran reixittaoi^dliiarf «Mim^f ^f<f 
thettcnocir e€ thtsi;Tai|iect«w*CdirttriCB, ^e'Owe firftd wtji 
tke reiftembiaaoe of tlieir ^sdn^ ctlory, ^tnkit tlie'^fher ani* 
Miwte^y thci^ present g«sBt»ett,'li)ugli«^jflh e^pttl^eovro^t' 
flteJbacedMHmisnsiiorrilibe!^, andrtlM MaeedmiSfttft^*'^ 
^misice. ''Bak)ii|pas:tbefai!^iStfx;«ytyi»^4)tf.th6^lp<^^ 

by.prc(tCBding*to%, /^tee*r^«>enemf iM<>lhef fti««V»|*f 
4viibi<hyextendiiqp.hir]w4ide£Kmif,'<he^g^di^a «(|W»^» 
diid made'a^|iroperinet)f hlirsidvdttia^. -A*^ w«i'^*S«^ 
guifebod'by*ris.suit <»f-awiioyf jMiiubWe n!«n> •nd'sillll flwre 
90 'by»>lii6 'valCTir. 'The-'ba«ae=fiirMf iWteSt r^orfd' iBSfjerson, 
and he horaidf pcrfijpmed^hefneit'allloofekiH^ 
erjr. Atlast^Aftectlwvmg4jeeiii«i««i»lded"ffi ««v*«*[ ^ 
(if the body;:hi& soldte« layii^ Mm «^KW>lA»«hfeMy ^^ 
b'tftt'Off. Hiwe«er.this.»didii6tdan!|>lhelfe9ii#«^*^^ 
ji»^Be«ted«madVEMttgeou*p^WJ«w*rti»e't!w6y J^^''*^?/ 
th«r.imJikSvth«vi'e«Bt^d«'wllhl5«ati4g:iwr '^ ^*^***^ 
therenewy. After haviftg-'wWWtodd fIteTn tf long **^^ 
Lacedaemonians began to gii^e gfnund^4)enig eeawe aw?^ 
hoidi^i^wurms^^^wfak^ wcwritt^evei'i^^^ '"^ 

•A. M. 5675. Act J.C. 3»^ Diod. I. tm p. 5Jr- Qi^"^** 
1. vi. c. X, 

;8eCt;'Xlii ' HISTORY OP -J*LEXAN1XKR. 2(^5 

«iftci!*w^d» retired very fiisl, and at 'last ran qttitc away. 
The king' seeing himself doaely piE-sued, still made some' 
efforts, TtoVwitkfttandingthe ^eak condition to whidv he was' 
rediicc&dy in -order to oppose the enemy. Intrepid and in-* 
vincibde4o the last, (^pressed by mtmbers, he c^ sword in' 

~ In this^engagement, upwards. of. 3000 Lacedemonians lo^t 

their lires, and 1000 Macedonlafis at most ; but very few of 

die latter returned home unwounded. - This victoiy not only 

ruined the power of Sparta and its allies, but also die hopes 

Q4fth€^ who «Aly waited die issue of tiiis war to declare 

themBHires« Antipater immediately sent the news of this 

success to Alexanaer ^ but, like an experienced courtier, he 

drew the.aooount of it in the most modest aad circumspect 

terms ; in such as were best adapted to diminish the lustre 

of a irieiory wliich mi^t expose him to envy. He was sen* 

»bie thafc Aleicander's je^ousy with regard to honour was 

so very gfteat, that he Jonked upon the glory whidi another 

person obt&ined as a diminution of his own : and, * indeed, 

he could not forbear, when this new« was brought him, to let 

drop some w«rds'whidi discofvered !»& jealousy. Atitipater 

did not dare t* dispose of any thing by his own private a«- 

tliority, and only gave the LaeedaMnonians leave to^send an 

embassy to the kjx^, in order that tliey Uiemselves might 

teU him the 411 succiiss they had met with, Alexander par-' 

doned them, some of, those who had occasioned Jtho vevolt' 

excepted, and these he punished. 

t Darius' death did not hmder Alexander from pursuWig; 
Bessns, who had withdrawn into Bactriana, where he had 
assumed the title of king,byiiie natne of Artaxerxes. But 
iinding atlast.thatit wouk beknpossible for hiratooomcop* 
v^th hifn, he returned into Parthia ; and rating his troops' 
liome days in Uecatompj^os, "com^nand^ provisions of all ' 
s©rt» to be brought thither. 

Durmg his stay there, a report prevailed throughout the 
whole aa*ffiy, that the king, content witii the conquests he had 
achieved, was preparing .to I'etum into Macedonia. That 
very instant the s<ddiers, as if a signal had been. made for 
their setting out, ran like madmen to their tents, began t<9 
padt up their baggage, load tlie waggons with tlie •utmost 
dtspatOh, and fill the whole camp with noise and tumuk. 
Alexuider was soon jii:|£ormed of this, when, terrified at the 

* Akssod^r 'hotter vine! volasrat.; Anttpatrum vtciuc^e rscitos 
^uidem indigDsbatipr, suae denjicaqi gtorift czisUmsoi quicotiid cet« 
«i«»et.»ncna.. *Q, Curt. 

i^ Cuft. 1. ti, c. »— 4» 

<^ that monster^ who^ sfter having JaadecUhim wkh «ta»> ^ 
'' a captive, at last assassinated his soterdgn, in *"*^ « 
«* depnve Uscf t»e-gloiy of sairmg him ? A9 fcft »«5f^» i 
^ shajil not beeas^tOl Ifiee tlmtinfbtticua wn!tchhai^?r 
* a gibbet, there to paf, to all kings and tiations ^^^^^ 
^ the just punishment due to his CToecrMt ^laftei *i^^ 

4ain9dc;^lie8iiiMn«nidtlief€4k;iN»tol^ ' 

tearain his^yea^hQcanav^iied, that in Hm mJM otf so gk)* 
rioQU-acavqer hf ^as itoi^>9d qb a audiko^ «ad Iwoedio le- 
turn ba(^ iDlQ^s oim aumHtyi rather Uto 009 yhphad- 
hfitn OYcrcoBiB than, as ^ coqqiKaror^ The ^t^B^ora Mm^' 
cd him, by representing} that'this sudden motion, was a nwre 
aall^f awi« ^wiiaietit gait of^MMtey wluebi moaUiMtbe tt- 
tended wUh aaf iU eqp oequ ex ct ; and .«A«ited hioH 1)itt> 
the sokUere, to a mah, would obey him, ,'patoyhiisMi^..yHfM 
addfaashiqiselfterthettiale^deteinvreaaioiMi^. Hciftfonds^ 
cdlodoit. tlie dit:i|intta»Qe wludi had i;i«m^M(Baim 
this false tvfprt, wa%faia haviM. di0baiided*iKnn»»G««ci«i> 
soldiers, al^r rewardmfl^them In a Very b^moMA mmatt; 
80 that tlM MafiadoBiaM iaMfmd thajr ate wc«<e:l^fic^ 
no more. 

Alexander having mn t n ot d the army, made tha^falow« 
iag spsedi: «« I lan ^at atirpriaad, O soUto% i^ afteriiie 
«< nigjhty things mb have hitkerlD peiibraied^ ym i^uM- 
*<ba8atiat«d wt^ g^ory, aiid hav^ no odwr vi»ifs hulcase 
^^ and reposei. I wHl nflt .now cnai br ais tte tmkm b^ 
^< tions. we hmt caaqact^. \¥e. hieve csibdued iMVO pw* 
<< vinoe^ than oth^fs have dtSes* Oofild I peniAde wif" 
*< sel£^ thai our com|iieala- ware weU secnredover oatitms 
*^ who weft ao tan o» er eoniC| I would' thiai? as yoi do 
* (for I waU not diasemhle-my tiiaugjhts^ and wooUr nake 
^ all the hasta imagiBahle to revisit my hoDa«holdfed%fln]r 
•< mother, my sisters, and ray snlnecta^ and ci^ ia ^' 
'^ midst of my fcotetry itle glory. X have, acinired ia cm' 
^^ cen with yoa. Bat thia. glory, will all ▼ainb irarysBOD/ 
^ if we do not put the tet hafid Aa the wovlu D9f^ 
^ imagine that so mmay nations, aocOBtaoMBd t^ailtv^^'' 
^ r^igna, and who hate no manner of rimiltode i^m^"^ 
" er m. their vetigiflB, nmmrs, or iangU4se, were «"*"**; 
. *' ly subdued the moment they were conqoered ; and taw- 
<< they will not take vp arms; ia casir ire retom bac4:*w^ 
*^ somucli precipitation ? What will beeomeof the rcstwwr 
^' still remain undonqnered I How ! .shall we leave ««f*J]J* 
" tory imperfect, merely for ^ant of conrage? . Butttw 
*' which touches me mneh more, shall we stiier the ^* 
*< testable crime o£ Bessot to go nnpunished ? Can y^*^ 
'< to see the scefitre of DaHoa hi dife saagnhittty hands 01 

6Mi Jtlt. .»f»ir^:t'Ot iitE^AlfbAlf. SOjf* 

* inibw^irlietJi^v l4f^'tiiisttite^ bht m^thltits I read his 
'^ MiftMide of'dteiilb In ybifr coiidtQiianceB ;'ft]kl that the tin- 
*^ ger #bielv speiin&^'m yoU<r eyes declaresyou vMI soon im* 
^bWieyetti-hAtiAs in the tfasitor^s meted/' ♦ 

Tti^ sttldlers "wockdnot sdlfer Ale^antfef <0'pihoceed, but 
elaf^hlfg; their blinds, they aU tried ^oisd) that4hey were 
restd^'td^fbilim^ irhet*ver he wdUld lead '^iem. All the 
ispee^ie^ df thl^ prince gentffslUy ^pfodue^lthid eflect. In 
how deapOBi d ing^i ctmdiUoii -soever th^ ttifgiit bey one single 
Word'&dikyhiTii Revived their ceilt*a^ m ai^ iiist^intf and in- 
spired tWito <W^Whtlttit m^iHlalrfWcrifyand ferdotfr whifcK ap- 
l^eaMlaltrdy^ myitis face.' The king, taking advantage of 
ws Awfa i tr^blefti^oskion of his 'whole aMy, crossed Par- 
th&a,4iiid'ih' th^^ee'days^ ari'ived on tiie ffontie^d of Hyreania, 
^hieh' submitted to tris arm^. He afterwards subdued the 
Mtfrdi^ thft Al»ii, <he Bi-angse, tke Archolf, and^veral otbr' 
tr^ttGons; into, whfcfh his Urmf miifched^ With^gteatcf ispeed 
1fe*n people: |^ei^«aiy travel. H(e ft^uehtly Would pnrsu^ 
Ml en^niiy ^ -irhifle datys fthd i^g^ tc^ether, almost mth- 
^tit suflRjrix^ Hl^'trocips %a IsaceaAy rest. ; By this prodigious 
rapli£ty, he csftnoe onaVares upoA nations "who thought him 
Citag^ii^lflstance) and subdued (hetn before they had time 
toput themselves in a posHlur* of defettce. UuderthiB image 
£)ani61 the prophet shadowed Alexfoider many ages before 
hisbhUi, by representing^ hitn as a panther, a leopard) md 
^ goat, w1»6 rushed forward irHStt so wash swiftnesf Oat his 
Itet seemed isotte tdueh the fround. 

* Habarzaxies, (toe of Beftsus'^ccomfAtees, who had writ- 
ten before to Afexatnder, cam^and crtn^eudered hSrilself,^- 
toll praise of a j»rd«n, Whcfrh^heirird thaihe was arrir- 
^ at>!aadritt»rta, the csq^ttibf Hyrcanta ; and,a^tiiot^oth-f 
^ prt^ex^ brei^t him Bageas thie eauK^, Who c^eri 
^^t^s ^aift^ as great to ateendaot uter Alexantor) ai 
*fefope dver DaHus. 

At tSve '^tne time atrived 'Hialettris, queea <A die Am- 
^^ens. A Tldient desire of seeing Alexander had prompt^ 
^ that princess to leave her dominiens, and trslvel through 
^ ^aii number el eoiMitries tie gratMy her curiostty. Be^ 
^ toihe pretty near his camp, she sent weiM that a queen 
^ come to visit him ; and that she had a prodigious in- 
cUnatioQ xo eit&fhm his^6quaintafn6e, and accordingly was 
arrived %«tmin a IMe thaunoe. ^m tl»t place. Alexan- 
^r having i^umed her a favoura!^ answer, sjhe com* 
^iMed her train to stop, and hel*self came forward with 
5w Women j ited.thc nfomcnt *e perceived the king, rfi6 

206 «xsToaT Of M.xxANt>x^ft. Mook IV, 

leaped from her horse having two laiiCfes Id I^* right hat^. 
The dress the AroazooLS used to wear,^ ^id not quite cov^ 
IT the body ;. lor th^ir bosom being. uncovered on the left 
fcide, every other part of Uieir body was hid ; their gowns 
beuig tacked up with a knot, and so descended no fi&rther 
than their knee,. They preserved their light breast t9 
suckle their fsmale ofispnng, but used to bum their left^ 
that they m^ht be the better enabled to bend the t»ow aud 
throw the dart, whence they are called ^Amazons. 

Thalestrist looked upon the king without discovering the 
least sign of admiratiun, and surveying Vm attentively, 
did not think his stature answerable to his fame ; for the 
barbanans are very much struck with a majestic air, and 
think those only capable of mighty achievements^ on whom 
nature has bestowed b(xUly advantages,. She. did not scm- 
pie to tell him, that tlie chief motive of her jouniey ww 
to .have posterity by him ; addiogj that she was worthjp. 
cf giving heirs to his empire.- Alexander, upon this re- 
qutst^ was obliged to make sonie stay-in tl^s place \ after 
whid) Thalestris returned to hei: kingdom, and t^ kiiig 
into the province inhabited bythicParthians^ Thisstor/r 
und wliatever is related of the' Amazons, is> looked upon 
by some very judicious authors as entirely fabulous. 

\ Alexander devoted himself afterwards wholly to his 
passions, changing, into pride, aixl debauch tlve.xnoderatioit 
and continence for which he had hitherto been sojyeatly 
admii-cd ; virtues so yeiy necessary in an exalted station 
of life, and b the midst of' a series ofprosperities. He 
was now no longer the ^me man. Thoogh he was in* 
vincible with-regan) tothads^ngers and toils of war, he was 
far otlierwhse with respecrto the chai*ms of ease. The in* 
stant he enjoyed a Utile repose^ he abandoned himself to 
sensuality ; and he,. v;hora the avms<>f the Persiaiis couW 
not conquer, fell a victim to their vices. Nothing was no)» 
to be seen -but ^ames, 'pavties of pleasure, wonoen, and ex- 
cessive feasting, in which he used to i*ev«l whole days and 
nil^hts. Not satisfied with the buffoons, and the performers 
on instrumental music, whom he had i>rought wUh him out 
of Greece, he obliged the captive women, whonvhfie^?^"^^^ 

* This if a Qredc word, signifying i^iihout tM-eatft. 

t lotirnto vnka regc» Thtle«tHi iotiioWtiir, bafcitow ejw bsod- 
quaqnam tcrum faons pftrem ocalit perlmcrsoa. Quippe omoioDf 
barbaris io corporum majsstau veneratio cat ; magnoram^'sopefuai 
noo alios capaccs putant, qiiam qooi Mimia specie doaaxc oaiars 
digoata est. Q. Curt. 1. vi^ c. j. 

% Q^ Cert. I fi, c. 6.. . : 


along \pith him, to sing songs after the maaner of th^ir conn* 
try. He happened among Uiese women, to perceive one-who 
appeared in deeper affliction than the rest, and who, by a 
modest, and at the same time a nuble contusion, discovered 
a greater reluctance than the others to appear in public. 
She was a perfect beauty, which was very much heightened 
by her bashfulntijss, whilst she threw her eyes to the ground, 
and did all in her power to conceal her face. The king sooq 
imagined by her air and mein that she was not of vulgar 
birth ; and inquiring himself into it, the lady answered, that 
she was g^and^latighter to Ochus, who not long before had 
swayed the Persian seeptre, and daughter of his son ; that 
she had married HystaspCs, who was related to Darius, and 
genei'al of a great army. Alexander being touched with 
compassion, when he lieard the unhaj^y fate of a pnncess 
of the blood royal, and the sad condition to which she was 
reduced, not only gave her liberty, but returned all her -pos- 
sessions i and caused her husband to be sought for, in order 
that ^e might be restored to hii^^ 

This prince was naturally of so tender and humane a dis- 
fiosiUon, as made him sensible of the affliction of persons in 
the lowest condition. * A poor Macedonian was one day 
leading before him a mule,- laden with gokl for the kii^g's 
use ; the beast being so tired that he was not able either to 
go on or sustain the load^ the mule-driver took it up and car- 
ried it, but v^th great difficulty, a considerable way. Alexi- 
ander, seeing him just sinking under his buixlen, and going 
to throw it on the ground, in order to ease hiihself, cried out, 
** friend, do not be weary yet ^ try and carry it quite through 
" to thy tent, for it is all thy own/* 

t Alexander, in a very difflcult march through barren 
places, at the head of a small body of horse, when he pur- 
sued Darius, met some Macedonians who were carrying 
'water in goat-skins upon mules. These Macedonians per- 
ceiving their prince was almost parched with thirst, occa- 
sioned by the raging heat (the sunbeing then at the meridian), 
immediately filled a helmet with water, and were running 
to pre^it him with it: Alexander, asking to whom they 
>vere carrying all that water, they replied, " we were going 
*' to carry it to our children ; but do not let your majesty be 
" uneasy, for if your life is but saved, we sh?ill get children 
^ enougji, in ca^e we should lose these." At tlvese words 
Alexander takes the helmet, and looking quite i^jund lyiiu, 
he sa>Hr all his horsemen hanging down their heads, and witii 
«y«s fixed earnestly on tlie liquor beheld, swallow it^, as it 

• AUx. p, 687. .tIW^« 

' S2 

2flO tttsTosT or JihEXA>vh%VL^. Book If * 

were, vitii tli^ glMicos ; upon whicTi he retnrDed k, with 
tiiar.'iS) to those who^ hati ofbmi it hkn, and did not driak so 
much as a bingie drop, but cried, *^ theref is not eaoogh fir 
^ toy whole campany ; and should i drink alone, it wouM 
" make die rest be thii^tietr, and they would quite dfe away." 
The officers who were on horseback round him, strack m the 
most sensible manner with his wonderful tenffperabce and 
magnanimtt)', entreated htm, with-fihouts^ to carry them 
wherever he thought iit^ and not sparir them in any manner ; 
that now they were not in the least tired, nor felt the K.^.st 
thirst ; and that as long as ttn^ should be cmnmanded by 
fiuch a king, they should not think themselves mortal men. 
Such sentiments as these, which arise frem a generous 
and tender dispositloh, reflect a gri»ter honour on a prince 
than the greatest victories and cbnquiests. Rad Alexander 
alway cheriihed them, he would justly have merifed the ti' 
tie of great ; but a too glorious and uninterrupted series of 
l^rosperity, which is too heavy for mortal to sustain, insen- 
Mbly effaced them from hi* mind, and made him ferret that 
he was a man ; for now, oontemning the ctistora d his own 
country, as no longer worthy the 80ver«%(i of the udiirerse^ 
be laid aside the dress, the manners; and way of life of tiie 
Macedcnian monarchs, looking upon them as tbo-j^iA and 
simile, and derogatoiy to his grandem*. He even went so 
far as to imfute the pomp of the Persian kings, in diat tcrjr 
circumstance in whfch tiiey seemed to equal tJletifselves to 
the gods ; I mean, by requxHinff those Who had conqwr*^ 
nations to fell prostrate at his feet, and pay him a kind of 
homage which became*only slaves. He had'tomed his pal- 
ace into a seraglio, filling it with 360 conculnnes, the saint 
number as Darius kept, and with bands ^ of eunui!^ (f ^^^ 
mankind the most infamous. Kot satisfied with wearifig a 
Persian robe himself^ he a|so obliged his generals^ fofHcDds, 
a^ all the grandees of his- court, to put oo the sanl^ dress, 
which gave them the greater mortlfiioation, not'oneof them 
however daring to speak rgaiust tlus^ itibovatlof), w?cf»tw- 
dict the prince in any manner. 

The veteran soldiers who had fought Uttd«r l*hili> not 
havhig the least idea of senduafity, inveighed publkdy ag^^"J^ 
this prodigious luxury, and the numerous viccsHtiJcli tne 
army had learrifed in Susa and £d)attina* The td^^ 
'woutdfuequciitly exprete themselv^ in the followit^teiros- 
r ^ That they had lost more by victory than they hadg^iiicd : 
-« that as the Macedonians had thuft asAlVned t\ie tti^tae^ 
**fend customs xrfJfOteigners,. they might prqaerily be saidw 
"be conquered. That therefore the only benefit dicy shcuJfl 
*< reap from thdjfT long atf&ftftctf^ Hi&M Ire, tbrlttttni J»«* ^ 

-** theft own t^cmtry hi the habit o£ barbarians • that Alex- 
** ander was a^iaincd of, and despised them ; tiiat he chose 
** to resemble the vatiquishcd rather fliaii the victorious ; auil 
*< that he, who Wffore had been kiftg'df Macedouia, was iioir 
** beoome one of Darias's lieutfenatftfe." 

T-he king was; not ignoi^attt of thib discontent "Which reigned 

both ixi hift ctmtt and arfnv, and" endt&avonr^ to recover the 

esteem and friendship of both by his beneficence ; but * sla-* 

very,' though purchased at ever so high a rate, mast u6cei-' 

sariiy be cmous to freeborn mfeif . Hetherefore thought thitt 

the s^Liest ^^einedy would be to employ them, arid for thit 

'pvttpdsG led them agaiiist Bessus. But as the army was eo-' 

cambered with b6oQr, and an useless train of bagga|^, tliat 

fie could scarce move, h6 first caused all his owti baggage to 

be carried into a great square?, and afterwards that of his' 

armyy stich things c:^eepted as were absohiteily necessarjr, 

then erdeffed the whole to be caj-ried from thence in cJarts to ^ 

a large plain. iSvtery one was in great pain to know the 

ineaning of all- this ; but after he had sent away the horses, 

he himsetf set fire to his own things, and commatftled every 

one to follow his example. Upon this the Macedonians 

Hghted up the fire widi thei? own hands, and burfaed the 

rich spoils- ^hey had purchased withtlieir blood,- artdpfteh 

forced oi|t' of the midst of the fianles. Such a sacriJRcemuat 

ccrtMnly have been made with th^ utmost, rdijc^ance ; but' 

^e exatnple the king set them silenced all their complaints, 

and they seemed less affected at the loss of their baggate"^ 

than at their neglect of military discipline. A short speewi 

the king made, soothed att their uneasiness ; and, being noV 

more able to e^rt themselves hereafter, thejr set cut with 

joy, and ttiarched towards Bactriana. In thi^ march they 

met wHh difficidties which wY)uld have quite damped any 

«ne but Alexander ; but nothing cofuid dawit hi» s6ul, Or 

check his progress y for,he .put the strongest confidence m 

to good fortune, which mdeed never forsook that hero, but^ 

extrioated'him fh)m a thou8aridj)erils, wherein one.wbuld 

Have natural^ supposed both himself and his army mu^t- 

have perished. 

. fBein^ arrived aihimg the l>rangi36j a dat^ger to which IJe ' 
Had not been accustomed gave him very great ifbeasincss' ;; 
and thid was, Ae report of a conspiracy that was form^ 
JHpiiA» his personj One Dymnus, a mart of no great figure 

*8cd»iieopiiiof, nberii pi^ctium lertftiitis iogfiitti^ ck; .<K 
<inrt. ; 

f&M, I, livH, p, SSO* 5yx« a Cnrti li vi, e. y, it, ttX vil/c, 
*rat AkViMii 4 ii», p>, z^'i Af«i rlMviii Aki.i^t ^i^^ - 

S12 fllSTORV OF ALSXAV2>£Av £0Qk Xtj 

tkt coui-ti was the contriver of this treason ; and the motiirt 
of it was, some private disgust which he had received. He 
had communicated his execrable design to a yoimg man^ 
Nicomachus by name, who revealed it to- Cebalinus, hie 
brother. The latter immediately whispered ik to Philotav 
earnestly onti»atmg him to acquaint tne king with it, be- 
cause eveiy moment was oi the utmost consequence, and 
that the conspirators were to execute their horrid deed in 
three days. Philotas, after applauding his fidelity, waited 
Imm^iately upon the king, and discoursed on a great va- 
riety of »ib;ects, but without taking the least x\otice of the 
tolot. In the evening Cebalinus meeting him as lie was com- 
fi)g out, knd asking whetlier he had done as requested, he 
answered, that he had not found an opportunity m mention- 
ing it to his majesty, and went away. The next day this 
young man went up to him as he was gtfing into the palace, 
and conjured him not to forget what he had told liim the day 
before^ Philotas replied^ that he would be sure not to for-' 
get it ; and however did not perform his promise. This 
made Cebalinus suspect him ; and' fearing, that in case the 
conspiracy should be discovered by any other person^ his si- 
lence would be interpreted as crimmaT, he therefore got 
anothef person to disclose it to Alexander. The prince hav- 
ing heard the whole from Cebalinus himselfV and being told 
how many times he had coiyured Philotas to acquaint him 
with it, firs.t commanded Dymnus to be brought before hiov 
The latter guessing upon what account he was sent for by 
the king, ran himself through with his sword ; but the guards 
having prevented this wretch from completing the deed, he 
was carried to the paface. The king asked him why he 
thouglijt Philotas more worthy than he was of the kingdom 
of Riacedon ? But he was quite speechless ; so tliat, ajfter 
fetching a deep sigh, he turned lus head aside, a«d breathed 
his last. . 

The king, afterwards sent for Philotas, and speaking to 
him (having first commanded* eveiy body to withdraw,) he 
asked whether Cebalinus had really urged him several times 
to tell him of a plot which was carryihg on against hira. 
Philotas, without -discovering the least confusion in histxun- 
tcnance, confessed ingenuously that he had ; but made his 
. apologv, by saying, tliat the person who had wlilKpei^d this, 
did not appear to him worthy of tlie least. credit. He con- 
fessed, however, that Djz-mnus's'death plainly showed he Kail 
acted very, imprudently, in concealing so long a design of so 
't)lacTc a nature. Upon which', acknowledging his fault, he 
fell at.jthe, king's feet, which he embraced, and besought 
hini ta consider .his pas]^ Ufe, ratlier thau the &ult he }ad 

6ect, 2S.II. ', ^ISTOET py. axexsaitber. SIS 

now cpmi|iitted>)^hi«hi^'aot proci^d fi^n^^ any jbAd itoig^ 
but £rom the feac i^ 'w;^ % i^ndev of aUi^Diog, Tei^^.ttnaeaaoa- 
ably, the kins* ^^^.^ po^iniunififite .^ design- w^uich h« 
really supposed vas vithcnifc foun^ataon;^ It '}» n& e^i^, tofX* 
ter to «a}r, whether iUexaiider bslieved ^h«it PhUotas said 
or oply diss<^n^led Ws aager. But however this be, he gave 
him his tiand, in token oi reconciliation ; and told hinw that 
he >ya9jpersuaded he had <ieq>l8ed raU^OF than conoealed.the 
affair.,^ .'...*■. .. :• « 

Philotas. was botfi eay$ed aiid hated by a great qnnther of 
courtier 9 ; and indeed it was h^ndly abould be 
ether wise, because lione pf them was ii»ore fodxuUar with the 
king) or xnqre esteemed by' him,. Instead of softening and 
moderating the Instate -of the distijiguished favour he had en- 
joyed by an air of sweetDess and humanity, he seemed, on tha 
.contrary^ to endeavour nqthing-sp^^iueh iW t# excHe thws envy 
of others^ by affecting. a wily .^tide, which generally. dis-» 
play^i^ itseiUr ;in his dress, hU retini^^his e<^nipage) and hia 
table |"cand/ atiji. more ^ by t&e haughty- ^rs he assumed ^ 
which iade him un Jversaliy haf^^i}^ . Par.jnenio, Ids iather^ 
disg^^^ted; at bis lofty behaviour j said ope 4ay to him*, ^*my 
son, jgia^ia thyself less.*^ ; fhe strpngfes^ -sense i» couched 
undei: these vvprds..j and it. Is evidei^.that theiaan who ut-* • 
tered* tUem was perfectly, apOMainted lafith die genius of 
courts. ' He iis^d often to give Phiiot^ a^vic^ ^o this effect 7 
but too exalted'a |>rptperhy is s^pt to make ^aif^n both^dea* 
and blind ; ohd tliey cannot pewjade ^lemsejves that fa-* 
vour, whichr is established on, so seemingly^ «olid . > fo^ndiu 
tion, cau eve^r change X thcccnftrary.^ofwhj^li Fbilotasfp^p4 
toMssorrowi . \ . \ . ; - i< » '* 

fHiS foiinpr ,ccM^q^ct,<jwit(i; r^gaud to fiieats^xtfS^^ haA 
giveii th# lattet* just ijeasoq to. complain of him * i for h^. used 
to take Uic'libcrty to speak disrespec^fally <^the jd^Ss^A^ 
applaud hi«>self hi the most haughty f^rms. Qpening one 
day his heart to a woman, Antigona by name, with whqifi 
he was in love,he began to boast) vo: a. very insolent manncFi 
his fcither^s services and his own ; "What would Philip,-* 
^aid he, "have t)een, had it not be^n for Pannenio ? And 
*) what would Alexander bcyver^ itiJiotfor PhiV>|a%.^ WJiat 
"wouljd become of his. pretended jdivmity,'aiid hie ; father 
"Atnraonj should we underUke to expose ftis^ion,**'* 
All tTie$e things were repea^d;to Alexander, and Aotlgong 
herself made oath that such words had h^cn spoken. Tl\e 
hing had nevertheless taken no notice of all this> nor. se sotuch 

* O fiat cheiron maiginQU,' . ...... , .'; ' 

t ^Bt>4e fonan,' Akz/c. a. p* i39. 

aBonee litf4K)|^tlw leasit ifcmfl iMleirjA 

mmt «iMto liMt tfc«ksllin,'€veti "whto Ke ^«^- m^4'1»tly)deated 

1l4th lii)tt)r ; lie Uad'tMrM mech iM'hiiited^t td kisfriends, 

ilor^««fitoHttphaestilMft) ff^Mi irt^idm 'Ub tkUrtHM cdAcealed 

to7 tldivg*. ■%» th^ crime PKHetas^vas'iioir aecoM of re- 

aalMto hb tnemevf tlie dtsgoit He -bad ^rtjun-ly enter- 


iRKMdfotiftf after ^ ceniperMlittn iie fiful -wfi& Bbilotas, 
he held a council composed of hi^chief copfiflents. Crati^us, 
lor wktmi Alexandtr had a. g^eat ciste^m, 'ahd Whtl^vied 
Phikiiai the more ti|)an that rery atce«!kfft, lodfeed'aDda this 
atarery happy eteau^m fof* ftiptHatitiRg lii^ Vit^^ Coq- 
eealib^ thet^fcve Mil hatred, fKbd^tL ^jjefc^s {^iietehce of 
aaal) he taggested to the ISnk «<«R^ a}>pfi2heftst6iiB'he might 
•■JQftlly be lutd^hbtH firamrhitotas hhnddf^becia^ 
^^is aec apt t6^w<>rk toif ehant;e4n a h^tt "w^^^ '<moM be 
•^earmpt edoa^ tor etiteilhih ^ drte'sts^le a cribip,ftid 
^frem Pat*mema, t^s lathed ^o,t^M'lie^^fl) iiem:te 
.^aMe tohear<AK^Ui6dght*y)rhb«rwiiigh!s^ftdii'$fflkto't!ie 

**lhem ht/t^^t^WmettUbfty: ' And futthef . \vho calii^aksnTe 
•tts, thalbdtll flitHttr^iideid soti'ikteriiA engaged ia' tfite ton- 
* ipiracy ? When a^iKAce's life k fa tJanfeer evjsry tlfiag is 
*of iaiportttMie y and ail things, eveh.'!b 'tE^ slight^ sa$pi- 
•*ci(»s, are 6A niahypfoWii. Can we concetre itp«*tole, 
<*«iat a A^vdMite, irtifhofa hfe-sbti&teigp has !je*toWed the 
• w e< r > »M i ri t i g MarksWitfe-hea^fieence, Acmld^ tiha ftivl 
^undisturbed opon his being told an affair of ^ticl^ fsS^V 
4 Mpdriaiioe^ Bift ti^e 'a^ tdM, thM^Mifr^e^»l Wastdtn- 
^ «i«alfeatedt^y«iMlt'P<:^>'vt^o;9i^«^^ 
^Wterefove then-did he ke«p them itt sn^peM:c*tif6Mpy 
« M tf hlftee^llyMSetea WhameytMd Him^ at^'i^ptbffl- 
•iied «iem that he iTMiId reveal the Mvhdfe a^it tb the 
f^kiag^ r Wh^*d6iellk nKit^'Sdb'Qi^ l&e dSI thl^' idertl^ tp'{(re-. 
** vent theh* havlbg aCcets by anotRier way tb his mgiesty ? 
«• Snr,** oontiaiied hc^ <«k *ii^ n^cefcsaty, -fbr your own s% ai(J 
•* Aat af the (ftatigf/'foftw tb jitttl^lkftas to the tdijt(frc j in^ 
** order*%a ft»tfe'fiHMti hfe own'th^Wh an ac<fCrtint of thJijpIo^ 
^ and the ^ciettd persons %hb are MH SLCtotnpUBe&^ii- 
ThieMti^<thet)piaion df all lfieW<»rabefs df the'ctwicil, 
the kii^lr'taiae int«> it: lie thfen ffiimfckseil tlie dstetfblr, 
ii»<Na((-fi]Wteff^iabd them «ecl-ecy ; 'and the better to m-- 
oeal his resolution^ gav* orders for the army'i xnarcjixnguie^ 
a«a day^aad even iarited Phitottte to taimt ^th ju^- 

having; be^Bi posted iit fte several pieces neeessaiy, soatt 
eQte]:;ie!cljtb^.<eRl o£ PhUotoSywho wa^'thfinio a'demslt»tep | 
wh^n^atfkirtitii; from Iris alttiid}^!^^^ thcyivere/ptitting roan* 
sLcies oa \m. hamta^ he ccied^ ^^Aiast i my . sovereign^ the in* 
^^v«Ura^ of. tny enemies has got the better c^ ^our good» 
^* nca&!' After thiv^they^: corned hts- laibe^ aad. bvougkt 
him to the palace, witboot utter iag a single woTd. The next 
inorniQCp^^he Meacedonians, according to laa ocder published 
for that piiq[X|sei^ catne thither unden artnB, beiag' abdat 6000; 
Jt was A s^ery^ anoleHt tnstoin ibr the arvof ^ ia waivtknio^,ta 
take cogaisancaB d cs^pital cnixnear; and^ in timea of ptimii^ 
for the l^ople to do so ; sathat the prince had no power oi 
these oocaaionSy- unites a sanctiaR.were ^ven. t6 it by tha 
ccnsenttsf one: of the^c bodies ; and the Jcing' araa foretd ttf 
have rcicourad to persnasian*, before he ein|floyed hia aiK 

Firsts tke body.of Dyanitas i»(B8.6rcai^.<iiit ^ very ie^ 

then preseat knowing either what he had don&, or how he 

came bf i^^deaitliA. Aiterwavdi the kiaf^Jcame iotothe a«a 

sembly ; att aiir of aaRt*cr# appearing in hircootttemMice) aa 

well aSi ia hla whpk c«iirt^ every aaa woiitidg ^ith impiN 

tienceHxe.isaitEe of this gloaaif scene. Alexaom* contiimcd 

&long tixae witlf his eyes oast on the groaad ; lait at hi9t, 

haying, recmneved his spirits^ he made the^foHciWing speechs 

^^laafrowly ea<nip6d, O sohSars^ bdag torn it&vk yMyby 

** the treacfaety.of a small gaaftet'of a% 'e tcla» ; but by the 

^piT)fvidenoe.a,nd men^ of tkd ^ods, ttfow again app^i^be* 

**me yeti aMt^r ; and Iprotest toyouf tftat aothing eiMoot^ 

^^ ages' me monv t0^l»roeeeda{iahistthet»iiitScffi, than the 

^s^tl cf tliia asadnobly, w^umo ll^es a^tuadidei^r lanta 

^ttaanniy.bvsm; far I desire toftvii n>r ymirsakea en^; 

^^and the greatest happiaeBsIshodiditiid in, tkviag (noC ttf 

" say the .titily one) would he ttte^ plf:aHRii« X iMk^ i«oefTe(, ii< 

^^haring li once in mypoEwer to rewa|id ttosaifviceaef sd 

^^maiiy brave men, to wham I ewe alt^ thingSi'^ Hara he 

^^aa nitemiptedbythe eries aad groani^of the soldiery wht$ 

^hatstinto tears. •^Alas t how wiQ yod beha^ when I 

^'sha&Nnaine tlie pataons wh^ foraited so ittiwibrabte an ati 

^'teiapt » I myself canaoi thiak af it whhout sanddenag^ 

"They, oa whom I have dean moiit lavish <tf tny l^dtteMes ; 

^ cm whom i had bestowed tile g<«atait marks of fi^iend^ip ; 

Sti wh(wi I had pat my whole c^bnMencef and hi whose 

^ breasts 1 lodged tny gi^tesl siacrels— Patmtiiiio and 

^^^hHfpatoiarreilte'ialetoj atfi ptioa vilslfet ahA^lttf* ^ 

gli HlSTOtT or ALEXAHHEH. B»tk Xf. 

<(PhOotas.*' At these hamw,aill the toldiers gazed one upon 
the other, not daring to believe their eye* or ear«% nor any 
tiuDg they saw or heard. Then Nicomachus, Metron, and 
Cebahnns, were fient for, who made the sevcr^ dqKJMtbw 
of what they knew. Biit aa not one of them chained Philo- 
tas with engagmgm the jdot, the whole assembly, beng sei. 
zed with a trouble and oonlhsion easier conceived than ex* 
pressed, continued in a sad and gloomy sitence. 

Philotas was then broog^t in, liis hands tied behind hifflt 
and faisrhead covered with a coarse worn-out piece of cloth. 
How fihoeking a ai^t was this 1 Lost to faimGelf,hedid pot 
dare to look up, or cfpen his lips ; but the tears streammg 
from his eyes, heftdnted away in the arms of theman wbo 
held him. As the standera4jy wiped off Ae tears hi which 
his feee was bathed, recovering his spirits and his voicebf 
insensible degrees, he seemed dearous of speaking. Th& 
king then tdd him, that he should be judged by the Ma^O' 
loans, and withdrew. Phflotas might have jusdfied hm- 
aelf very easily ; for not one of the^vitnesses, and those who 
had been put on the rack, had accused him of being an ac 
compUce in the plot. Dymmis, who first formed kj^dnot 
named him to any of the conspiisators: ; and had ™^^' 
been concerned in it» and the rin^eader, as was pretended, 
13ymnus would certainly have named him, at the bead ot aii 
the rest, in order to engage them the more strong., «'"* 
Philotas been conscious to himself of guilt in this particiiiar, 
as he was sensible that Ccbaiinus, who knew the whole, 
sought eaniestly to acquaint the king of it, is it WJJ^^ 
prcfiable, that he could have lain quiet two days t^^^ 
without onae endeavouring, cither to disnatch CebaJnus,or 
to pet his darkde»gn in execution, which he ^P^^J^. 
easily have done ? Philotas set these pnoofs, and a ^ 
many moie, in the strongest light; and did not omit tofliCT- 
tion the reasons which had made him dispise thcmfo^TV' 
tionthat had been given him, as groundless and imaginaiT' 
Then directing, on a sudden, himsdf to Alexander, asiifl 
had been present, «0 king," says he, '^wheresoever foo w 
be" (for it is tliought Alexander heard aU that pa«^jT 
behind a curtain), Hi I have commit^ a fanlt m not^ 
wquainting you with what I heard, J confessed it to you,, ^ 
^'you pardoned me« Ym gave me your? royal hB-m 
« pledge of this ; and you did me .the honour to 'of J ^y 
" to your table. If you believed me» I am innocent ; ii) 
"pardoned me, I am cleared : I refer all this to yoi"" ^ j 
*' judgment. What new crime have I committed ^^^^ 
^'^was in a deep sleep when my enemies •walffd ^t u 
« loaded me with chains. It is natural for * jnan,vr» 

^^coieseitoHS'tliaje he i5|gtdlt3[;«)f<lieitiost horrid of all crimes, 
^ to be thus «asy and iindfetorbed ? The iniVDcencc of my 
** own conscsefkce, atid the wromise your majesty made me, 
^ gav« my soisl thisic^m. ua not let i*ie«nVy of mine enc- 
*' mieBi pvevasil over- your demency aiid j«aidce; ** 

Thb rescdt of thi»as8ettibfy"waB, th&t Phtlotas ^ould bfc 
{nit en Iherr&ek. The pevson^'^he prteided on that occa- 
sion: 'twere hlft> most iiyt^teraiie enetffiefi) an^they made Ivim 
fiulfev ev*ry' kind of ts^yture. FhliicA^'at'firAt, diiiCoirered 
the uAiDdet Tesoltttion and'^trength of'mifid'; the txyrments 
lie siiiBSbred.iiot^ being M» to forae from h»n a single word^ 
nor. emeti: so mimih as a sigh , But at hist, conquered by pain, 
he confessed hiknt^f to he gc^ty, andnamed several acconv* 
pUces, md even- aecused hts own fkthier-. The next day, 
the answers of Philotas were read in a full assembly, he him- 
se^beingr^^nie&eflt. Upca the^whote, he was unafiimoiisly 
sentenced «k> die ; i!Riinedi»:tdy after 'Which he was stoned, 
a^Gordnig^ tcr. the' cxistom' €& 4&e Maiaedmiians, with some 
other o£ tine oonspiratofs. •» 

Th«y ailso judged at^e uixsui tisoe, and 'put to death Lpiu. 
cestes. Aloaeamder, who had' bettn lb«nd guilty k£ con^rm|; 
the death of the king, and kept three years in prison. 

ThisvcandeiiHiatiott of FhHotastbrought on that of Pft'Tme* 
nio : -whether ft weve that Alexander really b^eved hiM 
guHly, or was* affaid of the- father^ now lie had put the son t<^ 
^%&^ Polj^^damus, one of the lords of the court, was ap- 
poin^eds to sieethe execstitvi performed. He had been one 
o0Pavmftiiio*3> most intiwmte friends, if w« Aiajr give that 
name to oo«rtiers ^ho aifect only their own fortunes; This 
"was the very reason ctf*his beifn^^ nominated, because no one 
conkkauspect'tliat he was sent with any such orders against 
Panneniotf Be therefore set out for- Media, whei^ethat gen- 
eral ' icoBnnaHdied' the>: army, ' and > wii» initmsted with tlie< 
king^B treasures, which amounted to 160,000 talen's (about 
^VOO(HOOOI. sterling). Alexander had^ given him several 
letters ^Cleaader, t*»e king^s lltutenant in the province j 
*»A lbr-the>«»fncipttl oflkers* Two were foi^'Panncnio ; 
««e^^ftliem irom Alexander, and the ether seated with Fhi- 
^t^*^ seal, as tf he^ had been aVivc, to prevent the fether 
"^Mah( harbouring' die l^ast suspicions. PdydaroaS was b«t' 
11 d^s on his journey, and alighted in the night time at Cle« 
•D^V Afver having taken all the precautions necessary, 
^^ went' together, with a ^[reat nnmber of attendants, to^ 
Jttect Pannenio, who at that time was walking in a park of' 
^jsown. The moment Pdydamus spied him, though at a 
Xwjfct distance^ henatv to embrace iiim wUh an air of the ut^ 
^^ joy ; and, after cempfitttentiy intermixed wkh the 


Wrongest indications of fnendsSupy had passed on bofii sides, 
he gave him Alexander's letter. In the^he 
abked liim what the king was doing ; to which Ptdydamus 
replied, that he would know by his inajesfy^s letter. Par- 
roenio, after pemsing it, said as follows : ^The kiiig^is pre- 
^' paring to march against the Aracfaosii. How glorious a 
^ prince is this, who will not suffer himself to t^e a mo- 
**ment'8 rest ! Uowever, he ought a little tender of 
** himself, now he has acquired so much gldry /' He after- 
wai^ds opened the letter which was written in Philotas's 
name ; and, by his countenance, seemed pleased :witii the 
contents of it. At that very instant Cleander thrust a dag- 
ger into his side, then made another thrust vln his throat; 
and the rest gave him several wounds, even after he was 

Thus this great man ended his life ; a man illustrioos both 
in peace and war ; who had performed many gjorious ac- 
tions without the king, whereas the king had never achieved 
any thing conspicuous, but in concert with Parmenio. He 
was a person of great abilities and execution, was very dear 
to the grandees, and much more so to the officers and sol- 
diers, who reposed the highest confidence in him, and look- 
ed upoii themselves as assured of victory when he was at 
their head, so firmly they relied on his capacity and good 
fortune. He was then ^Oyearsof age ; and had aiways serv- 
ed his sovereign wjth inviolable fidelity and seal, for yfhkh 
he was very HI rewarded ; his son and liimself having been 
put to death nierely on a slight suspicion, uninforced with 
any real proof, which nevertheless obliterated in a momeot 
aU the great services both had done their country. . 

^Alexander was sensible that such cruel executions might 
alienate the affections of his troops, of which he had a proof) 
by the lettei-s they sent into Macedonia^^ which were inter^ 
oepted by his order ; concluding therefore that it wonld be 
proper for him to separate, from the rest of the .*rmy, such 
«)l<Uer8 as had most distinguished themselves bynheirinur- 
liiurs and complaints,, le^lheir seditious discpunses shoula 
spread the same spirit of diseontent, . hei lormed * *P*f^ 
body of these, the com^mand of whiohho gave to I*^*r*Vj 
this kind of ignominy being the only piunjshment he ip"***^ 
on them. But they were so sltrongfy affected wi^ »*» ^ 
they endeavoured to wipe out the disgrace it brought up«n 
them, by a bravery, a fidelity, and an obedience, whicn ^^Y 
observed ever afte;r wards. 

' * Arritn. l.JiL p.,i4«. Q^^Catt. I vti; c. 3-^. P«^ ^' ^'"^ 
hSS^.SSA*. A.M,.a(74* AqcU*C. 3»9« - • . ' 


Ta prev^pit th^ iUccmsaqtieiice^ that miglit »rUe fh)m this 
secret dlscont;en^ iVl^xanckr ^% out \^)on; tus march, and 
cuMipjiedjtiO-'pursue j^es^jas^-^iwjtiigh jsccasion h« exposed 
lumsel|,t|Q gre^^ har4ship9»l»d: dangers. iVi^fterkaving pass- 
ed. thrwglL^i;^gfini#i, Avajc^psia? v^d the^. countiry. pf tHQ 
Arinif^^if, wherie aU tl4ng^>ul)witted to his arms, he arriv- 
ed a^ ^ inouiitaifi called Puropannstt^) a part ci Caucasus^ 
wh^-eti* army, underwent uie;cpr?ssible faitiguest, through 
weari&e^^ thirst, cold, a^d.thQ snows, whidi killed a great 
number: -of his GiQk)ieri3. ^Bessu&laid watjte-.aU the country 
that lay between. him. (^nd mount Caucasus, in order that the 
vrant of provi^ons and forage might deprive Alexander dF 
4in opportumty of p^H'suing hina. He indeed suffered very 
mucliy but npthioff could phepk: h» . vigour* . After making 
his army pepo»e tqvfi^oif^e time at I>r»p3ftCa^ .he advanced to* 
wards. Apn^o^ and Bs^ctra, the tw^strongeM cities of Bacn 
triana, arid, topk them both. At Alexander's approach, aboiit 
7 or 8^qo Bactrians, who till then had adhered very firmly 
to^ssus, abandoned him to a man, and retired each to his 
respective luxne. Bessus, at the head of the small numbet 
ot torces i¥^o continued faithful to him^ passed the river 
Oxusjjbufxupd. all the boats he himself made use of, to pre<^ 
yent Alexander from, and withdrew to Natatacus^ 
a city f^Sogdiana, fully, determjnejd to .raise a pew army 
there, .Ale^Kajnder) ,l^o>veyer, did. opt give him time to d© 
tliis ; and not meeting with trees or timber sufficient for th^ 
building of bps^ts-and rafts, or floaty of timber, -he supplied 
the want of these by distributing to his soldiers a great numf 
ber of ski^nf ^tufii^ wijtb stmv, • and-suc^ ^ike dify andlig^ 
iiaterial's ; which laying under them in the water, they ero^s* 
ed the river in tl^is manner ; those who went over first^ 
drawing im iii battle-array, whilst their commamlers wenp 
coming ii&tr them. In this manner his whole aony passed 
•veria six days, , • • ; *• 

Wkilst these things, were doing, Spitamenea, who wat 
Bessus^ chief confident, formed a conspiracy against him> in 
concert with two mor^ of his principal officers. Having 
seized his person^ they put him in chains, forced his diadexA 
fi'om his head„tore to pieces the royal rdbe of Darius he had 
put on, and set him on horseback, in order to give him up 
to Alexander. . •* 

. Th^t prince arrived at a Httle city initiated by the Eiran* 
chijja. . These were tlie. descendaiits of a family who; h,ad 
^weit^in Miletus, and. whom Xerxes, at. his. return from 
Greece, lud^ formerly sent into Upper Asia, where he h!j4 
settled them^ In, a very flourishing condition, in return fot 
t^eir having delivered up.tohimthe tr^a^Ufe of .the temple 

Theae received the Idng with tlie 'highei^t de fl ienstr a tions of 
>(nr, tad Mr«eiid«red4Mlh thems«lve6 Aiid'tb^lr-tity^Mtb; 
Akxaoder tent Ibr wehMeletlaiiBite^ev^ M^iia arifry^, wh» 
preserved: an heivedilMry^tttMd Against thfi-BffiMie^^ b&- 
fAUse^of tfae tteacheff of tHeir anteMers. Kbihei^'Mt tliem 
the cMce ekliter ^f re^eng^g the InjiRy they iMd^fotnxeriy 
done them, or of pardkning them Sn Gonsiderataon -of Iheir 
common extraction. The MllesiaiM being -so much 4fi>^ided 
in opli^on, that they could not agrees atbobf; ith^xi^^^ 
Ai^ander undertocdc the dedfivdii htmsiglf. Aecotdh^^ 
th* next day he cooMvianded hk phalanx to sm^rowid th& 
city ; and a ttgiial being 'given, th^ were prdei<ed to plunder 
that abacle-of traitor8,andpQt«v(6ty one of fliem to fiie flWdri, 
Which inhuman order I<>ascffec0ted w4th (!ie ^sai^ baAarity 
M tt had been fginen, Allthe dtia^ns, sktee t^ time^Siey 
w«re gMng to pay fiorfiage to Alexander, were tilutidered in 
Hie streets and in 4heir kousOB ; bo maimer of 'regard bmg 
had to their cvies and tears, nor the least cU»ti!icti9» aiade 
af mgt of sex. iniey even pulf6d ^ the vei^'^KMin<^tiobB U 
Khe walk, in order that nc« the lease traces ^tMtti^ might 
remain. But of what orimes'^ere tfiesel Ml* feted eiticena 
guiky ? Were thay res^xmsibla lor those ifKelr*fe««rs ^lad 
committed upwards ^ 150 year» before^ I 'do tint Imw 
whether- history lumit^os anothei^ example' afisti^Urutal^ntl 
irantic acrnelty. » • ' .: . i . 

A litMe^tfter Bes4us was brought' t6 Alexander, set tnd/ 
bound, but atark naked. Spitamencs^hsftd^tim by a tihain, 
wl0eh'went round fcts^tiecfc ; rafhd'lt was AfjeMIt Isi aay whe* 
ther ISiat o^ect was more agreeable to the barbarians or 
Maeedokiiaiis. In presenting him t6the ](in|;, he i(^d'ttie9e 

rords : . <* I have, at last, rerengefl bojft\ yott^nd OMh^ my 
kkigs ^q^ iHasterSi I^i^yeu a wVetdh ^Whd fma sm$assi* 
** nated his sovereign, and who is now treated in the satpc 
«• manner asltimeetf gkve the first ^xMnple <rf* A)aat Vhy 
» cannot Darius himself see this spectacle'?* Alexander, 
alter having greatly appla^^ed Spitamencs; turned about to 
Bessus, and «pelte thus « "Tliou surely must ha\»e been in- 
•* spired with the rage and ftrry of a tlgei*, otherwise thoa 
•* wonldst not have dared to load a kin^g, from whom thoa 
**hadst receive(i so many instances of favour, with chains, 
** and afterwards muixier him f Be gone from iny s^lit,tho» 
*• monster of erueHy andpcrfi^iousness,*' The fciog satdnp 
more ; but sending for Oxfttres, Dariufe**brdt}ieT, .he jave 
Bessn9 to him, in order <i*at hemigUt §il!Rr 4tf thetgnonjinr 
he deserved ; suspending however Ws executfon, that fit 
Blight be judged la the |iaieral ftssainb^ of the Fer^^ismn 

S<tei, X2IL' 9Ss,TDii,5i, 91 AfExAWEii. * 321 

■'■'■•' - SECTION xiir. . 


AlekAKPb^^ iTOfttiable of victory and conqucasts, Still 
marcl^ forward Jii search of new. nations whom he migh* 
subdue- After, f ecrulting Uia cavalry, which had suflBered 
very «>uch hy their loii^ aad dangeroua marches, he advan- 
ced ^o the t laxarthea. 

Not; far from this river, the barbarians rushed suddenly 
from their mountdius, came and, attacked Alexander's fore* 
es, and having. carried off a great. number of prisoners, they 
retired to their lurking boles, : in which were 20,000, who 
i'ought with bows and sling& The king went and besieged 
them in per^n ; and bekg oneof the foremost in tlie attack, 
he was >hot -with an arrow in the bone .ef hi& leg, and Uie 
iron point stuck xrt the wound. The Macedonians, who weve 
great<y ajarmed and afflicted, carried him off immediately, 
yet not so secretly but the barbarians knew of it ; for they 
saw from the top of the mountain every thing^that was doing 
below. -The miext day tlicy sent ambassadors to the king^ 
who ordered' them to be immediately brought in, when tak- 
ing off the bandage which covered his wound, he sliowed 
them his- leg, but did not. tell them how much he had been 
i^uvt. These assured him,' that as .soon as, they heaixiof his 
being wounded, they wereasmuchvafiRicted as th^ Macedo- 
mE«i$: could ppssibly be ; and: that had it been possiWe for 
them to find the person who had -shot that arrow, they 
would have delivered him up to Alexander ; that hone but 
impioias wretche$ would war against the gods ; in a word* 
that being vanquished by his unparalleled bravery^ they sujv 
rendered themselves to him, with the nations who followed 
them, The>king, having 'engaged hla faith to them, andtak^ 
en back his prisoners, accepted of their homage. 

After this.heiset out t^on hi$ .march, and getting into a 
^tter,.a great dispute arose .bestween the hoi-se and faotwho 
should caxry it,- each of those bodies pretending that thishfito^ 
noar belo^nged to theni oiily. : .and there was no other way of 

* Arrlao. U Hi, p. 148, 249.. et I. iv. p. X50— x6o. Qoint. Curl* 
l.vii. c, 6— u. 

t Qoiotna Curtio* and Arrian eall it the Taotis, bot .they ate 
JJifttkeo. The Taoaia Ue< mach more weftward, and eoipties U* 
^ifi not io the Cafpiao fca, but in the Pootat EuzUius, and i» now 
^iWthcDon. ... 

T 2 

recondUog them, but Vy giv]^ or4en .tliat they shonld car- 
ry it in their turns. 

Fran hepce |ie.9at, the ibui:th4af $p Ma^ean^ a v^fj^ 
consideraUfi cit^j »nd ca)>ital of Sogdi^^, wbictf nie took ; 
and after leaving a considerable ^iTison therei he burned 
and laid waste all the plains. 

There c^ine an embassy to him from th«i* Abiaa Scjrthi- 
a&S) who from the death of Cyrus had U/ired firee and inde- 
pendent : these aibmitted to-AWxaoder. Theyr weM cob- 
side4«d« a& the most equitable of att tiie barb^naoB, iienr 
making war but to defend themselves ; and the l^rty es- 
tabli^ed among tiiem, and which they no ways. abased, re- 
moved aU distinction, and equalled the meanest among ^env 
with the greatest. A love of poverty and justice was their 
peculiar characteristic, and enabled them to live ha]^y to- 
gether without wanting either kings or laws. Ates^ander 
received them kindly, and sent wt of his ^ef coufti^rs 
to take a view of their country^ and even of ^e St^thians 
who inhabit beyond the Cimmerian Bosphonis. 

He had marked out a spot of gronod proper for biialding. 
% city on the river laxarthes, in order to curb the natMns he 
had alread)r conquered, and those he intended to siMoe. 
Bnt thisdeaign was retarded bv the rdiellion of the Sogdians, 
which was soon after fbUowed by that of the Bactrians. Alex- 
ander dispatched Spitamoies, -who had delivered up Beasos 
in<o his hands, bdieving him a icery fit pepson tpbritig them 
back to their allegianoe ; but he hsmselrhad been chiefly in- 
«trument&l in tlus iBsurmc^on. The king, greatly sor^sed 
at this treachery, was determined to take vengtani^ of hkn 
in the mostsipal manner. He then marched toGyfopolisj 
end besieged it. This was th^ last dty of the Peraai» em- 
pire, and had been built by Cyrus, alter whose iiasie k wa& 
galled. At the same time he sentCraterut, with two more 
•f bis general officers, to besiege the city of the Memaceni, 
to whom 50 tvoopers were sent, to desbe them to sue for 
Alexander's clemency. These met with a very kind recep- 
^on at first, but in die nig^ time were aH cut to f»eces. 
Alexander had rescued to sp«re Cyropolfs, purefy fer the 
eake of Cyms ; for, of all thei monarchs whd had reigned 
•ver these imtions, there weie. none he admired more thaa 
this king and Semiramis, because they had surpassed all the 
rest in oanrage and gk>t|o«s actions. He therefore ofiered 
very advantageous conditions to the besieged, hut they were 
eo b^ndly obsUnate as to reject them, and that even with 
nride atid insolence ; opon wldch he st^m^ th^r ^r 

f AbitScytb*, 

Sect, i^. jtbWjiit dbr ^LVixiniik.^ 555 

stbai^dnix^ die ^(tt^ikf of ilf to liU iflJjAiers, aWi .t^zcd it to 

th^ rerjr fbuhdafion?. 1?rom iipt^ce'.he went to the other city 

wjilch CrjrtctT^ iirak bti9iegiD|;. 1?^o ^lace ever ma^e a more 

vigorous d^feiice; for Al^x^nfl^t lo^t hi^ be^tTJ^diersbjEjforo 

it, and was himjielf exposed to very gre^t £(at)ger,' a jrtoiici 

striking iiim with so niuch yioletice osj tfce head,' that fii 

deprived him of hisf sen^^. Thp whj^ army indeed thought 

him dea4, ^hich threw them 'into tfear§ ; but this prtncci 

whoi^ jQp dagger or disappointment .coiil^ depress^ push^l 

OR the iWge widi greater vlgptir than before, the instant he 

recovered, without st^ying'tuj his wound was healed, anget 

adding fresh ftiel to his natural ardour. Having therefore^ 

caused the wedl to he sapped, he made a )arge breach in it^ 

^nd entered tlie city, which he burned to the grp\U)d, and 

put all the inhabitant to the sword. Several other cities 

pict with the same fate. This was a third rebellion of the 

Sogdians. wl^ would n®t be qv^et, though Alexander ha4 

pardoaea ^em twice before. They Ipst above 1?0,00Q meu 

Jn ti^ese different sieges. The king afterwards sent Men^ 

ededms with SOOQ foot land 8QQ horse to Marapanda, whence 

^pitanusn^s kiad dtoye the Macedonian garrison, and shut 

himself tip ttiere. 

WithxegaLrd to hinoisel^ he return^ bac^ and encamped 
«iithe iaxarthes, where he surrounded with walls the wh(4e 
apot of grovnd whiiph hi* arniy had covered, and built a 
citf on it, containing 6p furlong^ in cir^jvunferenoe,* whicH 
he also ceiled Alexandria j having b^fpre built several (J 
that name. He caused the worj^men tp makp such di^atch. 
that in less than tv^enty days the raniparts were raised, ano 
the houses built ; and Weed there was a great emulation 
among the soldiers who should get his work done (^oonest^ 
every one of them having had his portion allotted him : and^ 
to people his new city, he. ransomed all the prisoners he 
coiild meet with, settled several Macedonians there who 
were worn out in the service, and permitted many ratiyei 
of the coiintry, at their own request, to inhabit it. 

Pvit the iings of tl^os^ Scythians who. live on the other sida 
of the laxartnps, peeing that this city, built op the river, wa$ 
a Wnd of yp^e to them; thev sent a 'great body of ^Idi^rs t9 
demolish it, and to drive the M^'^cedpnians to a great dis» 
tauce. Alexander, who had no design P^ attacking the 55ey^ 
thiaiis, finding them make several in(:ur$iQn9i eve^ in hia 
sight, in a very insplent manner, was very much perplea^ed ; 
especially \yhen adyice was brought him at the sai^e time, 
^\ ^ b9^ ol trppps he &ad pfdered t9 Mw^«ja^4a, ]%a4 

' ' ^'* Thtee leagacf • ' 

\f^^ fll> *. y^ ^^^ tsKCfif^^ CHt tq iHecfi^ , J^ annm. 
ber ofobst^^e^ would have discop raged any one tmt.Akx- 
andei* ;' for the Sogdians had tak^u iw anns/ and tKe Bac- 
{riatts also ; his army was harrassed oy'^ the Bcytbi^s ; he 
himself wks brought so low, that, he npt'.able to stand 
Opri^ht, to mouQt.QQ horseback) ,to speak to his forces, or 
give a single ordef^ To mci^ease hus affllction^he fc^ndhh 
army no ways indlined to attempt the passage of tlie river 
In sight of the enemjfj who were drawn' up. ui ."^ftle-an-a). 
ThclLhig continued in tlie utmost perplexity. ;an night long; 
howcverj his c6urage suriricjunted all things! ^ing told that 
the auspices were not propitious, he forced the soothsayers 
to substitute favourable ones hi their stead. The day begin- 
nine to break, he put on his coat of mail, and show.ed .him- 
self to the soldiers, who had* not seen him since the last 
wound he had received. These held their king in such high 
veneration, that only his presence immediately removed all 
their fears, so that they shed tears of joy, and went paiii- 
mously and 'paid him their re^^ects j entreating him to lead 
them against the enemy, against whom they before hi^. re- 
fused to march. They worked so hard at the raft? oc floats, 
that in three days time they had made 12,000 ; and ^%) pre- 
pared a great number of skins for that purpose. 

As every thing wa^ ready for the march, several Scythi; 
an ambassadors arrived, to the number of 20, according to 
the custom of their country, who all rode through the camp, 
desiring to speak with the king, Alexander having i^ent for 
them into his tent, desir^ them to sit down. They jpzcd 
attentively upon him a long time, without speaking a ^}^^^^ 
Word, being very probably surprised (as they formed a ^ud^- 
ment of men from their air and staturej to find that lus did 
not answef the high idea they entertained of him from his 
feme. The eldest of the ambassadors made tliis speech, 
which, as t^iintus Curtius relates it, is pretty long'; however, 
as it is very curious, I shall present my readers with tlie 
igreatcst part of it. 

« Had the gods given thee a body proportioBable to thy 
•* ambition, the whole universe would have been too little 
*« for thee. With one hand thou wouWst touch the east, 
^ and with the other the west ; :^nd not satisfied with this, 
•* thou wouldest follow the sun, and know where he hides 
"liimself. Such as thou art, thou yet a^kest afiterwhat 
« it will be impossible fot" thee to attain. Th<aJ crossed 
** over from Euro^Je into Asia ; and when thoo ihalthave 
^ subdued all the race of men, thou thea wilt. make war 
« against rivers, forests, and wildbeastsV 'Dost thou not 
" know, that tall tree? ape nifof lyears a-growingj ""^ 


« soivenr fifeVd^ k ooftsmned%»Ttfit.; ^iri a ««^^cl, that ttiefft 
« is iMMhrng «d^*«iwng 'Whi6h>nWL¥ aadtfJfeei^eititoyca by 0x6 

**--wea*8cfetfc tb«w^1 ■ •v;.:.m;i . ■••■ 'J .-: . • : • - -' 

" allowed to live without knowing who thou art, W\ A '^fHSWc'^ 

*''tnit^td ^dittf tHiMi. Anftt1i{i1f'lhotitti^)'*est>be'6bii«liUe'%1i&t 
*'kiad 4rf pec^e iifie fic]rDlkfrt ^i»e,ltn(Wr^»tl*ti»c*e<:«V- 
*< ed ip&m ^«^vett) m i ftch pt^etit, a yekie 6( tfxtxii ft 
*< p)^^1iiiite(re, a 4lant, « ja«««iiy luid « ciip« Thes^ w6 
^make t^^^^f, b^ 'ix^h^^itf^'frilHie^^fia mg^aiiiil^GUf 'ien- 
•« ^*i*»;^ i qpb %«r #ie«i*i WCf ^1^ i0<rrti, 'Whidi #e f rObttt^ 
*« by -^e <lfcbto«r^f>»i*b ^Wftirii: ^>H^^e« i^re-irffesr wine to 
^ihe^gbdr^ "dftr >c«m'»^^^ Ml biir eftemies. 

*' i»e -toftihwit {t^mt<* tft' ^ii^ttete^^Wtth «wir • iTW)wi, and 
"•nfea4«^ti%tt44 ^i^ihiilri* jSivefih!?.^' R^ wa* Witti^hc^ we 
^ icmftlieHy -^^iGMtffteyeii tlie ^ni^At \rat4¥ke rtatMxte, ^libAti^ 

**^i«if8,^ «iA»»^tliy«rtf' ttrt Jtfcfe aw^test rcMbfer ^^^n «tlfh. 
*'T*WlrtM*'^gftkle»tol«fflffltt«ottfe thob4)^«ii*eafmo«f. 'VMi 

•^ tttid »ibmri«fe,^"tli«tf 4« TdN^ttifeg'^ de^igA te) -march as 

• fiut li^i^' tfP<*«tk. ' The tfreialt fjbtefesskms Ihcw ftft^j, 
^ »ilf'>tiftj* 0*ee :€ovfet^'fWM« eagerly 'Wfratthcmiia^ttO^ 
^ imt ^6tt flrtft «ie <fiew- long 'Site Baictrim hare t5he^ea 
^ ^ -t>i^^j^^^ Whitot tiKMl ftft i»«feMing 'fhese^ ^the ^£ 
^•diAns ir&«^lt, laid 'vidlM^^to th^^ only 'the ti^asitm of 

•* Pass but the laxarthcs, and thou wilt beV^'tfiep^'f 

* *9*«!it-tof^ttt pteliis." tt '«^ai^%'^iAfof'thce topurT 
♦•^wste tbte'Sey^^nSi and l€efy'thee^ver't<>^ofertake them.' 

* i)^ pbv^tty 'Win be mote actWe than thy airmy, laden 
*^ 'wjth tlic fifx^ ik wmany nations ; and, When thott'shalt 
^Ifflttcy ul/ Ift &4|^At^start6ey<h6n wilt see us tiish sud-» 
*deiily o^ €hy dantip ; »for we t^uwto^ and liy-from our 

* 7h^ it to be noderftood of the famous imif>tion t»tfhe $^AU 

t«t ABifct^^yttirf/'-Bei^i1be'fct^d't«hrt^ in tfiW 

i>Hh^t^ai^M:,dir0i. -^f%Wenibt Y(miiwe^!^£^niM 'fiurafitjf: 

i& Out plm« hit fcofe beiog |K«^ C^^ ^^^>^>^^^ 

336 . Bf STOUT or ^ZKAflf^fU. ;.ft4^AT. 

<• apeak jesti^gfy of the ikyAl^aa solitiides, a^a (ba^ they 
" are even bicpnM) a proYe^^ \\ .but we afc fonder ©f «ff 
1' deserts thJan.iQf t^hygre^ti cities .lind |ru|t^ pl^iins. Let 
« roe observe to thee, that fortune is slfpp^, j.boljd ber 
HfesI ^ecef9re,\^;«W'*fl'.#U!Wl4fe^ *ee,' /Pat a 
J* <;upb, tp .thy fetMa^r, ,if .thflji ^ffiifPfl! to. «xii^se.i?> pos- 

.'. ^«.If ^iHi'art a god,, tliou ttH€We»t itp. dorgood tomoi- 
i\ ta^isi and not deprive .thqm of. their posse^sionis ; if thou 
iVart'^'fl^ere-inaii) reflect alwaiysOtt what jhbu itrt. 1^1 
f! whom ^ou ahalt not molest .will be thy trae -fronds; 
«* the strqfnge^ friendships, iii^ eQ»tnicted.belW»pa:equals; 
f*and. thcy:)a^ e»tewiid equals* who, hAfe*»ot4rifwthe» 
w fitrength ^g^iAStjwc^ <yt|^r,; b«. idO *ot iqiagine that 
*• th<se w^iQm thq^.c^ai^ere^st, can lave: thf» jllpib^ere is 
1^ Dp m^\\ tbioc^{hietwQeii>a:ii|ag^l).Wid ius 
V. slave, aQ4, a..&rQe4.peaq» i9iiK)qD {^Uiwedil^.# war* 

^< To cxadudr^^ do not faacy thu^ /ithi» ^t^lim^ will 
<* take an, oat^ in their f^oncludifig a» «i]^c^ ,.?*« <*^y 
g.«itb, among tj^fin, is t^. k^ep* their ^ar4with«ijt swear- 
** ing. Such •cavtioos as« th^e 4© jnd^ed bccoDae'Qi^s, 
f^'w^a ugiftheir tref^tij^ m^dt^call upon, thej^pito/l^.wit- 
"rBpM thcn^ ;, bijty>ith na^rj^ tQil|s,^o%^• .tpnffl(?!J consists 
f HI beings 8h;«E^^ apd IH ^^^ipifB^ifll^.yffmT^ 
^ ma^. That.,^|ian if ho il^nQt a^l|a»ediyt^J«ei5*:l«?w<?™ 
« inth men, is .no(t 9kshafl^e4 of deqej:Ving,itb«/fiP* » ^^f 
** of what use could fjiends be to Htutt J3iiifhQWij*w*.>c«n^"* 
« eat ^ot trust ? Consider that we wifl gua*d bi^h l^^"*? 
^and Asia for tjh^.,, We exteni-aalar «5 TlmW^^ 
" we are told ftiatthis country is c<?ntigu9U^ to.Macedo- 
*« nia. ,Thc river laxarth^ ^aly ditkies tw frqaa .Ba^^J- 
•* apu Tbu« we are, thy ijeighfeHinf .oa both jjcles*: fioj 
" sjder, therefore, whether thou wilt have us for ftiea® 
^^grcnjrm^/':^:: ,, , :..• ..,•.,, ^t ^j .^/ 7. 
^.Thc batji>anani spoke thus: To whpm thp kiug W«« 
venr phort. aiwwer,.." that he woul4 take adirantage^tli 
J* of his own good foi*tune, and of their counsel ^ rf d» 
y good utill continuing to rely »S><» *^.' *?? 
V tbeir^counsel, hyfpot attempting any! thi^ ,raftWx/\ ^f^" 
ing dismissed the anjbassa^rs, his army eip^barM,^?'^® 
rafts, which by this time were got ready! ti ^^ *^" » 

.. fJ Jiw%q4o,gatf^m 3f^i f^pcife i^ ^•4w»>^* *.„;!: 

jLU/antv Or*cqrmi^ |tu ^aii^ja ^f, goi *f t»,/|0o<»goaP|cC^#<ff APT^ 

Sees. %nj. . ax^roRiV'. o» Axs^iun^XK. 927 

he/placed soch la imi^Hed'biiclkTS^aiHi txMidethemklieel 
dowB^ >tb«. better > to v secuiid thinnselvea 'fh>xn the airowg 'of 
thereooiiqr. HtiiMii lfa^ttf*frca*e thdke Svho vwH^d the lim- 
chnesr for diadbArpng. anaiows bud stehes^ eotefcd on' all 
tides 7«vthA^#()ldier^ signed; GEOj^^pee. ' The rest wko"lbl^ 
lowed tke engiim ^tu^ ^hffir s^hkldA"^ fixed '>40g;ethfer <mev 
^xeiyniiidadB^.io'r liBrni of ^ itortoise^ by ^^hich '8iey 'defend- 
ed the i saikiro -vrho wore coralets. : TM ^^ tyfder and di^ 
ymtimii wBk obseWed in.. the other'. rafts' or flosits which 

carrikdither>boii*sie./ •--•.' . • 'i •'. nv!, ■ '.- -i-Ij.* 

The iarm^ found g;reat difiiciiUy in cnsnhf^. ■• Every thing 
conspired to iatimulate thfexn.^ th^ clamonr aAd«4Mifi]«#n, 
|hat «fre inseparabie/frbm such tun ienferprise ; .the* rapid^ 
ity of the streamy which- carried. ^^a^r every ^hin^ witfl 
it ; and tiie siglktof « inMnekYMis-curmyi drawn up an; bfl;t^ 
tie anray, 0Qthej4)ipppbitei shore, r- However) the pfe6»nee 
of Alexander^ .who was, .ever, the fareniost an eacoimtfelinj^ 
dangers, made them neglect their own safety, and be con- 
cerned, fer his only. < 'As^on^asj^ the Macedonians began 
to dnfw near *th^ shores tlifey who carried shields rose tip 
together, when throfwing* their javelins with a strong arm, 
every weapon did. execn^n. .Wheii/they perceived that 
th^ enemy, qv^rpowered with that shower (A shafts, began 
to retire, and draW their; horses. b^clt, they lesqjcdoii the 
shore with incredible ^wjftness,^na^IanimMing one anoth- 
er, began the charge with vigour. In this disorder, the 
troopers, whose iHrfses.^ were riady bfi.dlfcd, rusted >u|>on 
the enemyj and quite bfcoke them. Tjie king could not be 
heard, by ireason of the feintriess of his. voice j but the ex- 
ample, he set spoke :for. him. . ,j ! •> ' ' ' 
And now nothing was heard in the. Macedonian' army 
but.shouts.^of joy. and victory, whiht^they continued to at*- 
tack the barbarians: with the utmcsst fDrv. The latter not 
bemg able to s(tand so severe i an onset;, :fled as fast asthdir 
horses could carry them ; for these, were the cavalry only*, 
llioughthe king was vi&ry weak, he lievertheiess porsiied 
tbem^ briskly' a tog way, till bjeiag at last qiiifce ^pent, he 
>^s obliged to stop. After oommanding bib troops to pur- 
sue them as long as they could see, he withdreir Uytbe camp 
in .order to repose himself, and to wait the return of his fori 
ces. The Macedonians had already gonebeyond tfce:bohnd^ 
aries/w limits of Bacchus, which were marked out by great 
stones, ranged pretty close one to the other, and by great 
^es,the trunks of which were coveted with ivy. tfowev4 
cr, the heat of the pursuit carried thein still farther, and 
they did not return back intn the ^camp till after midnight) 
^ty^g Julte4» gneaiiiuinb^ enemy, and tatoi many 

!^2i «sr»OIMBl.0Jr «A.&90ANBSft. "mdk If. 

IMM jprkODm^ wililr.lMff%MteS) 4llr«hlBii tof dim bt^ 

lfmt(llAd&«9li»9 Sc^MfaBmsaa Um pip pg i paa^fsifeitllPottaMWD, 
tO«hov»tlnAiiQi aftimoallf, bulla tbinr^of«joi<]B^iiad)inK»npl- 
•d .kirn to make : w«^ agust so Ysfianftili nation:. > :: 
. T^ ropofft c^Utts vicjbasyv fiiidiinock:milreia«bGlstD€iKy> 
with ^rbmhMMJnft^ireateiliite'mBquvhadf^KiMl^ib^^ 
fid Wi wpnlatMiv^ . TlttSoytiniaai h«^i*ways*Ben«nad- 
«ted as invincible ; but after their defeat ilr- wis lamfi^^^ 
m%tfry natiOi iiUhr wotMoogfalt to yMd io/the MtB«dan(ans. 
XAm Saoici »hQi««r«.a powenfol>natkiivscfita»eitatei^ 
Akwmder, b^ tHrichr thcy^ submitted themselvefftohim, «n 
imiw^lailiis fiiiandabip.. The Scothians timsnelercs made 
JUDi tLpoIoior by Aeir. ambnisnadnwy dfigowing the ^^^^^ 
■fid 4X1 .nmfr fen 

•f . whttluid happncd 4x1 .nrae feur^ p^VfUe^ < anA d^chnss 
tkM* thcr vererfiB^ to bbef fdl Jl^e cmnBi»dr of tto vio 

tQ8IDIMpMiBC«. • •/ ^'-^ 

AtesModer, Wagsohamil^ fiMd^Jronuithe csammtnn* 
hie ftf OiMJo^^rtaRtvar^ l»t&wlwi0thdt^Kt»ic8i'A^ 

omiB4 UL whidttbe feniiftov Bpitaineiies kodfoBtificdtuBsai- 
find wlthdrawa- intv Bnotiiaiia. 'Ehe fci|]g; punoed im 
thithtr^ fant oome up. with hihit'te icfttnetf 
bfick: and sadDedSqadMnai^^ which b liifitered by the nver 
P(iy.ttHMtiis« r . 

Aniong th& Sbfs^iktm <tfaat.iMre^tafcefi inriflonenj t^«ro 
wev«3Q 701ms mens ; who wetevtellishap^d and ^^^^ 
lT»^dtfaegreatast.lor<iBQ€^e^calintt^. Thesc^b^^ 
that they were led to executio»by-Aieaiaadef"»ci*!""7 
htigtm to sing songs of joy^ ta leap aud/dioicft) ^^^^^^^^1^aitittisof'an'iitriiM#erate jojr. w.The Iti^y ^^"7*^!!! 
to see them 90 to dt£^ with sb.much'gaietff h** "J" 
broo^beftirofakn; when h« ajdoedthcos how they ^fl^ 
t© hTea% into sndi tiansporU of joyv whfn thig^ *^^ w ^ 
hefbvfithcir^eyes ? Th^ answered^ that tfetyi should naj* 
beea nflticted had any ^h«r person but l»nMelfp>«'tlieiii^ 
death ; hft as ^ey would be resurad to'their &o<^°^^^ 
&e connnand oCsof^reat a momiirct^ who h«^ **"^*^ 
nU nataoDSy they blessed Uits death ; a. death sq^»^ ?,7 
tbftfacba^fist.nieiv would wish to die the same. , ^^^^* 
ndntiring their magnanimity^ asked whe^er they ^f^^.^l 
•utt to bk pardonedi upon condWon that thev ahO»W T^IZa 
gerhehis enemies? They answered, beTnighttb©*»»^ 
timy had never been his enemk.^ ; but that, as^^J^^f h«f 
tat4:od thenn thoy hsid defended th«mselves{ M"*iita ii^a.86fittw*aall«tv«rf 

Sect. Xlif. 4U5T0RY or AtEicAKDEE. ,229 

force, and violence, they would have vied with him in politc- 
jiess and generosity:. The king asked them farther, what 
pledge they would give him of their faith and sincerity J 
^* No other,"* answered they, <« but tlie same life we recei\-c 
** from your goodness, and which we shall always be ready 
^* to give back, whenev^* you shall require it." And, in^ 
deed, they ^wrere as good as their word. Four of them, whoni 
he took into his body-guard, endeavoured to rival the Mace- 
donians in zeal and fidelity. 

The king, after having left a small numl^er of forces in 

Sogdiana, marched to Bactriana, wliere having assembled 

aU lus generals, he commanded Bnssus to be brought before 

them ; wiien» after reproaching him for his treachery, and 

caitsing his nose and^ars to be cat off, he sent him to Ecba» 

tana, there to suffer whatever punishment Darius* mother 

should tHink proper to inflict «pon him. Plutarch has left 

ns an account of his execution. Four trees were bent by 

nijdn force, one towards the other ; and to each of these 

trees otie of thelimbs of this traitor's body was fastened. hU 

tetwards, these trees being let rettfrn to their natural pojBin 

tion, they flew back with so much violence, that each tore 

away tire litrib th:at'u*^k%cd'to it, and so quartered him. 

The satne Tninish"mennf^it this day inflicted on persons con-i 

victed 0^ high-treason^' Who arc tore to pieces by 4 horses. 

Alexander received at" this time, both from Macedonia 
and Greece, a large ntimber of recruits, amoiinting to up- 
wards of 16,000 men. By this con^derable reinforcement 
he was enabled to subdue all those who had rebelled ; and. 
to cnrhi them for the future, he built sev-feral fortresses ia 

• All things were no<r restored to a proformd tnmquilHty. 
There remained but one strong httld, called Fetra Oxia^a, 
or the rock of Oxus, which Was defended by Arimazu's, c 
native of Sogdiana, with 50,000 soldiers tnider his command^ 
atid ammtmitioa and provisions f6v two years. Tliis rock» 
which was very high and cfaggy on 'all sides, >^as accessible 
oftly by a single p^th that -iVas cut in It. The king, after 
viewing its works, was a long time in siaspence whether He 
should besiege it ; but, as it was his character to alni at tfcc, 
marvellous in aU things, and to attempt impossibilities^ he . 
**es6lved to try if he could not overcome, on this oc'crision,. 
nature itself, which seemed to have fortified this rock in 
^ch a manner as had rendered it absolutely impregnable. 
However, before he forn^ed the siege, he summoned tho^ 
barbarians, but in miM terms, \6 submit to him. Arimazct * 

•A.M,3^6r«. iLot.J,C.V«» 

?30 BISTORT or ALEXAKI>£It. 'Bt}Ok XV, 

received -this oflfer in a very haughty manner ; and, after 
using several insulting expressions, asked, " whether Alex- 
" ander, who was able to do all things, could fly also ; and 
** whether natui-e had mi a sudden given him wings ?" 

Alexander was highlv exasperated at tliis answer. He 
therefore ga\e orders ror selecting, from among the moun- 
taineers who were in his army, 300 of the most active and 
dexterous. These being brought to him, he addressed them 
thus : " It was in your company, brave young men, that I 
" stormed such places as, were thought impregnable ; that I 
•* made my way over mountains covered with etemal snows ; 
** ci*ossed rivers, and broke through the passes of -Cilicia. 
" This rock, which you see, has but one outlet, which alone 
" is defended by the barbarians, who neglect every other 
•* part. There is no watch or sentinel, except on that side 
** which feces our camp. If you search ver>' narrowly, you 
** certainly will Aieet with some path thiUt leads to the top 
" of the rock. Nothbg has been made so inaccessible by 
" nature as not to be surmounted by valour : and it wason- 
** k bv our attempting, what no one before had hopes of ef- 
" fecting, that we possessed ourselves of Asia. Get up to 
•* the summit, and when you s^aJy[^ve made yourselves 
•< masters of it, set up a white st^ji^dard there as a signal; 
•* and be assured, that I then willcertauily disengage you 
" from the enemy, and draw them upon myself, by making 
« a diversion." At the same time that the king gave out 
this order, he made them the most noble promises : but the 
pleasing him was considered by them as the greatest of all 
rewards. Fired therefore with the noblest ardour, and fan- 
cying they had already reached the summit, they set ont, al- 
ter having provided themselves with wedges to drive mto 
the stones, cramp-irons, and thick ropes. 
^The king went round the mountain with them, and com- 
matided them to beg^n their march at the second watch ot 
the night,* by that part which sliould seem to them of easi- 
est access '; beseeching the gods to guide their steps. They 
^en took provision?, for two days, and being armed wiUi 
swords ^nd javelins only, they began to ascend the mountain, 
walking sOme time on foot ; afterwajrds, when it was neces- 
sdry for them, to climb, some forced their wedges into *he 
stWics vitl^ich projected forwards, and by that means raised 
themffelves i, others thrust their cramp-irons into the stones 
th^r were frozen; to keep themselves from falling ia so slip- 
Pg'^t ^ "^y , 2n fine, others drlvmg in their wedges wjtn 
^at strength; made them serve as so many scalin^y^^^^' 

Sect. Xllh »1 STORY OF ALEXANDER. 231 

They Spent the whole day in this manner, haQg;iDg against 

the rock, and exposed to numerous dangers and difficultiesi 

being obliged to struggle at the same time with snow, cold, 

and wind. Nevertheless, the hardest task ways yet to come ; 

and tne farther they jidvanced, the higher the rock seemed 

to rise. But that which terrified them most, was the sad 

spectacle of some of their comrades falling downjpi-ecipices, 

whose unhappy fate was a warning to them of what they 

themselves mig^ht expect. Notwithstanding this, they still 

advanced forward, and exerted themselves so vigorously^' 

that, in spite of all these difficulties, they at last got to the 

top of the rock. They then wei*e all inexpressibly weary, 

and many of them had even lost the use of some of their 

limbs. Night and drowsiness came upon them at the same 

time, so that, dispersing themselves in such dl&tant paits of 

the rock as wei*e free from snows, they U/ down in them and 

slept till day-break. At last, wakmg from a deep sleep, 

and looking OQ all sides to discover the place where so many 

people could lie hid, they saw smoke below them, which 

showed them the haunt of the enemy. They then put up 

the signal, as had been agreed ; and their whole company 

drawing up, 32 were found wanting, who had lOst their lives 

in the ascent. 

In the mean time the king, equally fired with a desire of 
storming t^e fortress, and struck with the visible danger to 
which those men were exposed, continued on foot the whole 
*^y> jazitig opon the rock, and he himself did not retire tci 
rest till dark, night. The next morning, by peep of day, he 
was the first whoperceivcQthe signal. Nevcitheless he was 
still in d-Hibt whether*hc m^t trust his eyes, because of the 
false splendour which breaks out at day-break ; but the light 
increasing, he was sui-e of what he saw. Sending therefore 
for Cophes, who before, by hi^ command, had sounded the 
barbarians, he dispatched him a ^ond time, with ati ex- 
hortation to think better 'df the matter ; and iii'caic they 
should still depend upon fte strength of the place, he then 
"was ordered to show them the hand dT men behind their 
backs, who were 'got to tlie summit of the rock. Cophes 
employed all the arguments posslhde, to en.gage Arimazes to 
capitulate ; representing to him that he*would gain the king.'s 
favour, in case hetUd not interrupt tlie great designs he med- 
itated, by obliging hitn to make some stay before that rock. 
A^nmazes sent a haughtier' and more insolent answer than 
before, and commatrdedliim-tb retire. Thfen Oophes, tak- 
ing him by the hand, desii^d he would come out of the caye 
"^^thhitn, which the batbarian doing, he showed .him the 
^^^^^u^edonians posted over*tiis h^ad, and said, m an insulting 


tone of voice, ^<you see that Alexander's soldiers have 
%ings," In the mean time, the trumpets w^re heard to 
sound in every part of tlie Macedonian camp, and the whole 
army shouted aloud, and cried, "victory IV These tliiugs, 
though of little consequence in themselves, did neverthe- 
less, as often ha^^ens, throw the barbarians into so great a 
consternation, that without once reflecting how few were 
rot to the summit, they thought themselves lost. Upon this 
Coptics was recalled, and SO of the chiefa among the barba* 
rians wei*e sent back with him, who agi-eed to surrender up 
the place, upon condition that their lives might be spared 
The king, notwithstanding the strong opposition, he might 
meet with, was however so exasperated at the .haughtiness 
of Arimases, that he refused to grant them sinytcriMOT 
capitulation. A blind and rasli cou&dence m his own good 
fortune, which had never ^Icd him, made him insensible 
to every danger. Arimazcs, on the other side, blinded by 
fear, and concluding himself absolutely lost, xamc dowur 
with his relations and theprincipal nobitity at the cosotry, 
Into Alexander's camp. But thi3 prince, who was not mas* 
ter of his an^er, forgfiSdng wJiat the faitlx of ferity and Iw- 
inanity reqnii'ed on this occasipii, caused ihem all to be 
scourged with rods, and afterwards to be fixed to crosses^ 
at the foot of the same pock. The multitudes of pcojjle vm 
surrendei^ed, with all the booty, were given to the inhabi* 
tants of the cities wluch had been newly founded ia those 
parts ; and Artabazes was left goveniox of the rock a»d tbs 
whole provmce rouud it. 



A LEXANDKR*, having subdued the Massa^tae w^<^ 
Dahx, wtered Bazaria. In this provuM:e arjs a.grest ««»' 
ber of large parks stocked with deer. Here the ktog *«* 
<he diversion of h^ijtmg, in wUch he itfm exposed to f^ 
|reat peril ; for a lion of^ enormous size advaocfSfl direct!)' 
to him, but he killed him witlx a single thrufit,. -Aitbyffi* 
Alexander qarne off victorious on this occasion, yet the M^*^ 
edonians, alarmed at the danger he had nw, a»d the wb(^ 
army in his pei-spu, gave ordcrst pursuant, to thip custom « 
their country, that the king diould go no more a4iiintin|<« 
foot, without being attended by some of his courtiers sad w- 

•Q. Cure. !. viJ?. c. 1—8, Arriso. L iv. p, |6* -x?!- ^^ ^ 
^\i^ B. ^95—^^. l»ftin. I %lu c, A, 7* 

Sect* XIf\ KisTQKr of axsxaitder. 2S3. 

ficer?. TTipy were aen^iblev that a kiiig is unit born for his * 

own.:saiE;/ey butjor thaitof ^is subjects ^ that he oDghttnte' 

careful of his ^vntpfireon for their, sakes, »i>d reserve hi^* 

courage for othWi^nngers ; and that itOie bcaog HrAoa^^fat** 

kiilii^ btfcsao^ a reputation anworthy ot/a/ grcst ppinoe," 

ought not to be purchMod jh> desTw :•.•.. . .: . . . • •• 

Frqm theooe h« advm>€edtoiM»racanda) wliere he qu^U^d' 

some tumults -^hich had brolse out in that country.. . Arta-** 

bazus^ • re^[iiefititig «0tfb»4t9d)arsed fiom: ihe. gonrcx-nsiftiit of 

tUat province, by reason of his great age, he. appointed CU*^ 

tus hi^ su^c^«sor, H^ was an old officl:r wha had foeght un^. 

der Fhiiipt and signaUscd. hiaisQlC joiiAnany occasionSi^ Aii 

the tM^tleof the.Oranicifej'as Alezandev/was . £gh&ingbaref . 

headed, and,Ro9acts had his arm- i^^sed in order t^ strike; 

him behind, he covered the Jiing. I^ith his jstueld^. and cnl ofb 

the barbarian's hand. -, HeUeaicey hfe sister^ ha^ sursed A*^ 

lexander 4 andr he loved her with as m»ch/tend«niesa ti$ iff 

she had been his own mother. As the kiiig^ from theae sev-^ 

eral coosidei^tioos, had a very great reqf>e!Ct for CJitiasi, he: 

intrusted liim witli ^he government, i^ one jof the mofet im-j 

portant prgviiK^es of his empire, and oi*dQred him to set out 

the next day* , ,, !,:!..» 

Before hisdepfirture, CUtus was invited in the eveoiog U^ 

an entertainment, in which the kiitg,* after driokiiig im^ 

modei^ately, began to celebrate ^ his own exploits 4 and wiiH> 

so excessively lavish of self-comroendation, iliat be e^^eo; 

shocked those very persons who knew that Jie ^ipokt* .ti^tb;r 

However, the oldest men in the company held jth«lir,|^ace/ 

till beginning to depi-eciate the warlike acts of- Pkui^ he: 

boasted, ^^tliat the famous victory of Ch^ronea Sf cui won hfi 

'^ his means ; and that the gktry of so immortal, a battle had* 

^ been torn from him by the malic^and jealousy of his.f aB^r« 

« That in the insurrection t which broke out between the- 

^ Macedonians and mercenary Greeks, PhiUp, faintingrawa|t 

<^ after the wounds he had received ui that tumult, had lavd 

**himfidf onthe ground, and could not think of.a.t»evter me*- 

<^ thpd to save hmiself, t^n by lying along as dead ; that 

" on this occasion he had covered him with his shield, and: 

" kiUed with his own hands those who attempted to fell upon 

**him ; but that his fs^Uier. could never. prevail iqx» hini* 

" self to confess this circumstance ingenuously, l^ing vexed 

^« that he owed his life to 1|is ovm ^/m^ That t£i> the trar 

, , * ' » . ' ' ••' :.■ • . ' -t 

f Ift quo Rflr, com multo incalutfi^. aicro, imnaodkes ieftinato#i 
fai, celebrate 'qti9^ gefi«r4C r«pi* ; graviH ctism coroei annbiHi ym 
feotiebant vera memorari. Q^Curr. . 

U 2 

2U utsr^ut ot ALKZAnmcn. took XV, 

^ tgvbnt tlie mpiaasyke was the oolf person who had done 
^ wuf thfaig, Philip havtag had im maimer of share in it ; 
^'ttidhcariBs of the diktat of the enensf no etherwi»etha» 
**tlte letters he sent Um^ That thepersoits^rortfaf of praise, 
^ were not s«dv as iaikteted theiuMlyeft ki tlM * mystsries of 
**the Samothradansi whcs they<ei]|;ht to have laid waste all 
^ Asia wlUi tf« and sword, bat tiMse who had achieved 
**siicKni%tabr cxploks as snrpasstd ail belief.^ 

'fHssc aadthe MkediBC««raaswere'Verf pleasb^tothe 
yeung men, but were veiy shockiBg 4o those advaBced in 
years ; especiatty forPhU^^s sake, mider wliem titey had 
fiMight maafyeart. Clkiiat ^vko also was kitooikated, tam^ 
Ing: about to those wlio sat betow him at table, qsoledto 
them a passage from tBuripides, but in soch^a manner that 
tfie kfaig couki only hear hh voice, aad net tie words 6^ 
tioctly. The Sense of this passage t^ae, ««Uiat ^^ Greeb 
had done very wrcsig 'm ordalniiig that ki the kitcriptions 
engraTed on trophii^tfae names of kmgs only shmddbe 
inentk«ed ; became ^ by these means faMi^ men were 
fobbed of the gtory tkey had purchaseffwkh their blood.' 
The* king, sntpeeting Clitns kad let drop some d]seMigin| 
expressions, a^ed those who sat nearest him, what he had 
sak) > Ae no one answered, Clltos, raising, bis voieebf de- 
mes, began to rckte tHe actkns of Philip, and his wars » 
&reece, preferring them to whatever wns doimgrtt that 
time, which created a great cVispnte between the yoonf ana 
the <M men. Thoa^ the khig was prtsdigioM^ vexedm 
his mkk},he nevertheless stifled his resentment, and seemed 
to listen verv» patiently to alf Clitus spoite to hlspieja^' 
H is prdbable he woidd have qnite snppreased his ^nsamy 
had Clims stopped there; bat the latter growmgmore^d 
more inssient, as if determkied to exasperate and> iiaoR^^ 
king, went sueh lengths as to defimd Parmehitf fni^^ ; 
P$\A to amert, that the destroying of Th^)es was 5ttftiw^ 
hi comparison of the vietoiy which Phi^ had gained (JveJ* 
Ae Athenians ; and that (he old Macedmi tans, thoagkao"^^' 
times unsneoessfbl, were greatfy superior tothose who i»ere 
90 rash as to des{^ them. 

Alexan^rteUhig him, that m gxving cowardieetb««**^ 
«f ill success, he was pleading his own caose, CHtosrket op^ 

1 «ft was sftial for- (teo««k, hefMe ^ fet oat so ^^''^ ?xr 
tteos, to ctafe tbemfelvet to be iahiated in thcfe myfieriei^ ^l!^ 
itodficei to th« godf< who fseftdedtb them. PoAdly PHtiMf i^^ 
0rfing this ccmoiony^ ktd dekysd fsmr caierprife; 

fin hi« Andromache. ^^ 

I ▲Keao caim^tngsias umiinnlsiitm im s m i pi. ^<^ 

Sect. XtV. ttti^OAY ^t Ai.£]eA«rfrfiir. dS5 

with his eves sparkfiAe^wit^ wine And titgeV) ''it fe utter* 
*' thetess tms:hmiid/^ ssud tie to hhtt, eaitendiHg U at therunM 
time, ^that skved ytmt fife ftt Che hatUe^ oC ihe Of«liicait» 1% 
<^ i»1}ie Mood aod woondi of Chose yerj^ MadMioniAnit wK(^ 
*^ are aecused of eoi^ardiee, ttMi ndMd yM t« thii tsraii'* 
** detir. But Uie tragic&l end'of Phrtti«M6 Aiows what fe« 
<( ward thef and myself nitff eitpect te aa««r serrteoB.'^ 
Tliis hist reproach mag* Afettnder : htfvreftr, he stfil ve* 
ttrainetl his passion, and onhr comfviaiided %]iftl to leave thft 
table. *<He is in the r^shtj'^saysOitttSfOs h^roMup««^ot 
*< to bear freebom irten at his table. Who can only tell him 
'< truth. He iviR do weft to pass hi^ life among bafhariana 
*^aiids^Tes, 'who w9) be proud to par Uiek* adoration t» 
*' his Persiah igirdle and his whHe tvhtr But now the kln^, 
no longer able tt^ suppress his rage, shatched aJaVelto ft^m 
one of the goards, and would have lulled CUtus on the spc^^ 
had not the courtiers withAield his arm, and Clitus beeilF 
forced, but with mat difficulty, out of the hall. However^ 
he returned into It that moment by another door, siagibg', 
with an air of insolence, rerses reflecting highly on the 
prince, whor sedb^ the general near hkn, struck him witfr 
his jairdstr, and taxi hrm dead at his feety erying oat at the 
«amc time, ^go now to PhtMi>, to Parmtnio, awd to AttahiSt** 
The king's anger behig ii» a manner e^ftingaished on a 
sudden iti the blood of CKtus, his crime dispfayed itself to 
him in its bFftckest and most dreadfid light/ He had mur-' 
dered a mair, who indeed had abused his patience, but then 
he. had alnMn^ served htm Ivilh the utfflMi seal and fidelllvr 
and saved his Itfe^ though he was ashamed to own it. He 
had that imstant pedbrmed the vile office of an executioner^ 
in poaidving by an horrid murder^ the Merkg of some li^' 
discreet words, which might be imputed to the ftimes of 
^wme. With what face eoidd he appear before the sisttrof 
Chttts, his nurse, and oflcr her a hand ilwbrued in her brotiv 
«r's blood ? Upon t^ he threw himftdf upon his friend's 

Sr, forced out the j^elfai, and would hftve dispatched him-^ 
with it, had not the guard)^, who rushed in upon him^ 
laid hold of his hands, atid foTcil^y earried hiih into hia 
uwn apartment. 

He passed that night aitd the next day hi teart. After 
that, gtodnd and litmentations had efdlt wasted hib spirits j 
lie continued sbeeChTas, srretdied ort Ae groand^ and only 
tenting deep m^s. But his friends^ fearing his siknce would 
ht &tal,forced themselves into his Chamber. The king took 
tery little notice of the words ftat wtre *mploy«Jd to com- 
fert him ; but Aristander the sooth*aye*V Insftting hifft m 
ittiild of adreamyiswhkhlM^iftagjHwd li* flOVCaiiiityCtot^ 

23# HlM^ir OF AUKXAN0£|l, BooJt JTV^ 

tAfxk^hMkr^btf, «nd tested at a ;tafale; and ^eclara^^ 
Ui«t aU wliteh had.. Un^ btfi)pene4 W^ appoiu^^ by tlie 
denial 4i99rreVifi&tfi» A)exapfkiv^Kp|»aric4 a. little easier ii\ 
lu^ mM. . ¥kik UuU ^vaa addp;^wd by, two philosophers, 
CaH jgrWanet and AiMaarchim , TH^Iosmec went^ip toluuir 
wi^ anAurof huili4ki»ity.afi<i tenderness, aiul endeavoured 
to flttppre»s hU sn^ bf agre^lf insinuatii^ himseif^ aihI 
ead^voiired wmake.hiBa recal hia reason, -by i^efiection^ of 
& «c^ lM|iAi4r^vp. Cfpm the.yery,^ssencft,af piajfospp^iy, 
and by cai-efuUy -diuiuiini^ all isudi expressions as might re- 
new hia ^iUctipn und ixtX a wound whifh, as it w^ still 
bleediog, i^uired UH be t^i^phed wit^ 4xe geiiUe»|^and.. But 
Anaxai-qboa did. pot otpserve.Uu&deooniiB f &r Uie mbinent 
)ie eoteredy he <9*ied alo^d« ^t How I is this Alexander, on 
^' whom th^ eyes oC the whoh) ^pr)d are jfixed ? Behold him 
^^ here exlepded on the IIqch:, sheddiug floods of tears, like 
^ the meanest slave- 1 Does not he l^now, that he himself 13 
^^ a supreme law to his subj.ects ; that he conqured merely 
.^ to raise himaell to. t^he exalted dignity of lord and sove- 
<< rejgn, 9ad aot to sui^t hinis»elf to a vain opinion l*^ Xhe 
Jung was determined to starve himself ; so that it waa ^vith 
the utmost difficulty that his friends prevailed with liim to 
t^e a little sustenance. .The Macedwans declared by a 
idecree that Clitu^i had been very justly killed ; to which de- 
cree Anaxarchns the philosopher bad given occasion, by as- 
.aerting that the will df princes is the supreme law of the 
.state. Alas t how weak are all such refieclaona against the 
cries of a justly alarmed conscience, which can never be qui« 
dted, either by flattery or fialse arguments. 

It most be confessed that Clitus had committed an inex- 
.ciisable faidt. It wa^ uideed his duty, not to join in discours- 
es calculated to sully the glory of Philip his benefactor, but 
to show. his dislike to what was said by a mournful but mod^ 
.eM silence* He possibly might have been allowec^ to speak 
in £avour of the late monarch, provided he had expressed 
Jiiimself with prudence and moderation. Had such a resenr^r 
edoess been upsoccessful, he mightjustly have merited pity, 
<4ind wqi^d not h^ve ^een cnmbal. But by bteaking intp 
injurious and shocking reproaches he quite forgjot the vener 
•ration due to the sacred character of kings 4 with regard to 
whom, how unjustly soever tliey. may act, not only eveif 
Contemptuous and insulting expression is forbid, buteveiy 
.disr^pectful and unguarded word ; they being the cepce- 
aentatives of God himself. \ 

.' It mustnevertb^essbeixmfessed, that the . circumstani;^ 
t>f&e banquet extenuates very much, or throws in some 
«iea«^,l^|«il4T«r JPUtjos' fault.,; WUeo a^priuce kvite^i 

subject to a feast ; vhenii^ makefrliim the coa^fMmkp of 
det^uchi and in pemn excites him to q?iaff immoderatelyy 
a king on such an occasion sieems to forget his dignity, and 
to permit his s^jects to Ibrget it also \ he gives a sanction, 
as It were, to the liberties, &miU&rities, and sudden flights 
ivhich wine coRsmonly iuspires ; and should he be displeas-' 
ed with a subject for -equalling himself with lum, he ought 
to Idame himself for having first raised a subject so high* 
A fault Gommitted under these circumstances is always a 
fault ; but then it ought never to be expiated with the blood 
of the o^nder^ 

A certain author compares * angor, when imited fo power, 
with tliunder ; and indeed what havoc does it not then make.f 
But how dreadful must it be, when joined with drunkenness t 
We see tlu& in Alexand^rt** How unhappy was that j)ri|ifife 
not to have endeavoured to subdue those two vices in his 
youth, and t ^o have been confirmed h> them from the ex-' 
ample of xuieof his tutors \ for ^t is asserted that both wene 
the consequences efhis edvtcation.. .But what can be mean* 
«r, or mor^ «nwo|tfhy a kixu^, t&an dciiiking'to excess ^ 
What can lie more fatal or hlao4y9 than the transports %^i 
^S^ ? ^leaoander, who had cveroome so maqy natioBSy 
was himself conmiered bjr those two^ vices, wluch threw a 
shade over the {lory «f his Jnaghtest ac^ns. The reason 
of th^ SK^^ Seneca,,i9,.h^,endea>ffiar^ .pfu>i!^^t^^ ¥anfiiiBh 
otheiis, than to subdue himself ; not .knowing, that to triusBph 
over our passions is of^ conqt^e^ts them^^ i|lo]n9iia« 

Akxa«ioer, a&er coEftinuing ten daya on Marafi^Uhda^in 
order to j:ecoyer his spirits* mai-^hedinlo Xeni|>p}b ^ i»^-* 
TXQCtt bordering cqion Scytlua, wl^er sqmareMs were ire- 
tired^ aU of whom he swjjectcd^ an4 |^va theo» a f^ee ptj;- 
. tou From thsnce lie fet forward »Uh. hi^ ain^ ^ towa?^ 
the rock ChorieasiSf of which Sg^sii^itthrei w^^vernW'* 
AH aocess to it seeo^d ^soh>teW ^fora^oahle » |ipv<uihs- 
less, he at last got a^^r it, a&er havii^ pa^iediiS^voijiE^ nim^- 
berless dificulties ,*, am) by the medJatiottof Qxftrtes, a 
prince o( thajt cwmtry vlto .h^ adhered |o . Alexaiader, lie 
.Jtrevailcd i^it^ Sisymethres ti» surrcudAT. .I'he.kiiie tl^ 

f KflcmiMS fftfvx sfTMi aocd inet)lb«t.f ^rfdciD ^iimaiilsi ^F* 
cuadn |^«Hi«min«, m a? Ik^hyloojn Dk^jMi* Ifft4ll«tt».fti0i«&iaar 
cum iNtiit tDimit, %iui roMhwi|fi^^ptt*ec j«iii mw ia mm Kfcaii 
sbi^ai&ll^tttll>oeftlerili^(pro£eCtta« <I|^«il I. «. «» IT-. 

% Victor col Kg BBB ftifae fQpiiianan« vtm nicaifcaii. Id cuma «g- 
•rw, iu ocnaia pouM* haWivr •• foHitate» ^tiHii «!*'' ' 

emks. The Waoe«6rfani ttidted wctild not stooir to thii 
baseadulatiaii; afl of them, to a man, refusing to vary many 
maimer from tke^mtoms of their countiy. The whole evil 
was owing to some Greeks, whose depraved manners were 
a scandal to their profession of teaching virtue and the sci- 
ences. These, though the mean refuse of Greece, were nev- 
ertheless in greater credit with the king than cither the 
Xirinces of his blood, or the generals of his army : it was such 
creatures as these that placed him in the skies; and pub- 
lished, wherever they came, that Hercules, Bacchus, Castor 
aodPoUttx, would reagn their seats to this new deity. 

He therefore appointed a festival, and mad* an incredfti; 
pompoushanquet, to which he invited the greatest lords of his 
ooiirt,boA Macedonians and Greeks, and most of the hjg?i«t 
miaHty among the Persians. With these be sat down at table 
tor some time, after which he withdrew. Upon this Cleon» 
one of his flatterers, began to speak, and expatiated very 
much on the praises of the king, as had before been agreed 
upon. He made a long detail of the high obligations they 
had to him, all which he observed, they might acknowledge 
and repay at a very easy e xp e n ce, merely with two grams of 
incense, which they should offer Mm as to a god, withaut the 
least Semite, since they believed him such. To this pur- 
pose he cited the example of the Persians, He took notice, 
that Hercules himself, and Bacchus, were not ranked among 
the deities till after they had surmounted the envy of their 
eontemporaries. That in case the rest'should not care to pajr 
this jtistice to Alexander's merit, he himself was resolved to 
show them theway„ and to worship him if heshoidd come 
into the hall. But that all of them must do their datj', espe- 
<5ially those that professed wisdom, who ought to serve totiic 
restasr an examplij of the veneration due to sdgi-eatamoii- 

: ItappearedplainlythatthfespeechwasdirectedtoCalfist- 
liencs, *He was related to Aristotle, who had presentca 
him to Alexander his pupil, that he miglit attend upon thai 
monarch in the war of Persia. He was considered, npoD ac- 
count of his wisdom and gravity, as the fittest person to gjv^ 
him soch wholesome counsel hs was most capable of pr^^ 
ing him from those excesses into which hit yptt*aiwW 
temper might hnrryWm ; but he was accused of not pw^j 
sing tlie gentle in»noating behaviour of <^ns '%^^^!JLf 
knowing a tertidri medhnni)etweenspfOTO>W|?*^^^ 

•Diog. Laert. In AtHlist. U v. p. J05. ..^ 

flntcr «bniptim «on nimidlhi lit d«f«f toe dbftqi^** V*^ 
atDbitiooe ae p«rcaUf^ vacaam, Tadt. aaaal, 1. iv« c. so* 

Sect.'XIV. fifSTORY Q¥ ALEXANDER. %i\ 

and uiflexlUe obttinacy. Atktotie had attempted, but to no 
purpose, to softdn tlie severity of his temper ; and foreseeing 
the ill consequences with which his disagreeable liberty of 
speaking his mind might be attended, he us^ofteivto repeat 
the foUowing verse ot Homer* to lum. 

My son^ thy freedom will abndge thy days. 

And his prediction was hut toe true. 

This philosopher, seeing that eveiy one on tliis occasioo 
continued in a deep silence, and that the eyes of the whole 
assembly were fixed on him, made a speech, which appears 
to me just enough. However, it often happen^ when a sub- 
jest is, bound in duty to oppase the inclinations of his sovct 
reign, that the most cautious and most respectful zeal is con-? 
sidered as insolence and. rebellion* " Had tlie king," said 
he, " been present when thou madjest thy speech, none among 
" us would then have attempted to answer thee, for he him- 
" self would have interrupted thee, and not have suffered 
" th^ie to prompt him to assume the customs of barbarians, 
^' in casting an odium on his person and glory, bv so servile 
" an adulatioq. But since he is absent, I will answer thee . 
*' in his name, I consider Alexander as worthy of all the 
'' honours that can be paid to a mortal ; but there is a dif- 
*' ference between the worship of the gods and tliat of men, 
" The former includes tenpples, altars, prayers, and sacri- 
" fices ; the latter is confined to praises only and awful ixispectl 
" We salute the latter, and look upon it as glorious to pay^ 
" them submission, obedience, and. fidelity ; biit we adore 
" the former.; we institute festivals to their honour, and siiig 
" hymns and spiritual songs to their glory. The worship of 
** the gods does itself vary according to their rank ; and the 
*' homage we pay to Castor and Pollux is not like that 
" with which we afiorc Mercury and Jupiter. We must not 
*' therefore confound all things, either by bringing dqwn the 
** gods to the condition of mortals, or by raising a mortal to 
" the state of a god. Alexander would be justly offended 
^ should we pay to another person tUe.homage due to his sa- 
*' cred person only ; ought we not to dread the indignation of 
" the gods as- much,, should we bestow opon mortals the hon- 
" ours due to them alone ? I am sensible that our monarch 
*' is vastly superior to the rest; he, is the greatest of kings^ 
" and the njiost glorious of all' conquerors ;- but then he is a 
" man, not a god. To obtain this title, he must first be di-' 
" vested of his mortal frame ; but this is greatly our interest 
" to wish may not happen but as late as possible. The Greeki 

* ^.kHUtptH de piH ttkoa essai dc agoreueis, II. 1 6 . v . 5^. 

843 BlSfOnT or ALEXANDER. ' Book XF* 

« did not worship Hercules till after bis death ; and that not 
• * till the oracle had expressly commanded it. The Persians 
'* are cited as an example for our imitation ; but how lone 
** is it that the vanquished have given law to the victor r 
** Can we forget that Alexander crossed the Hellespont, not 
•* to subject Greece to Asia, but Asia to Greece/* 

The deep silence which all the con^pany observed, "wl^lst 
Callisthentrs spoke, was an indication, in some measure, ef 
their thoughts. Th? king, who stood behind the tapestry all 
the time, heard whatever had passed. He thereupon order- 
ed Cleon to bp told, that without insisting any farther, he 
would only reaulre the Persians tp fall prostrate, according 
to their usual custom ; a little aft^r which j^c came in, 
pretending he had been busied in some affair of impor- 
tance. Immediately the Persians fell prostrate tp adore aini- 
Pcdysperchon, who stood near him, observing that one of 
them bowed so low tliat his chin touched the ground, bid 
him, In a ^allying tone of voice, to "strike harder.*' The 
King, offended at the joke, ^rew Polysperchon iato prison, 
and broke up the assembly- However, hp afterwards jiSLr-; 
4oned him ; but CaUisthenes was pot so fortuijatp. 

To rid himself of Jiimj he laid tQ his cjiai^ a crime of 
which he was no wavs gmlty. Heniiolai^s, one of the young 
officers who attended upon the king in all places, had, upon 
account of some private pique, formed a conspirapy against 
him ; but it was veiy happily discovered tl^e instant it was 
to be put in execution, ^ The ciimmals were seized, put to 
the torture, and executed*. Not onp aijijong them had hccust 
ed CalUsthenes ; but having boen very intimate with Herr 
molaus, that alone was sufficient. Accordingly he was thrown 
into a dungtton, loade4 witji irons, andtjie most grievous tor.- 
incnts were inflicted on him, in order to extort a confession 
of guilt. But he uisisted i|pon his innocence to tl^e last, an4 
expired in the midst of his tortures. 

Nothing has reflected so much dishonour oij Alexander's 
memor)', as this unjust and cruel<!eath of pallisthenes. He 
truly merited the name of philosopher, from the solidity of 
his understanding, the extent of his knowledge, the austerity 
of his life, the regularity of his conduct, and, above all, fpon> 
the hatred he so evidently manifested for diss|mt|lation and 
flattery of everj^ kind, rife was not born for courts, the fre- 
quentors of which must have a supple, pliable, flexible turn 
of mind ; sometimes it must be of a knavish and treacherous, 
at least of gn hypocritical, flattering cast. He very seldom 
•was seen at the king's table, though frequently invited to it ; 
and whenever he prevailed so far upon himself as to go thi-r 
ther, his melaach<dy si^t air ^nras a manifest indicatioi^ t^( 

Sett, XIK BiSTOAT or Alexander. 24$ 

he disapproved of every thing that was said and done at it» 
With Uiis humour, which was a little too severe, he would 
have been an inestimable treasure, had he been possessed by 
a prince who hated falsehood ; for among the many thou- 
sands who surrounded Alexander, and paid court to him, 
Callisthenes only had courage enough to tell him the truth. 
But where do >ve meet with' princes who know the value of 
such a virtuej and the use which ouglit to be made of it ? 
Truth seldom pierces those clouds which are raised by the 
authority of the great and the fiattery of their courtiers. 
And indeed Alexander, by this dreadful example, deprived 
all virtuous men of the c^portunity of exhorting Mm to those 
things which were for his true interest From that instant 
no one spoke with freedom in the council ; even those who 
had the greatest love for the public good, and a personal af- 
fection for Alexander, thought themselves not obliged toun* 
deceive him . After this,nothing was listened to but flattery^ 
which gained such an ascendant over that prince, as entire- 
ly depraved htm, and justly nunished him lor having sacri- 
ficed to the wild ambition ot haviug adoration paid him the 
most virtuous man about his person. 

I observe, ailer Seneca,* that thedeatli of Callisthenes is 
an eternal reproach to Alexander, atid so horrid a crime that 
no qoalit/, how beautiful soever, no military exploit^ though 
of the most conspicuous kind, can never efface its infamy. 
It is said in favour of Alexander, that he killed an infinite 
number of Persians ; that he dethroned and slew the most 
power^l king of the earth \ conquered innumerable pit>- 
vinCes and nations ; penetrated as £ar as the ocean, and ex« 
tended the bounds of his empire from the most remote part 
of Thrace to the extremities of the east i in answer to each 
of these particulai^s, "yes,** says Seneca, "but he murdered 
Callisthenes ;'* a crime of so hehious a nature that it entire- 
ly obliterates the glory of all his other actions. 





. Alexavder,! to stq) the murmurs and discontents which 
arose among his soldiers, set out for India. He himself want- 
^ action ai^ motion \ for he always, when unemployed, lost 

; ScBcc Nat. Qaacst 1, vi. c. aj. , \ Q^Curt* 1, tii. c. ^ 


part of the glorj' he had acquired in war. An exccsscrf van- 
ity and folJv prompted hira to undertake this expedition ; a 
project quite useless in itself, and attended with very danger- 
ous consefiuenccs. He had read in tlie ancient fables of 
Cireece, that Bacchus and Hercules, both sons of Ju|nter, as 
himself was, had marched so f^r. He was determined not 
to be surpassed bj' them ; and there were not wanting flat- 
terers who applauded this wild chimerical design. 

These are the things that constitute the glory and merit 
of such pretended heroes ; and it is this whidimany people, 
dazzled by a false splendour, still admire in Alexander ; a 
ridiculous desire of rambling up and down the woild ; of dis- 
turbing the tranquillity of nations who were not bound to him 
l>y any oMigations ; of ti-eating all those as enemies who 
should refute to acknowledge him for their sovereign ; of 
ransacking and extirpating such as should presdme to^t' 
fend their liberties, their poBsessions, and their Rvcs, agftinst 
«n unjust invader, who came from the extremity of dearth 
to attacK them, without the lea«t shadow of reason. Add io 
this glaring injustice, the rash and stupid project he had 
formed, of subduing, with infinite labour, and the ntmost 
hazard, many more nations than it was posskbie for him 
to keep in subjection ; and the sad necessity to which he 
was reduced, of being perpetually obliged to conjpoet'thcm 
a-ncw, and punish tlicn> for their rebellion. This is a 
sketch of what the conquest of India will exhibit to it% 
after I shall have given sonw little account of the siluatioa 
and manners of that country, and some of Its rarities. 

Ptolemy divides India hito two parts; India on this, and 
India, on "the other side of the Ganges. Alexander did not 
go tieyond the farmer, nor even so far as the Ganges. This 
first part is situated between two great rivers, Indus, whence 
this country receives its name, and the Ganges. Ptolemy 
says, the limits of it are, to the west, Paropamisas, Aracho- 
sia, and Gedrosia, whicli either form apart, or are upon the 
confines of the kingdom ofPcrsta ? to the north, mount Imaus, 
which is part of Great Tartaiy.; to the east, the Ganges; 
to the south, the ocean, or Indian sea. 

. » All the In^aus are free, and, like the Lacedapmoaians, 
hay e no slavcss among them. The only difference is, th5 1»^" 
ter make use of foi'eigii slaves, whereas th^e are none in In- 
dia. ITiey do not erect any monuments in honour of the 
dead ; but are of opinion, that the reputation of illustrious 

men is their mausolseum. 

* Arrian. de India, p. 3I4*-3%S. 


iThcy may be divide mto seven dasses. The first and 
most honourable, thoagh the smallest, is that of the forach* 
mans^ who are^ as it were, the guardians of religion. I 
shall have occasion to mention them in the sequel. 

The second and greatest is that of the husbandmen.-— 
These arc had in great veneration. Their only employ- 
ment is, to plottgih ttie fields, and tiiey are never taken 
from this employment to curry arms and serve in the 
field in war time : it is an inviolable law never to molest 
them or their lands. 

The tiiird is that of herdsmen ind shepherds, who keep 
herds and 'flocks, and never come into the cities. They 
rove up and down the mountains, and often exercise them- 
seWcs in hunting. 

The fourth is of traders and artificers, among whom 
pilots and seamen arc included. These three last orders 
pay a tribute to the king ; and none are exempted from 
it but those tliat make arms, who instead of paying &ny 
tiling, receive a stipend from the public' 

The fifth is of sokliers, wliose only employment is war : 
they are furnished with all sorts of necessanes ; and, in 
time of peace, are abundantly supplied with all things.— 
Tfaeiv life, at all times, is free and disengaged fi'om cares 
of every kind. 

The sixth order is that of pverseers, who superintend the 
actions of others, and examine every transaction, either \\\ 
cities or the country, and report the whole to the prince. 
The virtties and qualities required in these magistrates are 
exactness, stnceritv, probity, and the love of their country. 
None of these magistrates, says the historian, have ever been 
accused of telling an untruth. Thrice happy nation, were 
this realjy fact ! However, this observation proves at least 
that truth and justice were had in great honour in this coun- 
try, and that knavery and insincerity were detested in it. 

LasUy, the seventh class consists of persons employed in 
the ^\il^ic councils, and who share the cares of the gov- 
ernment with the sovereign. From this class are taken 
niagistrates, intendants, governors of provinces,^ generals, 
and all military officers, whether for land or- sea ; comp- 
troller of the treasury, receivers, and all who are intrust* 
cd with the public monies. 

These different orders of the state are never blended 
by marriage ; and an artificer, for instance, is not allow- 
ed to take a wUe from among tl^e class of husbandmen ; 
^d so of the rest. Kone of these can follow two profes*- 
^i^n^ at the Kime time, nor quit one class for another. It 
^ natural to conclude, that this regulation mu^t have cqq- 



tribttted very much tofhe improvement of all arts and trades; 
as erery one added his own industry and reflections to thosr 
of his ancestors, which ¥rere delivered down to him by an 
uninterrupted tradition^ 

Many observationa^miB^ be made on these Indian cus- 
toms, which I am obliged to omit, for the sake of proaeedirg 
in my history. I only entreat the reader to observe, that in 
eveiy wise sovemment, and evenr weU-^vevned state, the 
tilling of lands, and the grazing ot cattle (two perpetual acd- 
cei*tain sources of riches and abundance), have always been' 
one of the cliief objects of the care of tlioae who preside in 
the administration ; and that the neglect of either, is erring 
against one of the most important maxims in policy. * 

I also admire very much that custom of appointing over*^ 
seers, whether they are known for sueh or not, who go upon 
the spot, in order to inspect the conduct of governors, intend- 
nnts, and judges ; the only method to preventthe rapine and 
outrages to which unlimited authority, and the distanflefrom 
a court, frequently give occasion ; the only method, at die 
same tirte, for a sovereign to know the state of bis kbgdoin, 
without which it is imposnble for him to govern happily th^ 
people whom providence has intrusted to his care. 'Hus* 
care regards him personally ; and those who act under him 
can no more dispense with the diischarge of it thait they can* 
usurp his diadem. 

It is remarkable, that in* India, from the month of Jane to- 
those of September and October, excessive rains fall very 
often, whei^v the crossing of rivers is rendered much mere 
difiiodt^ and mquent inundations happen. Hence we may 
judge how greatfy, during all this season, the armies of Alex* 
ander must have sufiered, as they wene at that time in the 

Before I leave what xjelates in general tjo India, I shall say 
a few words conoeming elephants, with whidi that oountrr 
abounds more than any other: The elephant exceeds all 
terrestrial animals in size. Some are IS or 15 £eet big^- 
The female goes a whole year with her young. It 1J^'« 
sometimes to the age of 100 or 120 years ; nay much longer, 
if sofse andent writers may foe credited. Its nose, called its 
trunk, '^ proboscis," is long and hollow like a tergc trumpet, 
and serves the elephant instead of a hand»* which it moves 
with incredible agility and strength^ and thereby is o^ P'^"' 
gious service to it. The elephant,t notwiihstandihgitoP'^ 

• Maooi dats ekphaotit, quia propter magnitndtbem evef^*^"' 
ftcitet mditet habebam td pattum. Cic. de Kac. Deor. t \l o- i^J; 

f Elephmoto bdlDaram nalhi providcotier. At figttra |0» '•**^ 
Df Nai. D€Off. 1. 1 P. 97. 


digioos size, is so trac^kbte and ittdustrioys that one votidd 
be almost apt to conclude it were informed with something; 
like hnrnaa reason. It h soseeptiUe of affcctioa, fondness, 
and gratitude, so far as to piine away witlrsomyw wben it has* 
lost its master, and evetv sometimes to destroy ifsetf when it 
happens to have abused er mtirdered him intiie transport of 
its fuqr. There- is no kind of thing which it camnt lie tai^t* 
Arrian, whose authority is not to be questioned, rdates, that 
he had seen an elephant dance with two<y mbals fixed to tt» 
legs, which he struck one after the other in cadence with his 
trunk } and that the rest danced romd Imn, keeping time 
with a surprising exactness^ ^ / 

He describe rery particnlaHy the manner in w&ich they 
are taken. The Indians inclose a large !^t of ground, with 
a trench about 20 feet wide, and 15 feet high, to which there 
is access but iit one partf and this is a bridge, and is covered 
"with turf ; hi order that these aahfuals, who are very sub« 
tile, may not suspect what is intended. Of the earth that 
is dug out of the trench, a kind of wall is raised, on the other 
ftide of which a Ihtle kind of chamber is made, where people 
conceal themselves in order to watch these animals^ and its 
entrance is very small t In this incloaare two or three tame 
female elephants are set. The uistant the wiM dphants see 
or smd^ them, they run and whhi about so much^ that at 
last they enter the indosure, upon which the bridge is im-« 
mediately broke down, and the peopk upon the watch fly to 
the neighbouring villages for he^. After .tliey have been 
broke for a few days by hunger and tldrst, people enter the 
indosure ttpon tame elephants, and with theise ther attack 
them. As the wild ones are by tiiis time very much weak- 
ened, it is impossible for them to make a long resistance. 
After throwing them on the groond, men get upon their 
backs, having first made a deep wound roind their necks, 
about which they throw a rtipe,iB9 order to put (hem to great 
pain, hi case they attempt to stir. Being tamed in this man- 
ner, Uiey suffer themsdves to be led quietly to the house 
"With the rest, where they are fed with grass and green com^ 
suui tamed insensibly by blows and hanger, titt such thne as 
they obey rtadily their master's voke, and perfect^ under- 
stand his langujftge. 

Bvery one knows the use that was formerly made of these 
animals in battle ; however, they frequently made greater 
havoc in the army to which they belonged than in that of the. 
enemy. Their teeth, or rather tusks, famish vs with ivory, 
Bijt it is time^to return to Alexander, , 

M0. nttT«RT of ALE3(AKDEB. J^ook If. 

^ThbpiiiicftliAwiisentetcdlnata tf ^11 the petty kings 
of theie countries* came to meet him, and mnke their snb- 
misttoas.. They declared that he was the third acm of Ju- 
piter f who had arrived in ^eir country : Tti^t they had 
known Bac6hiu9 and Hercules no otherwise than by ^me ; 
but as lor Alexendery they had the happiness to see hina, and 
toei^kis pneaenoe. The king received thega ^with the 
utmost humanity^ commanding th^ra to accompany Jhim, and 
serve him as guides^ As no more of them came in to pay 
thdr homage^ he detached Hephaeslloii and Perdiccas witli 
part of his forces^ coounanding them to subdue aH who 
8]iould refuse to submit. But, finding he was obliged to cross 
several rivers, he caused boats to be built in such a form that 
they could lie taken to pieces, the several patls of them to 
be carried upon waggons, and aftei'wards p\& together agaio. 
Then, having commanded Cratems to foHow -him with his 
phafainx, he himsdf marched before,- with his cavalry and 
light-armed troops ; and, after a slight engagenient, be de^^ 
feated those who dared to make head against him, and pur- 
sued them to the next city, into which &e^ f)ed. Cratems 
being come up, the king, in order to terrify, on a sudde/r, 
those nations who had not yet felt Uie power of the Mace- 
donian arms, commanded his soldiers to bum down the fer^ 
tilications of ^at plac^ wiiich he besieged in a regular wa^^y 
and to put all the tahabftantsof it to Uie sword. But as he 
• was going I'ound the wahs ,on hovseback, he_ was wounded 
bv an «rvow. Notwithstanding this accident^^^he took the 
dty, after xi^hich he madedread^l havoc of all the soldiers 
and inhaUtants, and did not.sQ much as spare the booses. 

After subduing this nation, which was of great consequence 
he marched towards the dty of Nysa, and encamped pretty 
near its walls, behind a forest that hid it. In the mean tinie^ 
it grew so veryjotdd in the night, that they, had never yet 
felt so excessive a chill ; but^ very happily for them, a rem- 
edy was hear af hand. They felled a great number of trees, 
and lighted up several fires, which pi*ov«dn^ry comfortable 
to the whole army, llie besieged havm| a^mpted a sally 
with ill success, a faction arose in the city, son^e being of 
epinion that it would be best to snn^ender, whilst others were 

^Qtflnt. Gsrt* 1^ "viiirc p'-*'!!* Artisa. 1; iv, p, x $4—195, 1, v, 
p« t95»*<iai. Plut. is AhXk p, 697-699. Died. 1. svit. p. SS7'*S59» 
JuftiD. i, sit, c, 7. 8. 

f Qgiqttii Curtios ffip|>ofet that fieveral coootrics os the oth«r &<}< 
of the lodos, hoc adJMcn^.co that river, belooged tq lod^, sndisadc 
part of it. . 

^Could tkefe Onck u^xxm ««f gods he known to the Indisai I 

for hotdlrig out <he siege.' TMs eomin^ tothe kirig'ft.tjftrt 
he only blocked Qp the cHy, and did not do the mhabkants 
any funher injury ; tUl at laftt, tired out \»ith the length of 
the siegC) they isnvrehdered at discretion, and accoi'dingly 
vrere kindly treated by the oonqvernr. They declared tliut 
their city had been biDlt by Bacchus. The whole army, for 
six daya together, celebrated games, lind made rejc^cings on 
this mountain, in h^ixieiir of the god who was there wor« 

»He mai;ohed from thence to a cjotmtiy called Psdalo, 
which 1i^ been abafldoned by the ihhabitaMs, who had fled 
iov shelter to inacc^»ible mountains, As also to those of Acai 
dera, UiXo which he afterwards entered. This obliged him 
to change hie method of war, and to disperse his forces in 
difieveot places, by which means the enemy werfe all de. 
feated at once :'no resistance wfts made any where, and those 
^ho Were ao courageous us to wait the coming up of the Mar 
cedoulatis, 'were all cut to pieces. Ptolemy took several 
little oities the irtstam he sat down be^t^tlicm t Alexander 
carKed the large ones, knd, 'after uniting a)l his forces, 
passed the river f Chotfspes, and teft Cqsmis to besiege a 
rich aiid populous City, called Bazka by the inhabitants. 

He af^rwards marched to\yard8 Magosa, ^rhose kingsy 

called A%sacanus, was lately dead, and Gleophes, his mother^ 

ruled the province and city. , There werQ ^,00^ foot in it^ 

and both nature and art seemed to have united their endeiii* 

^ours in rai<dng its fbrt^cations ; f6t towards the east^ it is 

surroupded with a very rapid river, the banks of which are 

steep, and difficult of access ; and cm the we^t arye higli 

*^^g8y rocks, at the foot whfcreof are caves, which, thv<»igh 

length of time, had increased into a kind of abysse^i ^ 'an«l 

where these ifeD, a tr^ch o^an ast€nii^h% height itS «aisedl 

"with incredible labour. - -,..*.-.-..; 

Whilst Alexander wis geirtg roon* the^il^ >fo. vtew iti 

tortificatioiis, he was shot by an arrOwin the'calf of hfs leg j 

i>ut he only pulled ont the weapon ;'and, without sofnuch as 

hlnding up the wound, mounted his horse, and* continued te 

view the outward ibrtificatione of the city. Bot as lie rode 

vith his legs downward, and the congealing of the bioad p*ft 

lum to great pain, it is related diitt he cried, |"evety one 

•• swears that I am the son of Jupiter, but my wcwnd tnatees 

*' me sensible that I am a rtian.*i^ However^hie didtiot Ic^ve 

•A*M. 3677. Afrt. J. C. 347. It " t 

t This !■ not the Choiifpes which runs hy Sttfk. * 

^Oaittci jaraoc me Jovii cife filitttH) fed vUUme hoc bemhiWKft 

**>e€hsisi, . fieocc«£pift|iii« - '' 

too HISTOfty Of AI.S3CAKX>£t. ^QOk Xt 

the place till he had seea every thmg, and pvetk all the ne« 
cesBwy orders. Some of the soldiers, therefore^ deoMlished 
Buch hooaes as stood without the city, and wHh the rubbish 
of tiiem they filled up the gulfs above mentioaed^ Others 
threv great trunks of trees and huge stones iiito them ; and 
all laboured with so much vigour, that in nine days the works 
were completed^ and the towers were raised upon them. 

Th« kii^y without waiting till his wound was healed, vis- 
ited the works, and after applauding the soldiers for their 
great dbpatch, he caused the eogiaes to be brought fervard, 
wheaoe a great number of darts were discharged against 
those who defiended the walls. But that which most terri' 
fied the barbarkms, was those towers of a vast height, which 
seemed to them to move ci themselves* This made thein 
imagine that they were made to advance by the tfods ; and 
that these battcriag«ran^ which beat down warn, and the 
javelins throwa by engines, the like of which they had never 
seen, could aol be the effect of human strength ; so that, 
persiuided that it would be impossible for them to defend 
the city, th^ withdrew into the citadel ; but not finding 
themselves more seo^re there, th^ seat ambassadors ta 
propose a surrender. Tiie queen afterwards eanie and met 
Alexander, attended by a great number of ladies, who aH 
bftNight him wine in cups, by way of sacrifice. The king 

ave her a very graoooa fcceptiooi and restored her to her 

from heace Potyspeftlion was sent with ati annvtobe^ 
eiegei^ciityel(>ra,iiHiiGh hesoontook. Most of its w 
habitaiMto had wttMrawn to the rock called .^(ornos. Tber« 
^'Was a IraditiOB, diat Haivales havbg (lesieged this rock, an 
•arlhqoafccr had lovoedhiift to ^t the siege. Tbereare 
. Jaol oa thia rock, a* eii many otlienh gentle dedtvitics ^ea^ 
access ; but it rbes like a bank ; and bemg very wide at 
bottom, smreaamow att4he vay lathe top<, ivtick ternu- 
aates in a point. The river ladits, whose source ^ Bot lar 
Irom this place, ilows at the bottom, it» sides beieg {)erpen' 
dicular aad high ; and on the other side were vast ^^^"^ 
which it was necessaiy to fill up belore the voek could De 
taken. Very hap|»fy for the Macedonians, they irere near 
a forest. T* the king i»d cut down, commanding his sol- 
diers to carry off aothmg bat the trunks, «hc branches « 
which were kipped, m order that they miglit be carnea 
with less difficulty ; aad he him"Self threw the first trunk inw 
the morass. The army seeing this, shouted for py, »» 
every soldier labouring with uicredible dil^cnoe, ^?f •f^ 
#aaMshcKi in sevea days ; immediatelv after ^^ich^ 
attock began. The i^cers were of opinko that tf w»»* 


not be proper for Ae ltin|; to expose himself on this occa* 
sion, the clanger being evidently too p-cat. However, the 
jtrumpet had no soo^r sounded, but thys prmce, who was not 
master of his courage, commanded his gpards to follow, himr 
self first climbing the rock. At this sight it appeared no ' 
longer inaccessible, and every one flew after him. Never 
were soldiers exposed to greater danger ; but they were all 
resolved to conquer or die. Several fell from the rock into 
the river, whose whirlpools 3>yaUow^d thfm pp. The bar; 
barians rolled ^reat stones cm the foren>ost, who being scarce 
able to keep upon their feet (the rock was so slippery), feh 
.down the precipices, and were dashed to pieces. !No sight 
could possibly be more dismal than this ; the king, greatly 
afflicted at the loss of so many brave soldiers, caused a re* 
treat to be sounded. Nevertheless, though he had lost all 
hopes of taking the place, and was determined to raise the 
^'^ege, he acted as izhe intended to continue it, and accord- 
ingly gave orders for bringing forward the towers and oth. 
er engines. The besieged, by way of insult, made great rc» 
lolcings ; and continued their f|Bsti.vity for two days and two 
nights, making the rock, and the whole neighbourhood, echo 
with the sound of tl^eir dri^n^s a^d /cymbals^ But ^e third 
^ightthey were pot heard; and the Macedonians were sur?- 
prised to sc;e .eveW part of the rock illuminated with torches. 
The king yrsis info;rmed, that the Indians had lighted tfaen^ 
to assist their flight, and to {g3iid<e tliem the more easily in 
those precipices, during the obscurity of the night, Imme? 
.diately the whole army, by Alexander's order, shoutied aloud, 
which terrified th^ fugitives so mi|ch, that several of them, 
fencying they saw the en^my, flung themselves from the top 
of the rock, and perished miserably. ^JThe king having so 
^apnily and \inexpectedly possessed himself of the rock. In 
an almost nxiraculovs naanper, thanked the gods^ au4 ofiered 
sacrifices in their honour. 

From hence he marched and took Ecbolimus ; and aftpr 
16 days march arrived Qt the river Indus, where hje found 
that Hephacstion had got all things ready for his passage?, 
pursuant to the orders pven him. The kbg of the countTPyr, 
called Omphis, whose father died some time before, had sent 
to Alexander, to know whether he would give him leave to 
"wear the crown. Notwithstanding the Macedonian told him 
^e might, he nevertheieas delayed putting It on till his ar^ 
rival. He ^en wept to meet him, with his whole army ; 
and when Aicxaijdcr was advanced pretty near, he pushed 
forward his Hotse, came up singly to mm, suid the king did 
^^e same. Tl\e Indian tpen told him by an interpreter, 
^ that he was come to taeet faim at the head of hts army, in 

^$^ ,|USTOST -€F ALE^AVO^R. Bmk 17. 

** order to delWer up all his forces into luUiands. Tbat k 
*' surrendered his person and his kingdom to a monarch, 
*< who, he was sensible, fought only with the view ofacquir- 
" ing ^lory, and dreaded nothing so nauch as treacheiT." 
The king, greatly satisfied with the frankness cl the barba- 
riany gave him his hand, and restored him his kingdom. He 
then made Alexander a preset of 5^ elephants, and a great 
number of other animals of a prodigious size. Alexander 
asking him which wei'^ most necessary to him, husbandmen 
or soMiers ? he replied, that as he was at war with two 
kings, the latter were of the gi^eatest service to him. These 
two monarchs were Abisares and Porus, the latter of vhom 
was most powerful, and the dominions of both were situated 
on the other side of the Hydaspes, Omphis assumed the 
diadem, and took the name of Taxilus, by which the kings 
of Uiat countiy were called. He made magnificent presents 
to Alexander, who did not suffer hlmfcejf to be exceeded In 

. The ne;it day^ ambassador^ from Al^ares w^tingtiixm 
the king, surrendered up to him, piirsuant to the power given 
them, all the dominions of their sovereign ; and after each 
party had promised fidelity on both sides, they returned back. 

. Alexander expectiiig that Porus, astonibhed with the re- 
port of his gloi-y, would not fail to submit to him, sentames* 
sage to that pnnce, as if he had been his vassal, requuing 
him to pay tribute, and meet him upon the frontiers of his 
dominions, Porus answered with great coldness, that he 
would do so, but that it should be sword in hanU. At the 
same time a reinforcement of 30 elephants, which were or 
great service, were sent to Alexander. He gave the super- 
intendance of all his elephai\ts to Taxilas* and advanced as 
far as the borders of tlie Hydaspes. Poi-us was encaropeQ 
on tlie other side, in order to disfiute the passage with hiro ; 
and had posted At the head of his. army 85 ^elephante ot a 
prodigious.size^ and behind thera 300 chariots, guarded o) 
S0,000foo^; not having, At most, above roOO horse. in» 
prince was mounted on an eleph i^ : of a much J^'^^^'/l 
than any of the rest, and he himself exceeded the usual sta- 
ture of men i so that clothed in his armour, glittering vi 
gold and silver, he appeared at the same time ^^^J^^^^^/^ 
majestic. The gieatness of his courage equalled that oi 
stature I and he was as wise and prutoit as it was possi 
for the monarch of ao barbarous a people to be. . 

The Macedonians cireaded not only the enemy, but i ^ 
river they were ohljp;ed to pass. It was four furlongs w ^^ 
(about 400 fatlioms), and so deep in every pai't, tfia 
looked like a sea, and w-as no where fordable. Ii was vas j 

$c€t. MFi^ itUTiXT or ALtXAKZm. tM 

tmiietitoas, notwiaistanding its fpreat breadth,- for it rolled- 
with as muoh yio^ence as^it it haU been confined to a 
cUaonel ; racL Its raging foaming wnves^ which broke in murt^. 
places, clisco¥ered that it was fuU ef stomea an4 rocks. Hew- 
«vec5 aoy%ingf '^.a^ so dreadful as the i^ppear^oce of the ^ore^ 
y\^k was qHit|» co^'ered with men, li»ws, a»d elephant^ 
Those hideous animals stood like so many towers, aiid thq 
Iii4i?ii& exati^erated thorn) in order ^hat the horrid cry they 
made inight fill the enemy with the greatest terror. How* 
ever, this could not intimidate an army of men, whose con* 
Td^t. v^ .a proof against aJl attacks, and wlio werQ unimated 
by au Hninterrupted series of pros|>erities ; but then Jhey did 
not think it woiild be possible for thera, as their barks we}*e 
so cra»y» to surmovut the rapidity of Uie stream) or l^tnd 
wiilijiafety, . 

- This riv9r was full of little island^) to whieh tlie Indiana 
5ind Macedoiuains us<jd t» swim, with their SLyny& over thpir 
heads ; and slight skirraishes "were every day fought in the 
sight cjf.the two kings, who were well phrased ^o make thx>se 
smaU excuraions of their respective ibrce8> and to form a 
judgment from such skirmislies, of the success 6f ^ general 
bjittle. There were two young officers in Alexander's army* 
£gesimachus and Nicanor, men of e(jua1 intrepidity^ and 
who, Slaving been. ever successful, despised dangers wevtry 
kind. They took with them the bravest youths in Uie whol« 
army-: and, "with no other weapons than their jai^etin.s^ sWam 
to an island in which several of the enemy were landed 9 
where^ with scarce any otlier assistance but their inti*epidi- 
ty, tliey made a gr^t slaughter. After this bold stroke, they' 
might have retired with gloiy, were it possible for.rashness^ 
'When successful to beep witliin bounds. But asthey waited 
with G&ntempt and insulting air, for those who caai^ to suc- 
cour their compauioas, they were surrounded by. a band ^i 
soldiers who swam unpercoived to- the island, aiwi over-f 
whelmed with the darts wliich were shot ifrora far* Thoae; 
who. endeavoured to save themselves by SAviuiraingy Wf^re 
either carried away by the waves, or s-walloN^d up by th& 
wliirlpools. The courage of Porusj wh© saw all this froia 
the shore, was surprisingly increased by this success. . . 

Alexander was in great perplexity ; and -findiiig he could; 
aot pasa the Hydaspes t^- fonce of armst Ivctiiereforej resolv-^ 
<^d to have recout«e to artifice. Accordin^yiic cause4iii& 
cavalry to attempt several times to pass it nl the nighty an^ 
to shout as if thev really intended to foiu;l the rivev^ all things 
^?*"6 prqiared for tliat p^ii-ppso. Immediately Porus .Iuh* 
^^€cl tlutlier with his ekpUaats, but Alfixandercontiaued-in 
battle-array on. thst baak^ Xhk strata|^m haA'ii)^ U;^a*aU 

tfcm]ited senraS 6ines, and Ponnfifi^i^ the vpfiotefantmcre 
iioiae nod empty roenaceSy be took no lanlM:r notice of these 
jftottons, and only tent socmtt «o every patt of tb» shore. 
Atexamder, being nwr qo kmeer apprehensive of having tbe 
wMe army of the enemy fall upon hiiki, in nis atierop^S 
l» cran tbe rlTtria tbe nisbt, began to resolve aericuayte 
(ass it. 

There was In tMa river, at a eonaderalile dbtaace from 
Alexander's camp, an upland of a greater extent thaa any of 
the rest. Tliia being covered wi^ trees, was xttyvifcfptf 
fer him tu cover and conceal bis desugn, and therefore he 
«esolved to attempt the passage that way. Howerer, rae 
better to coucea! tbe knowledge of it from the enemy, and 
deceive them on this occasioay he left Cratems bi his camp 
with a great part of the army, with orders to make a great 
aoi8e,at a Certafai time which should be appcAnted^ in order 
to alarm the Indians, and make them bdieve that he was 
preparing to cm* tbe river ; bat Ihat he should not attempt 
tliis till such tine as Poms should have rtised bb caisp,aBa 
marched away his elephants, dthcr to withdraw or advance 
towards those Macedanians who ^ould attempt the passage. 
Between tlic camp and the island he had posted Mcleager 
and Gorgias with the foreign horse and foot, with ordersfor 
them tr> pass over \fi bo^es ^e instant they should see am 
mgaged iu battk. 

After giving these orders, he took the resH of his anny» «» 

wen cavalry as infantry ; and, wheeling off from the shoKj 

in order to avoid being perceived, he advanced in the nign' 

time towards the island into which he was readvcd to p» 

and tbe better to decseive tlie enemy, Alexander caused w» 

tent to be pitched in tbe camp where he had left CratcrtB, 

which was opposite to that of Porus. Jlis Kfctguard* we^ 

4rarwn np round in all the pomp and splendour >*»»^"J^ 

the m^esly of a great king Is us^fdly surrtJUnded- s»^ 

tmsed a royal robe to be put epop Attains, who wm oi » 

same age with himself, and so mnch resembled ^^f^^^' 

hoih in statMre and featuresi e^>ecially at so S^riTZ.. 

tance at tbe breadth of the river, that the enemy w»J^X 
i»3se Alexander Wmtelf was en tbe bank, and was attemp^ 

ingthe Tiassage in Uial place. He however was ^^r^^ 
g9t to the isibxA shove mcntioiied ; and Mwn«i»***^? .iT the 
5pon it from boats, with the rest of Ws troi^ "^Ji^fo- 
efiemv was employed in ofpposing Craterus. But now ^^ 
^ous storm arose, which eeemed as if it would rctare ^^ 
etcctttion 6f his prefect, yet proved of advantage to k,^ 
so'lbrturiate wai this pHnce,aiat obstacles changed ^^^. 
^rani^^ aii4 succours in his favtwr : the storm tta« s«ct 


cd bf a vevy violent shower, with ioipetaoiis winds, fiasbcs 
^lightning, and thunder, insomuch that there was tio hearing 
or seeing an)r thing. Any man but Alexander would have 
abandoned his design ; but he, on the contrary, was ahimat- 
ed by danger, not to mention that the noiaei the coafusioD,' 
and the daricness assisted his passage. He thereupon made 
the signal for the embarkation of bis troops, afid went off 
himself in the first boat* It is reported, that it was on this 
occasion he cried out, « O Atbeniaiis, ewild you think I would 
" expose myself to siich dangers to merit your applause !*•* 
And, indeed^ nothin|^ could contribute more to eternize his 
name, than the havmg his aetions recorded by such great 
hx9toriana «t Thucydidcs and Xenophon* ; and lo anxiousi 
was he aboot the character which would be given him after 
his dcttthf that lie wished it were possible for him to return 
again into ttke wisfld only so long as was necessary to knoar 
what kind of in^ression the perusal of his history made 
on die minds of men/ 

Scarce aoy person apj^ted Ui (fppds€ tfieir descent, be« 
cause PofOS iras Wimll^ taken tip with Craterus, and im- 
agined he had nothing to do but to oppose his passage. 
Immediately thifr general^ pnrsoavt te bis orders, made a 
prodipious clamoor, and seemed to attempt the passage of 
the nver. Upon tiiis all the boat^ came to shore, one ex- 
cepted, ifhieh the waves das'hed to pieces against a rock. 
The ntoraent Alesomder was landed, be drew up in order 
of hatHe hi» little army, consisting <€ 6600 loot and 5000 
^ne. H^ himself lieaded the latter ; and having torn-' 
nianded the fost to make all imaginable dis^oh after him, 
^e msiwked before. It was his fipnn opknon, that in care 
^e tnttms sbeoid appose hhn with their whole ibrce, h'n* 
^vafary wottkl g^ him infinite advantage over them ; and 
)bal, he thSi as )t woidd, he might easily continue iight- 
^S tin his foet rimold come up ; or, that in case the en-* 
^nfy ahrrmed at the news or his passhig, sliould fly, it 
VQwdrUten be in his power 16 parsfe, and make a gresir 
>iaii|jaer of tiiess. 

^Orasyupon hesYing tfaatAkxasder had {Kissed theriv- 
^rvlad sent agalost him a detaohment, camsnanden by one 
sf his seits^ ot 2000 horse, aad 190 ohsriiots. Alexander 
un^giaed ^fcra at irst to be the enemy's vaa-guard, an<^ 
f^ ^e vtfiole army iras behind them; bv^beingiafSnrnn* 
^ that it was a detachment, he sharged tbem wkh such 
^>gt»r^ eist Poms' son was killed i^oa the spot, iftidi 409 
haraes,. and aU the chariots were t^ooo. Each of fbese 


rtiiridtt cah4ed six incn ; two ircre arm^wMibuclden, 
two bowmen sat one ou each side, and two guickd the 
chuHoty' who- nevcrAdess always fought wTiea the battte 
grew warm, havin]^ a gteat number H darts, whidi tbey 
discharged at the enemy. Sut aU these did liti^ execu- 
tion that day^ because tite rain, which fell in gre&t abun- 
dance, had moistened the earth to such a degree, that the 
horsea could toarce stand upch their logs ; a^id tiie char- 
iots bdog very heavy, most of them sonk very deep into 
the mud. * . « 

Porus, upon recdviag advice of the death of his son, tfa6 
defeat of the detachment, and of Atexaader's approuh, 
was in doubt whether it would be proper for Mm to cqp* 
ttntie in his post, becausa Crfttenis^ with tSie. rest «f the 
Macedonian army^uade a Mnt ai if they fhterfd^topasi 
Ike river. However, he at hfst reaohrert to g(i:aad meet 
Alexander, whom he justly supposed to bcattneheadof 
the choicest troops of his army. Accordingly; leaving on- 
ly a fiew elephafits in his-tftaip, to amoee thoK wbowere 
po&fted on the opposhie shore, he set oUt with ^tfiOOiootf 
4000 horse» SOOO chariots, and SOO elephants. Beiaefcone 
hito a .firm sandy soil, in which his horses and mrvti 
might wheel about with ease, he drew up his aranriBbst* 
tle*array, with an intent to wait tim coming up of tiie en« 
emy. He posted In front and on the ^rat Ime^aH the el" 
ephants, at 14K> feel distance one fnmi the othcrfinonier 
that they might serve as a bahrarkto his^fiiot^.Who.were 
behind: K was his opbiovthalt' the enemy^^arlSry would 
not dare to engagts in ^lese intervals^ became af 'the ^^ 
those horses would have of the elephaiits ^ ahd mach k» 
the infantry, when (hey Aonld see that ti the enemy fxst'* 
ed behind the elephants, and in danger of being trod to 
pieces by those animals. He^had posted some of his foot 
on the same line with the elefrftanta, m- order to ^^f^ 
tiieir ri^t and left ; and thn infantry 'was dsmsred^y *^ 
winw of Iwrse, bel^re wiadi th» charibtr^wato-ptetM,— 
Such was the order and disposition *of Rinii' Wiay;i v 

AlciCftnder beihg^'certe in iight of the mtmfyffskxd *e 
Qoming up of his foot^^wfaich niarcted wiib-1J»Jutm6st^n- 
igence, and arrived a little after; and In oaJerthstther 
might have time to ta^ breath,' and not beJetf/M *^^ 
were very mudi fattgueri; agaiiist the cnem}^,.1ie'<ia«'** 
his horse to mabe a^^gteat tnany evolutions, in jprtter.^ 
gam time. But-now nwcary thing heingneady, aad the m- 
isntrfy harmg suflicicatty recovered ihenr vi^iw* Alexan- 
der gave the signal of battle. He did not think proper to 
begin by attaciui>g^ t|e r<au^myV<mab ilaW^; ^hci-e tliew- 

hatry and cleplimrtB wow pottod^&r tlie.very reascD that 
}'(»iis ^w tlwm up in that manner : but hk cavalry be- 
ing strongor^ hq drew oat the greatest part of theoi } and 
marching a^inst the left wiagy tent Coenu:- with bis own 
regiment oThprsey and that oTPraetriusyto charge them 
at the aancue time ; prd^ng.him to attack the cavalry on 
the left, behind* during which, he himselt* would char're 
them both in front and flank. Seleucus, Antigonus, and 
Tauron^ who comms^ed the foot, were ordered not uv 
s^ir from tlieir posts till Alexander's cavalry had put that 
of the ^nemy, as ^eU as. their foot, into disorder. 

Being come within arrow-sliot, he deUched 1000 bow- 
men on horseback, with orders for then to make their dis-- 
charge on tlie horse of Porus' left wing, in order to throw 
it into disorder, whilst he himself should charge this body- 
in fiank, before it had time to rally. The Indians having 
jomed again tbeir squadrons, and drawn them Into a narrow- 
er compass, adyanced against Alexander. , At that instant 
Ccenus charged Miem in the rear, according to the orders 
given him, aosomuch that th« Indians were obliged to &cfc 
about oi% aU sides U> defend themselves from the lOOO bow- 
nveixy and agn>h)st Alexander and C«nu». Alexander, to 
make the best advantage of the cou&^ion into which thin 
sudden attack had thrown them, charged with great vig- 
our those that made head against him, who being no lo^ 
ger able .to stand so violent an attack, were soon broke, 
and retired behind the elephants, as to an iropregnabk: 
rampart. The leaders oflhe elephants made them acV- 
Vance against the encmy^s horse ; but that very instant the 
Macedonian phalanx, moving on a sudden, surrounded 
those animals, and charged with their pikes the elephants 
themselves and their leaders. This battle was very dif- 
ferent from all those which Alexander had hitherto fought-; 
for the elephants rushing upon the ttattalicns, broke, with 
inexpressible furv, the thickest of them ; wlien the Indian 
horse, seeing the Macedonian foot stof^ed by the elephants^ 
^turned to the charge : however, that of Alexander bo- 
in? stronger, and having greater experience in war, broke 
this body a second time, and obliged it to i^ure towards 
the elepliants ; upon which the Macedonian horse, beinp; 
^I united in one body, spread terror and confu5UMi wherev- 
er thej' attacked. The e]q>hants being aU covered with 
wounds, and the greatest part ha«*ing lost their leaders, 
^Hey did not observe tlieir usual order ; but, distracted as 
^t were with pain, no longer distinguished friends from iofss. 
but running about from place to place, they overthrew ey- 
<vy thing that come in their way. The Macedonians, who 


258 msTonifor At«itAie»«K. J&ook 2K 

bad pwTpowly 1^ ft grctter kitenrat bet! < ye e ii tbiifr' battal- 
ions, cither ma<K way for the^, wherevtir'they citne fo^ 
ward, or charged with darts those that fett And tfcJfc tttimtlt 
obliged to retire. Alex«hdcr, after having stirroiihded the 
enemy with his horse, made a mgtial to his foot W iharchup 
with all imaginable speed, fn order to make a last effort, 
aad to fall upon them with his whole force % all which thev 
execoted very succcssfirfly. IntWsThamier the gitatestpart 
of the Indian cavalry were cut to piecict ; knd a body of their 
fbot, which sustained noless loss, seeing themselves charged 
on aU sides, at last iled« Craterus, Vho fastd continued in th6 
camp with the rest of his anny, sedng Alexander engaged 
with Ponis, crossed the river, aiid chargftrg the routed sol- 
diers with his troops, who were cod and vigoroos, by that 
means killed as many enemies in the retreat as had Men 
in the battle. 

The Indians lest on this occasion 30i,O00 foot, and 3000 
horse, not to mention the- chariots which were all brofce to 
pieces, and the elephants that were either killed or taker. 
Porus' two sons fell in tHs battle,- with Spitacus, govcrti6t w 
the province ; all the colonels of horse and foot, aad those 
who guided the elephants and charldts.* As for Alexaiiiler, 
he lost btrt 80 of the €000 soldiers who- were at the first 
charge, 10 bowmen of the horse, 20 of his horfeegoai^ and 
200 common soldiers. 

Poms, after having performed all' the duty bbth of a sol- 
dier and a general in the battle, and fought with incredible 
travery, seeing all his horse defeated, and the greatest part 
*f his foot, did not behave hke the great Danus, who, on a 
like disaster, was the first that fied J on the contrary, ne 
continued in the field as long as one battalion or sqitadj-on 
stood their ground ; but at last, having recdyed a wound m 
the shoulder, he retired upon his elephant, and was easily 
distinguished from the rest, by the gi-eatness of his stature, 
and his unparalleled bravely. Alexander, finding who ne 
was by those glorious marks, and being desirous of saving 
this king, sent Taxilus after him, because he was of the same 
'nation. The latter advancing as near tta him as he irngnw 
witlwut running any danger of being wounded, called out to 
him to stop; in order to hear the message he had brpogw 
him from Alexander. Poms turning back, and seeingrt \ns 
Taxilus, his old enemy, *« how »/' says he, «is it net T^xjws 
« that calls, (hat traitor to hiis country and kingdorti ? Am- 
mediately after which, he would have transfixed hJfli ^^^^ 
his dart, had he not instantly retired. ISfotwifhstanding tms, 
-Alexander was still desirous to save so brave a P""9?lJJl 
-thereupon di^atdiedotlier officers, amongwhom was Mert^; 

p%t' ter^ to ^«& Qpbtl ft tdifffHeft)!^^ iltoBCilhffir Won^ ^ 
liim. 'Afcei* ftiuc^ intreftty,PoirQs Gc^UMWr'anilaccoi'dinff- 
\f set forwards; Al^ander, whoK^ been t6kl «f iiisconi* 
ing, ftdvsmced ibr^^Wls kt ordtf t« ree^v&him with avme 
of hift ti*aih. Betng'come pretty ilfeaf , Atojt«nd«V topped, 
purposely- to take a view of his'statufe tit^d neble mein, h^ 
bein^ about five cubits irt height * PoinM di4 not Mem de« 
jected at hisr mi^forttifte) but coiiie up wHh a resolute couff- 
tenane^y'Hke a- vnthntlf Wanioi^, whose Cdurnge ki defending 
his doTiiitnons otight ^ acquit^ hita the esteem of Ibe brave 
prihqe Who had taken htm ^isoiiief . Alexaft^r spoke ftrst, 
and Wi^'^an august and gtacibus ^ir, asked him how he de- 
sired t6 be treated ? ** Like a king,*^ ]*eplied Porua. « But/* 
coDtlnued Alexander, " do you ask nothing hiore f* « Ko/' 
replied Poru^ ; *« all things are incKided in that sh)^ word/' 
Alekaiidcfr, ^tl-nck With this greatness of sdul^ the magnianiiil- 
ity of -which acetned heightened by distress, did not only re- 
store him his kingdom, but annexed othe¥ prc>vinceft to it, 
and treated him with theMghest testimonies of honour, es- 
teem, and friendship, jPorus was faithful to him till his 
death. It is hard to say wliether Uie victor or the vanquish- 

edrbMt deaepvfd praise on ihis occasion* 

Alexander, built a city on the spot where ^e battle, had 
been fought, and another in that place where he had cross* 
ed the river. He called the one l^icgta from his Vietpry, and 
the other Bucephalon, in honour of his horse who died there, 
hot of his wounds, but ot old age. After having paid the , 
U*t dutieai to such Of his soldiers as had lost theif live* in bat- 
^e, he soIemnlie<) games, andbflferedup safei^ificeurfdianfa, 
iii the place wheffe he hdd passed the Hydas-peis; 

This prince did not knoW to whom he Was indebted for 

h\s victories. We are astonished at the rapidity df Alexan- 

der's conquests ; the ease with which he surmounts t^e 

greater obstacles, and forces almost impregnable cities ; the 

uninterrtipted and unheard of felicity that extticates hfm 

out of those dangers into ^hich his rashness plunges him, 

and hi which Qne would haye concluded he must a hundred 

times haiN: perished. But to unravel these mysterious kirijla 

of events, several Cf'which are repugnant to the usual course 

of things, we must go back to a superior cause, Unknown to 

the profine hiiitorians and. to Alexander hhnself. This nfo- 

March was, like Cynis, .thie minister and instrument of the 

sovereign Disposer of empires, who raises arid destroys thVm 

*t pleasure. He had r^eeived thi same order* to ovcrfltiriw 

^SHenf^taailibifc' ' f'*^ 

1M0 HISTMir 99 AMatAMPVlw^ B^pk XT, 

nu^^BtJofkm Th(B »»« pover cos^BKted t^ir cnter- 
priaM* MMmd tbm «£ tmcccttf pratcMd and ppeierred 
tiiem liram all dMMr% tiH tbey IriadMuxuted tlieir oomjms- 
eion aodCQOipltM tli^ minktry^ Wje loajr 9ffijf to Alex- 
ander the words wkich Ood ^ake to Cfns in kaiah,* 
•^ Cyiiuh wlMiie mUt hand I have hddaiiy to auiidae aatioDs 
^ bdoK hkn ; ahd I will cause the^knoa of k»igs to epenbe- 
*< lore hhn the two4eaved«atea^ and the ntca shall not be 

•<«shiiti I will 0D before tbet, aad mahc uie orookad paths 
^^Btiaight; 1 will break in pieces tha^^;^tea of brasi,ao(i cot 
•< Ml sunder the bars of ir^n* AodI wall giVe Qiee treasures 
^ of darkDCsa* and hidden treasures of secret places.*— I gird- 
led thee, though thou hskstno^koown nte." Tbishthetrae 
and on!/ cause of the incredible success with which thiscoo' 
queror was attended, of his unparalleled braveiy^ the t^fkc- 

.taon his soldiers had for him, the foreknowledge oCh^i felici- 
tj^ and h» assurance ef success, which astonished jMs vmH 
intrepid ( 

., SfeCTION XVI.. 
AttxAvvta AbTAWCKJ f ir^T^ t}rntA«-w|{t^ f $ tJTfostn 


Alxx AMMiut after this faiftoois rlcCorf over ?ora5» ad" 
vanced into India, where he subdued a |;r€at manjr natioBs 
and cities. He kxAed upon himself as a conqueror by pnn 
lesuon as Weft as by his digi^tf , and engaged ereiy day » 
new exfkitM with se much afdour and tivacity that he 
seemed to £uiC7 hhnself mrested With a pefscmal commis' 
sion, and tikat there was af^ immediate cbligatioD upoa bim 
to storm all cities, to lay waste all pf^tjuoes, to extirpste 
aU nations, which should refiise fdsj^e ; and (bathe sbootd 
have considered himsetf as guilty or a cHme, had he fbrbore 
visitlnj; every comer of the earth, and carrying terror snd 
desolaUon wherever he went. He passed the Acesines, and 
afterwards the Hydraotes, two consideraMe rivers. Adjtce 
waf then brought hhn, that a great number of firee h»diaD» 
had made a confederacy to defemt their fiberties ; aad amoig 
the rest, the Catheans, who were the most valiant aod roost 
tkilliil of those nations m the art el war ; and that they were 
ciicam|>ed near a strong ci^ called SangaXa. Aiexaoderset 
nut a^Must these Indians, defeated them in a pitched hsttT^^f 
took the city, and razed it tpfte very fbimdations. 

Kliir*^«>-i* ti^.^M» Ant.J.C,3»6. qCmJ/a'^'' 

^Oaedtfi^'as 1^ ihishHIdiftgritt dieieiH^tf liitfAnny^vdAc 

uy, were convcnnriQg tngethcf, aithey wenfe vaUJn^ in i 
soeadow. The Instatit ibjby |>eTC8iv«d hhn, tiR|r ^ stamps 
ed against the gromid with th^ir iset * Aleataaief ^ sarprised 
at tlus e3CttaGrdinar|r |;eBtQrey deinaadedfthe (tause.of it. * 
The^r an sw et ed y p<iuitiiig to ttie {jvouad uriih their fingerB» 
**> that vo .man' possessed any more of ^at ^mtii^^stit he 
*^ could ttgfCfy : that the 9ofy dMerenoe hetvreeii himWiolhp- 
' ' ^V mhh, was^ <hat he was more restlen and'ambHiotis than 
^^ they,'a«Hl t^rei^ran all teds and lands^^merelgr to hafm oth^ 
<< em aM hxiaaeff : and yet^^-he woald die at last, and pnHh 
" -^98 t\o igteater part ttf the earUi iSian was necessary ibr 
.'^ hia sfttennent.^ '" The -khi^ wu not displdssed with tbia 
■answier : *biitr he waahattiued jdn by tiife torrent of gtory^ And 
his aotiabfr were thie 'very veverse d what he bppioved. . . 

TtesB hiraadbHttn^ S2qrs;/^ia3^alfe in grctt 'ithetfttidn.m 
their apuntry . They do not pay anytrtbutfe Aothe prhicet 
iini aaStot fakn with their -txtosel^ and p^risrtn tihe^swiie «#• * 
^oear^a^ther-ma^ doito the kh%s 6f ^Petsia. They assitt ait 
the^ffablicalicruioes V find if aperSon desirea>tfrdM;fiAeein 
private, oise: of thesi^ must he present, c^rwiie theJadiate 
are persdaddfl they ^^^ voddd': not Ife $^vii09hhs to tht ffgp^M. 
They stpply^themsthseaparticiflarly to consuitini^ibe stars*^; 
none bist^sems^ffOi^etend to divioatiort ; and thejr forel^i 
^hkAiy;,. the^ dMaga of iM^ther and of M? Mttonfr: 'if ^a 
Inafchman'basiGll^d tkiftfce ita his ptedtetiid^n|i^telaailtil9ed 
•iar :«nner. '.• - -. ..-^ •^■;-.;,j'n •?/":;:" 

^ 5FheirsMtknfnlts, tftedrdtAg th Sfif«)»o^ ave hoil-' vtrf dtt^^ 
feTedt.^oai %tnte <tf tise Qireehff> ^f^hefr b^tU^tf^Uiat tl^ 
world^had a bl^ihtabg^i that H ^m eM^ that'tti*&Aa is^ 
aad:ftr\r tkat it'waa oreated hy t^odj Wh(*phflftSw hVetitand ? 
Ma^U itiath his'tnaitfBtirrr «nd that NvtMr is t)iit'prfflcinfe'^'> 
«tt.tlui^ rWMt reeard to the ftnmdlrtalk^ef tliesmd$«A&.' 
lliM ^u&hnteMt ?rf tie r^khed in IrtiU they ftUow^ ffii)&* ' 
trinfeioi Phutb; riftlisrftiisrinc it» hkfi "^ phBodoplkerf wH6 
•^oihHIaJbnajaiMohidrto'elqDmt' drMarihs'^4«sR>Mn'* 
MBwqpta; •:;../ -r't' ".' -:. • ♦ r ': . - 'i: '^ • ''^':-^:* 
'JBeYtnd asnohgA«fm»yalwayanMD«diWhenttetIieO«sefcs • 
4P»e t^ient the nanse ol "gymno^bphisfta. Maa^ intirediblB 
particulars are related, concerning the austerity' of their . 
•ihtes, aniitthav'pradieiany phtlence. - TThch- <«iy imciit^nd 
'^Itek is TWJts and water. As they wdmh ttie mttwiwphyclw- 
*^Hnd heHeva'that tlhewdh of mehtntisinigrstte into thdse 

• Affian. 1. Til. p. 47 >» *77- ^ »<i.*5frWditVf». ^44: Btnh C ff. 
p. 715— 7I7, Plutio Ales. p. 70X. ' ''fl^CiSirf. C'^:t J/' » 

oCbeatti, Ifaef abitafe from the 4lesh of aJiimalt. It is 
thoi^llial PytfMgoru barrowed this doctnne from the 
bractaenB« Thcjr ccodnnie whok day* standing with their 
ftoes towards ti»e son, and that n the scasofi when this 
planet darts ks rays with the greatest vkience. Persoaded 
that it is beneath the d^^tir of a man to wait calmly lor 
de«dw when be finds hiinelt expressed by s^ or aackncss, 
they hdid it glorhnn to p tc vcnt their last hoirr, and fanrn 
tlieinselTes ali?c i and indeed they pay nohonoars to those 
who diemerdyofoidiM; and iirmgme they woidd pfflnte 
^leir fanend pile, and the fire that is to bam tfieni toashes 
flhoold tfaqr go into itotherwae than fidl of life and Tigoitr. 
cither hrachmans, more jodidoos and humane tlian the for* 
merr live in cities, and anociate with their own speties ; 
and sofiir from co nridtf l ng self>mrtrder as avirtnons or brare 
action, ^i^ look upon it as » wealness in man not to wait 
yatistttly tae strolLe of <deadi, and as a erine io date to an" 
licipate the will oTlfae gods. ' i 1 " i- 

Cioerondmlfes, in his i^osodan qnestfoif/ die bmncMe 
^lalieiiee^ net only of the Indian sagesi^int dsa of tho^wo^ 
men of that tuuiitiy, who tCBod to contest for the honwiir of 
dying with their eom«loa husband. This privilege wais re-" 
semcdlbr that wifewiionr the hoshand luid loved most af- 
fectionately, and was given fa her favoor iy the sentence of 
persons appointed for that purpose, who never gave « judg- 
ment tUl snoh time as they hadmade a strict ewamlnttkn^ 
«ad heard the aUegatibn oii aU sides^ : Ifhewife Ofi frtumi 
tfie prefer ence was bestowed, tan to <neet death,* and aa- 
ctededthife fonerat pile witb incrsdlUe Jm' ad patltax; 
Whilst ibetnrviving wives withdMfer In w dcafiftst tpan»> 
jportf of alfBctkav and ^tb their ^ettmAedhrtnaw^ . 
' The description wldcht1^>^phyriaslmrlelifii'(^ 
Vphil<w<yhers^iynddcslttti^^ tMf^hwp a base. 

'Aeobrding to this anthor, ftut Inrachmass five'tti licrtMy yoUts 
nndfr^ts. They abstain fhmi animidk of nvefy iiniik and 
iiftiiey tfl^ any fhty thereb)^ render themsdi^'mMdesff. 
Th^ spand the. greatest pavt«ir thedAf <M WKUtfirBfag- 
iqghjrmns in hoDOW off their gods. Th^fest and pray per^ 
'wctnafiy. * The 'githltit part of thetarllve alone, nift ^ the 
tffeepess soNtnde, and ntither mitrry no« profess any tiiiag. 

' •MstfeitifefoAK^' earn sit a^QMeesrarnvfemefn^ 
fsaMO inManiane vtomat, tiaam-ahrrimaoL ilk dibaerfii plsfSi 
•aim li ng alis • t ha t t m naytfc ^^attviofix, sftlntiw |«s» 
y cBi i hae WM^ ana cam Vina IB wgam igysnitar s iUaaitt%«Ms 


Sect, jr#K BiS'Mlllr «r ALEXAVSSS. 36d- 

fhe^ 9S!islifiE>r notiian^ so ^megtlf tf death ^ a«d eoosider* 
ing tbiff M& 33 a bordi^if thejr vatit jmpatkatiF for the moi 
meiit wlien &e soul will leave the body. : 

TiHSQfbilodBpliersexiaft sfeitt in Iiidia,.iriMre tii^ aro 
callAdibraaite^ aAdretainyuiiiiaBjrpouitSyjii^tra^itieaaii^ 
|poQts.f^tf«9 aaoiciittaidiman^* 

Al«»iidcr passmgnear a citir.nlienia icwral of these 
braetHaaoa 4»el^ Mias very desirous tocosTerse with tbem, 
aadiif poisiblesy te pceva&i with saa^ ef tliem to ftdlow him^ 
0eiQ£^ jflfam e d Uuu thbe philosophers never made Tisits, 
but that those who had a» incluatiQH toseethem most go to 
their hooae^ he coachidec^thaiU would bebeaeathhis dig^ 
esty fi» |;q td tfaen» ; aadnotjoatt^toforee these sages to an]^ 
Uxiog eonti^ryv to l^eir 1»W9 aod asai^es, Oneskritus, who 
^^ a great pl^lfleopher, andhad been a disc^ of DSoge-r 
^ ^ pyiuc, waadeputed tothrnt He xaet not &r m| 
we city, .with fifteeu brachmans, who from morning tiU ev«r 
cning Mood always saked^ in the same posture in which. 
^ey alt first ha4 placed theisisd.ves, and afterwards returned 
to the city at night. He addressed himself first to Calanus^ 
^tQldfaim theocoa^onofhi^ coming. The latter^ gaz* 
1^ 1^^ Oneaacritui^s clothe and ahops, could not foroeav 
^ughing ^ afiter which he told hi(n> ^ that ancieetly thtt 
^* ^rth had been covered ^wtth barley |ind wheal, as it woe 
'^ at ti^t time with d«st ; that . besides water, the nveis used 
*' to flaw: with milk, heney^ ^, and wioe. That man's guila 
** had ooeasicmed a change (tf this h4ppy conditiQii ; and that 
" J^H^er, to punish their higratiti^, had sentenced theoi 
''to a long, painful laboRia* That their r«^)enunce softer* 
** wards moving;hii» to CQmpa89l'>n, he restored tbefe theip 
^' former abundance ; however, that by the eeerse «i tibmge 
^^ they sehmed to be returning to their ani^iil confinon*** 
Tbisi relation shows evidently, that these philosapbera h^ 
soinc notion of tlie felicity of the first; man> and ixCthe evil t9 
w^ch he had been aenteiiped for his sins* 
. A^r this fijrst conts^rsation, OoesicHtu8«{)oke toMaadaf 
nis, the chief, and as it were the superior of the hand. Thisi^ 
brachmaa said, ^^ that he thought AlesiaiKlet Vovthy of ad* 
" miration, hi seeking thus for wis^xn in the midst of the 
*' cares of his government :• diat he was the first who had 
*' ever united m himself the two d^ireetev^ of eopflMBr aad 
'^pinlosoper: that it were to be wished diet Die Utter char-i 
'* acter were the attribute of those whe ctfuld wMre tho 
" Wisdom which thev themselves possessed, and oommaad it 

by thesff authority.'* He added, thai tae coiddrMft coiiBeire 

• Momn gar idoi au$m cH ofihii fMl$99l^mm$^ 

S6i vcsitmx Ar«AtcbiB«»xs* ^IMi ^^» 

tin JOBldrt w^ipH'ha FfwUpirt Akactsdcsr ter tfiifsrtafce^j 
kag aad UiofiaBaL& jaarM^t Qor ivbtl he casM u flench 
i&so remote a country, • - ^ .» > • . 

« OnaisrkfcHk wu^'vety urgei^ mtkbokh atLliiipt toi (|iiit 
teir MMtee wax ^ ^> ^^ £iikav-iiuB.iqitflwaf illex- 
ander, saying that they would, fiud inhikn afpMKWlis aasottv 
•Dd'btec&tctmv vifaNi #oiild hesq>nipcsi theaa iuwooM-And 
riches o€.aU kinds. Then Manama acBuiaiiig tLhrnt^^ 
philosophical tontt^ aaswicd^ ^' that ise diil nait wisit Atex» 
vander, and wa|thea«i ol Jupiter as «dBl as himself :.that 
Sf' he was exenpted fiom want, ^are, ov jfear ; that so 
^ h»g as hfi shauld. live, jihft eaxth woiiUt foroish hdm- sS 
^^aiiogs. necessary fur Us subi asim ce» and <tfaat ^teath m&M 
^ rid him o< a ti^ubtesom* aompanioiK (meanfaigjBaMly)) 
^ ^idk.set Iratat &iH /Kbdrty:.*^ CaUmus appeared i6ore 
ipetaUe ; and notinthstaaidug thttOj^iasidcnH andLeftn thr 
^^ohOiition of his sopexiom wha nepndched him ^nr Ms alH 
^ot spivit, in steeping Aiulov as ta sarve aoofther' master be* 
sides God, he folloired Oaesicrittis, andwe^itto^AJieKaader'a 
court, who received him with greatdttnonstratlons^f joy. 
. Wc find bythistoiy, that this ixsople used oftea lo iempli^ 
pscsihltsaiid slnnlitudoa f6r conveyiag'thsir thoughts. -Oae 
^ as he was discovrsing v^th. Alaxamder upoii the nuumii& 
af. wise, policy aadapnideaC sdnriidstxation, hssexhib^ddto 
tfittt )»hioe a^ senaibk ima^^e^ and a nalm^ emhlcihi sf his 
•mpire. He laid upon^.the ^rouf¥i a gteat >Y»o-hldey which 
was Tery day and ^nnJct^, nnd then set hia footi^oi^ <n\e 
and/^of k : the hide,, being pressed so,, gave way^ and aU the 
ethee ends -ilewinp | ^iag tlius cpute rdbadtiie hide, and 
pressiai^ the rseveiai ends. of it,, he made him «^erve, that 
whilitf k» leiartaredr 4t .oa oite Mde, aU'the rest rose xtp, tSf 
treadiarat last-tspon the mid^e, the hide fcU eqaalty on all 
adas.- Brthistsraagehfe hin;tsd t6 himv that it would be 
prc(pc9 fm. him aa nwide ki tteoostre of his donsiaions, and 
not to undertake such long jodiTBC^a. We skaXi soon show 
the reader tiie manner in which, this .{^tilosopher ended his 
days. . .♦ 

« * AlesQlndar Mai^ determined to continue the war as loug 
as ha sbflidd mMt with new naltoDs, and to look upon them 
as enemies whiist they should Kve independent of him, was 
aaed^hrtiay sheut passnig the Hy|yhasns. He was told thai 
aider passikig^tbait'i^ver he milst travel devea days throi^h 
deserts, and »lhat'thea.he would aoriveat dieGanges, tbe 

» *^Q. Cutr.L is.c. Ki-t-9^ AiriMi. 1. v: p, a^i, ft^.«tl.ivi.p. 
^SS'-^Sf' • PHie. ID Alex. p. 699, 70X. Piod. 1. avii. p. jfjj-F 
j;7o. JiMii%lt#i>L(«» to, ► r . : 

.^rei^^sti^terln^H India. That farther in the ccuntry liv- 
ed the Gai^rlcht and tiie Fraui, whose king; was prcpaiin^ 
to oppdse his ^fitering h» dominions, at the head of 20,000 
iiorse, lifid- 300^090 fi>ot, reinforced by 2000 chnricts ; and 
{whidi istmdK a greater terror) with SOOO elephants. A re- 
port ofthist^ittg' spread through the army, suTi)rlsed allthe 
soldiers, and rMsed a general murmur. I'hc Macedonians, 
whoyalte^ hiving traVeUettthrougit so many countries, and 
beitig gwywii grey in the field, were incessantly ' directing: 
theif pj^es ahd* wishes towards their dear native country 
made lood compiaints, that Alexander ihould every ' day 
keap War ttpdh >tar, and danger on danger. ITicy had uii- 
dergcyie, but jttst before, inexpressible fatigues, having been* 
exposed to r^Cin, accompanied with storms and thunder, for, 
.abo«e two mohths.' Borne bewailed their calamities in such 
terms sis raised' cohipass>ion ; cithers insolently cried aloud. 
tliat they would marth lio farther. . 

Alexander "being informed of this tumult, and that secret 
assemblieB^ere formed in his camp, to prevent the ill con-, 
sequences bf them, sent for tlie cmcers* into Jiis tent, ancl" 
commfedidh)^ them* to cdM' the soldier? together, h^ made the.. 
fe>llG«4ng''spfeech : "I am 'not ignorant, O soldiers, that the 
^ IndiaDB h^ve twiBlished sevel-al tilings purposely to'terri- 
^^ fy us ; but ^'ch tli^ou^ses and artifices are lipt opusual ta 
** yoo. ■ 'ftifls ^ie Persiaiis described the stnats of Cilicia^ 
■*' the vast plaii^^of Mesopottratia, fhe.rivei-s Tigris ab^ Eu-. 
•** phrat^s, »« ^so many uisiirmmHJtable dlfRailties, and yet 
*« vour b*ravery conquered them. Do you rtjpentlUat yo^ 
*♦ h«r6 foUoiTM me thus fai* f As vour ^torioujj deeds have 
** subdued for you a liiultittide of provmces ; a^ ypu hiU'e 

your empire, why are yc 

*' IfyiJhasusPj-Jihd of setting bp your trdjiHies on^the banJt^ of. 
**"lt,'as on tho^ of the Hydaspes .^ What J can the elephailt's 
** whose rfturtber Is so falsely aupnen ted, terrify yoti to stlfch' 
" a ciegrese ? But has wJt experience taught yrl^, tMat tHey 
*<► were rtore dfestwietiye to tKeir own masters tliah to thd, 
**cmiBmy KBtidfea^cws art ttsed'to intirruAat^ y^U bv tlj^; 
<^ dr^^fol idea bf innmner^bi^ enertries : biA are they tnore 
*f nmo«i-6^s ttian'tHose of Dai'fus ? it is' sur*i ve^ late for". 
^«. yod'W cbdbt'the lie^ib^'of tlie-enctWy^ afit^i'youi: victotitV 
« iism^ wWdeAsfa»a^csert. It was when you crdSsed tlic 
" Hdltts^ntthat yo«-6pght to h^t»e veflectfed oii tijie TSraalL' 
^' nwntjercf yoUr f&rces :, But now thfe Scythians form part. 
*«^ of dtr'army % the B^ctriani, the Ssg^ans, ^^ ^ DaHaft" 
^ arc with us, and light for o«r glory. I, however, do nf* 

*• dcpesd en th«se barbarians. It is on ycu ooly "^at I re- 
<• W ; your victorious arms only arc presei^t to my inagma- 
** uon/and your courage alone assures me Euccess. • So long 
^* as I shall be surrounded with you in- fight, i shall not have ' 
<* any occasion to ccunt the number of my troops, nor that of 
** my enemy, provided you go on to battle with the same 
^* marks of joy and confidence you have hitherto discovered. 

** Kot only your glory, .b\kt ,cven vour safety is at stal:e. 

•* Sliould we now retreat^ it wi^l be supposed that we fly be^ 
*^ fore our enemies, and from that mopien( /nw shall appear 
<* as mean as the <jnemy will be judged formidat4e> lor you 
*' are sensible that in war reputation is every thing. . Jt is in 
♦< my power to. make .U*e of authority, andyetlempky en* 
*' treaties only. JDo not abandon, I C(u^i:e you, Ido not 
*< say your king and master, but your pupil apd companion 
«* in battles. Do not br^ak to pieces in my hand that glori-^ 
•* ous palm, which will sOqn, unless ,f^ivy rob me of so great 
•' a glor)'> canal me to Hercules and to Bacchus.** As the 
soldiers stoou with their eyes cast .u|)on ^ ground, and did 
not once open theii' lips»— ** what V*,contimie4 he, ";do I 
^' then speaK to the deaf? Will no one list^ tome, nor-conp 
** descend to answer ? Alas I I am abandoned, } am betray- 
«* cd4 1 am delivel^d up to the enemy. But I- waU advance 
« stiU farther, thodgh Lgo.alone. ^ The.^y^hians and Bact- 
** riansj more failhfil than you, wUlfolW me whichersocv- 
•* er I lead them. Return then to yoi^r country, and boast, 
•^ ye deserters of your king, J^hat .VQU havfj abandoned him. 
»" As for myself, I will Jiere moet,qiii^c;r,with the victory you 
*^ despair ci", or with a^lorious death,,o¥hich h^nceforwards 
*' ought to bp the^soie objectof,roy wis^s." . : ; 
^Notwithstanding ^hi? i^vely pathetip spec^ thetSoldieFS 
f^ill kept a profound srtence* They^ waited .in eKpectation 
cf hearing %m commanders and cliie^ offiQBfs i^inonstrate 
to the king,'tu^t their affection .was askro^g Miever^ but 
that their Ix)dies were powered with wounds, ana. worn out 
with toils, .it would be impos^blc for .them to continne the 
war. l^ovvever not one of theoi preisumed ito address him 
in thqir fe^vgur. The examples 6t Clitus, fuid that of jCal- 
listhenes^ wp^jB still recent. The officers whqv(fere;then 
with hin),,n5^d an l^undred tinves ventured theVrilvei^ In bat^ 
tfe for tlieir prii^ce, l^pt they had not .the courage tohavard 
tlie loosing at ^Jieir fo^unes by teUine lum the ti^itli. Whilst 
•thereforey (lie sol()iqrs^ as i^^ as officer^ ^ntinuc^ dumb, 
*withQut oDce daruig to liJBt up ttieir eyesythere rose on a sud- 
den a murmur, winch .increasing by .insensible degrees, 
"^ro^e into such de^ groanis ai^ .fio«i^ 4tf tears, that the 

Sdct:X7J, . VISTOXt OF ALXXAKOX«. 26!^ 

king hhns^, whose anger was now changed into compas- 
sion, could not forbear wc*!ping. 

At last, whilst the whole assembly were in tears, and m 
deep silence, Canus took courage, and drew near to th'e 
tlirone, discovering by his air and action, tliat he dewred to 
speak. Aiadt when the soldiers saw him take off his hel- 
met (that being the custom when any person spake to thfe 
king) they besought him to plead the cause of the army i 
and accordingly he spofce as rollows r " No, Sir, we are not 
^ changed with) regard to oar affection for you : God forbid 
^^ that so great a calamity shonld befell u<?. We shall al« 
" ways retain the same zeajj Wie same affection and fkleli- 
" tv. * We are ready to ibUbW you* at the has^ard of our 
" hves, and to march whithersoever you shall thmk fit to 
" lead us. But if yoar soldiers may ie allowed to lay be- 
" fore you thei^r scntiiwents sincerely, and Without disguise, 
" they beseech- you to condescend so far as to gi^'e ear t6 
" their respecttui coo^laintsr, which nothing but the mrist 
" extreme necessity could have extorted fronr them. The 

* grdisitness,- Sir, of youV exploits, has' cOiiqitered, not Only 
^ ybur enetitkies, buteven your soldiers themselves; W* 
'^ have done all th^t it was- possible for men to do. We 
** have «rofesdsd sftas and fendS^ Weshiall soon have marChk; 
** ed to* the end of the worid : and" yoi4 are meditating th4 
^* conquest of another, by going in search of new Indies, un>* 
^ known to the Indiana tliemselves. Sush' a thought may be 
""Worthy of your valour^ but it sik'passes oui*s, and ou^ 
" strength stHl mor^. Behold those ghastly faces, artd those 
" bodies covered w&h wounds and scai-s. Vou are sensible 
" how numerous. :we were at our first setting out, and you 
** seewhat now ifemiin% of lis. The few who ba^e esca]>efil 
" so many toils ;and dangers, are neither brave nor strong 
** enough tofidiov^ you. All <rf them lon^ to revisit thei<^ 
** rdatiQiisr aajd^ (ioiintry,'and to enjoy in peace the fruit of 
"their labours and yotfr victories. . Forgive them a desire 
** natural to aH men. It will be glorious, Sir, for yon to hav^ 
" fixed such boundaries to your fortune, a&only your eioder- 

* atioQ xoald pre^crib^you ; and to have vanquished your* 
^ self, after having conquered all your enemies.^ - -If 

Gceniife fbifl faffsoorier i^oKe, fint there werelieafd, enall 
sides, crie8«8i^d*'a»)£i]Bed voices intermixed with tears, calli 
ing.q)oa thekiny as' !« their lord andfethet." Afterwards^ 
^ 'CheT^est of -tiie officers, especi^y thosse who aSsunie(| 
a gicater' authority because ofthetr age, und fbrthat r^. 
son couhi be;better e^tensedthrfreedotti ttK9>iook, leade the 
same humble request : but still the king would not comply 
^hh 2t. It mdst .cost i. n&ootrcHi ts^v^ ^9^^ toe&ire he can* 

ZtS MUrOUJf 09 ^Z.EX41IOSft. M'iKk XV. 

lurcvaU with lllBiadf to compfy with things retittgDaDttohts 
mcUnatiun. Alexander therefiore ^ut himself vp two days 
jn his tent, without dice spealung to any one, nioA even to 
ius most fiumiliar friends, in order to see whether some 
change might not be wrought in the armrv as frcq^eatlf 
happens on sw^ ooca$!Mis. Bttt finding it woUkl' he impos- 
sible to change tke-resohition of the soldiers, he oommand* 
cd them to prepare for their retntii« Ttus news £Ql^ tbe 
whole army with inexpressible joy ; and Alexander never 
appeared gt^eater, or more gkirions, than on this da|S in 
which he desiigned, for the sake of his subjetts, $o sacrifice 
.some part of hU glory aod^asdenr. Th& whole camp 
echoed with praises and blessings of Alexander, fol- having 
^ufieiTd himself to be overoom^ by Iws own army, who was 
invincible to the rest of the world. No triumph is compar- 
able to those acclamations and applauses that come h^m 
|he heart, and which are the lively and sincere overAowings 
•f St ; and itb great pk|r thatiprmoes are uofc aBcre.affiscf* 
A<l vrith them. . 

\ Alexamkr had not spcntudiDve three tr icmt iMottttiSf ift 
idfllt, in conqenbg all the country bctwttdi thelndas andtht 
)ln>h4SQB, caUed U> this day Pei^; tlttt lB±^ 
^t%y from the five rivers which coinpose it. * Before his aet«- 
%m^ out, he raised twelve altars, to serve as so many tro*- 
pbies and thanksgivings lor the victories he had obtained. 

The&e inetances of gratitude, in r^^ardto the goii, vfere 
ajltended with the mpst incredible marks of vaai^. Tke 
Hilars wklth he erected in fiHir honour wai4e; htglv. 
Be caused a camp to be Aiarked out, thvee .times as iarge 
Hgaift as his ^wn, and sarronnded it with iasses 50 feet m 
depth by ten br<>ad. He^nrdered the fbotto pittpamasd leave 
^ach in his tent twe beds seven ftelaad an half In leng^ : 
e»«l the earalry to make fi»aag^rft for the ho#eds£(f .twice th^ 
tutu»l dinu^nsioQS. Every thi^ dse wasin piloporthm* Akx- 
•mtet*^ view fat those orders, which flowiidfi^ ah extrsva- 
gen^ of n»|Cy, was to k4ve poMerity momiAwnlsfof hisfae- 
fpic aad mov^than hnmssl gnrndeur^ andtei hate itfaoher- 
ed that himarif andiilf Moirers were snperiDl: to a& other 

He ^fler#aeds croieed the Hvdr«otes,and left Ponsi alt 
the lan^ he had cenqtaered, ai &|t as ^ml iiyphaaes. He 
abib rocenciled thier moaatfih with Taxihn and aetiSed a 
fteace between them h$ ntans of aft iHianee equafiy advan- 
Iteeoes tahdih. • Freaa whence he west and e acamp- 
edTe^ thsahaakia^ the Acesiiiea; tat greet- xafaa hskysD^., 

made th!s rfy^t t)verflfow its banks, and the adjacent coun- 
tries being under vatter^ he Was obliged to mo^ e his c^mp 
higher up. • Hei*e a fit of sickness carried off Coenus, whose 
• loss was "beWaiiedTby the king and whole army. There wa^ 
not a greiitcr' officer among the Macedonians, arid he had 
distinguistidd htinfiseff fit a very particular manner in cveiy 
batfle in which he engaged. He was one of these singu- 
larly good men, zealous for tlie puljlic, all whose actions 
are free from self-interested of ambitious view$, and who 
bear so great a love to their king, as to dare to tell hiri\ 
the ti*uth, be the consequence what it will. But now Alex- 
ander was preparing for his departure. ' 
Hi* fleet consisted of £00 vessels as well as galleys anti 
boats,^ -carry the troops and provisions. Every thing be- 
ing ready, the whole. army embarked, about the .netting of 
the PleJatJes,* or se^•en stars, ec(fording to Atistobulus, that 
is, about the. end of October. The fifth day t!ie fleet arivdcl 
where the HydasJ)ies and Ac(Ssines mix their streams.-i- 
Here the ships were very much shattered, because the^e 
rivei-s unite witH^ sitjch prodigious rapidity that as gredt 
storms arise in this part as in th^ open sea. At last he canxe 
into tiie Country of the Oxtdi-acx and the Malli, the most 
valiant ^opletn thcfse parts. These were perpetually at 
war one with another j but, having united for their mutual 
«tfety, they had d^^vn together 10,000 horse, and 6 0,000 
fwt, all ^i^rous young men, "with 500 chariots. However, 
Alexander deffeatfed them itt several engagements, dispos- 
sessed thferrt of their strong-^holds, and at last marched a- 
g^inst the city of the O^ydracae, whither the greatest part 
"were retired. Immediately he causes the scaling ladders to 
be set tip 5 and, as they were not nimble enough for Alex- 
ander, he forces one of the scaling-ladders from the soldift*, 
runs up the first, covered with his shield, and gets to the 
top of the wall followed only by Peucestes and Limneus. life 
soldiers, believing hlin to be in dang^^r, mounted swiftly to 
succour him ; but the ladders breaking, the king was idTt 
alone. Ale5{and^r, seeing himself the butt against which all 
the darts wei-e leVellcd, both from the towers and from tlie 
rampart, was so raish, father than valiant, as to leap into the 
^ity, which was crowded with the enemy, havin|; nothing to 
expect, but to be either taken or killed before it would fce 
• posfifelc forWhi to^vise, and without once having an oppo4'- 
tunity to defend himself, or revenge his death. But hap- 
pily for him, he poised his body in snch a manner, that he 
^U upoii his feet ; and finding himself standing) swoi^ in 
^nd,he repiulsed such as were nearest him, and even killed 
I ^e general of the enemy, who adiaaced to run him. tksougjh. 


V§ ' MSTOBT or AttSAKJlCS. Ak^T W<r 

Hmuly for lum ft teoood tune, ntit te ftmfi lh«oe iSmt 
stood «p^ tree, agoimt Um trunk of wlaii:^ ke l0iiiied,lu» 
^eU receiTing all tbe darts that were stiot at hiBH from t 
^Bitancc ; for tto one dared to approach hisa, so great was 
tins dread wtuch the boldaoH or the eiiteiprise,, and die fire 
that shot from his efBS, luid stnick into t)M» eDeiqf. At last, 
aa fodian kt flf an arrow thl^ee net long (that beiag the 
leitgth of their arrows), iHiteh pkrciag his coat of mail, en- 
tered a considerable w\j kiSo his bofihf» alktle above the 
Tigtht side. So great a ouantitf of blood issved from the 
vouod} diat he dropped his arms, and bf as dead. Bdiold 
then tlus mights conqueror.* this vao^isher of natioos, u{)- 
on the point of ksing his life, not at the head of hi^^armiesi 
hat in a. comer of an. obscore city^ into which his Tashnes 
had thrown him. 

The Indian who had wounded Alexander, nm, 'in the 
greatest transports of joy^ to ^trip hioi^ ; howeveri VUeacai^ 
3er no sooner mlt the hand of his enemy upon himr&it, fired 
with the thirst of revengOj he recalled hSs apirit& ^ and la; ^^ 
ing hold of the Indian, as he had no arms, he frfnDgad his 
dagger in his side. 5^e of Ids chief oflSect^ as Peacestes, 
Leonatus, and Timseus^ who had got tb the tap of ^ wall 
with some soldiery, came up that instac^t, and attempt-^ 
ing impossibilities, fpr the sake of saving tiiieir> soiFereiga-s 
life, they form them^elyes as a bvli^rk rowid hisbQN^,and 
sustain the whole efibtt of the enemy* It was then that a 
murhty battle was fought round Mm. lit tfa^ m^an time the 
soraiers, who had clionibed «a with the officers abonw meo^ 
taoaedt having broke the bcm of a little |;ate standing, be- 
t«i«tn two towers, they by thatt means let ia the Macmni-^ 
aas. Soon after the town was taken, and all the inhahitaats 
were put to the sword, without distinction of age or segt, 

The first care they took was to cany iUeamnder into his 
tent. Being got into it, the fsorgeons. ctut; off, so vi^ den • 
teroQs^, the wood.oftlie shaft which had been shot into his 
body, that they did not move the steel point ; audi &fter Qb- 
4re9sing him, they found it was a ^bearded arvour ; and that 
le could not he pulled out, without (kinger, unless t^ wound 
wei^ widened, llxe king bore the operation with incredi- 
ble resolution, so that ther^ was no occasioa for people to 
hold him. The iacisim being made, and the arrow.drawi 
oat, so great an e&sioi^ of Mood issued that the kiiEig fiimtod 

* Kttt^ dc fortna. Alnc. p 344- 
'f Is theie igM ih«f mod phfficUaS w«w the tame thii^ 
iSa Knows are called that have hearts st (heir poiBtS libr filh* 
hs6ksi>-Aalmad«(cuiot hanos iacus $fte» 

4krf. JVX Mtntmr ot MixzAmmm. mt 

4N0iHli«a;p6rfi,^c4irt«i&]BHm was brsm^oC fats bete 
iiMer, aodllvtM bssas torfako < tiftte fcrt. 

At liM CM ctf the aeipte da|r» fas lad eiB|iloyed fcr hit rs- 
evtmyibeiortiM wtmaA wU dose, at liefcntw that tlis re^ 
pest Slhis terth iairmML sttoi^ the bad)iiri«nS}.fae sass* 
«d t wBi tzmtti t&be joiDed ts^etiier, and had Ms ttst pittdL-^ 
«diRtlieak]QM,iii«t0(^ofcver)roDe ; jmrposdv to Ao%r 
IkifMslf to tbose 'wfaoini^igifaiDd hisii dea^r an^ 
!Bis|ui>^ fOlthfir prqjeoCik and Ifae lidpss \fiib. -whicli Ih^ 
laMtcd tfasnrBslTes; He aftsnsatds vent dewa the rbei>, 
ttOtog before, ati loiBS dstence fraai tba re&t of tfac fleoC, f6t 

• terksttfaenaue <rfth« taMrlficmid'iKep.faim fihotatleqy,. 
iMncfafaeveiyfnsdivfftited* WfacD lie was a littlft better, 
ailiA aUe tD e^ tn>t, tfas soldien, wlU> were upon vuard,. 
iMiom^ Kia» tusliOier, bst he Tcfosud-tt, and,calttii^ for his 
hosse^ jHtnaited him. At this tight, all the shOTe aad fiei^-' 
bouHng fa i ' sste echoed with the aedamatioDS of the army, 
*wlioaiiiagii^tiiey saw him rise, in a aMoner, fHon the 
giKaira. Beinip cone oear kis leDt, he sKghted, and waOcM 
alktle warr, sstromided with a grsat number of toldtei^, 
soB^of whom kitted, his hands, whiltt others datped his 
knees ; olfaert again were contented with only touching his 
dothns^ and. with. seeing hln ; bat aU in general burst into 
tears, and calling for a thoosand bksamgs irom heaveh, 
wiribed hnn ^ long UStj aM an ubiittcmiptBd serieft of pios*^ 

At this iDftaiit deputies came from tiie Malli, with the 
diiefiBrof theO:itV'dracx, being 160^ betides the ^seniors of 
tbe eSM and ot the pityrfniD^ who broof^t hnn preients, 
and paid him homage, pleading in excuse for not having 
dbne it before, tiielr ttrong lore of liberty. They deckr^U, 
that thc5^ were ready tto receive for their goreraorwhomsb- 
erer he i^eiBMed! to nominate ; that they would pay hhn tri. 
bnte, and give him hostages^ He demanded 1000 ti the chfef 
persons of thur nation, whom be also might' make use of hi 
waas tin he had subjected all the country. They put into 

. Ms hands such of their eoontrymen as were handsomest and 
best shaped, with dOOchariols, thoogh not dcmatided by him ; 
at which the king was so much pleased, that he gate them 
back their hcttages, and appointed Philip' their. governor*.* 

Atexander, who tras overjcyed at tfiis embassy, and found 
kilt strength increase daily, tasted with so much the greater 

: |^eq^iwbtbo£ndu^both.h2STicloi7ttidb«al^ 

-drf jritTORT or gtEXAvnzm, "Mhk Xf, 

-ftkcT toliiieUtt tKeni fbreter. His chief eoottleri an^tmit 

. iDtiniatt friends tlioi%ht *it a. proper jQOCtare^'flufxfi^'tMs 

calm and sefenit^rof his vikid;* for than 'td'dnbosom tittlA- 

• atltoy and to expoae*titeii^ ters to.ldm r .Itrvras Cratfnis 
^wl^cfln'.thU oecaiicnA t«.-We begois Td^al8ir,' «bbi«atlie 
^^' and live, no«r<we fihd*yoA in the oi^ditiltt to irhicU'llie 

^ gbodn^ of the gods fras restoredyon.' J^tivDiir gr«at wera 
•* our feats and our griefe V Ho«r«ferely dW ire vtoroaoh 
<< oandvcSffbr haf iue abandonddy iirsoch an extremity, our 
*^ kingf our father !' u was not in onr petver to foUovr him*; 
^^^ but thii did not extenuate ouir goilt,and we locdc^^ioBoiir- 
. ^^ fi^ves as criminals^ in not'havihg'attei&pted impei^tiilitics 

• <( far )Doilk>- sakev' Bat, Sir, tievcr pknage qsr in finch deep af-' 
. ^ fiictioa iMntafter.' Does a wttsedhedpallry town deserte 

• '^ to be boogjht «t so dear a price as ^ loss- of your life f 
^ Leave those petty ekplofts*aad enterprises to lis, andpre- 
'^^iCrvc^our person for such, occasions only ^as awJ worfty 
*' you. We'sttikshttdder with horror, when we* reiect oa 

• *' what we so lately '^^reapectators of. We ha^ve seen the mc- 
^ ment, when the most abject hands upon earth were gmr^ 
^ to seiSse the greatest prince lit the uriivierse, and despdil 

' * him of his royal robes. Permit us, Sif, tojsay, you arentyr 
: ** your own master, btft that yob- owe yowrsett to us« We 
^ hav« a right over your life, since ours depends on it ; >tnd 
'^ we daf e take -tiie medom to conjure you, as being your 
. « subjects and yoitr children, to be more carefei of so pne- 
^^ cious a life, it not for yoiA* own sake, at> least lor ours, and 
<* for tl>e felicity of thd lihiverse." 

The kih^ Was strongly txniched' with these testimonies of 
their affection, and having embraced them severally wiA 
ineitpressibfe tenderness, he answered as fe^ldws : << I cannot 
<' enough thSTfk all present, who are the flower of my d^- 
** seus and fricftds, not only for your having U^ day prefer- 
" red my safety ta your own, but also for the st^sn^ proof 
^* you have given me of your i^eal and affettlon, from the be- 
<• ginning of this war : And if any thing is c^ari>]e cf mak- 
*< ing me wish for a longer life, it is the»pleasure of cnjoj- 

• * ing, for years to come, such valuable friends as you. Bot 
<* give me leave to observe, that in some cases we difier very 
*< much in opinion. You wish to enjoy me long ; and even, if 
** it w^re posdMey for ever ; but as to' myself, I compute tfie 
*' length <tf my existence, not by years, bat by glory. I might 
•* have confined my ambition withm the narrow fimits df Me- 
^* cedoDta ; tk)Ay contested with the kingdom my aBc^tors Itft 
*< me, have waited, in the midst of pleasures and indotence, 

. *< an ingtoriaus old a^. I own, that if my victories, not aiy 
f*y«ar&| art CQBQHStedi Ishallc(^emtohaTeli\'«a loogftiat 

*^ csbkfm im^liie, tet ator hAi^bii ttAJiEr Soi^ fitid AsHt 
« tot ene empire, «ft^ having conqutiW the imo nobleit 
** pairts of the Wtfvid^ &i tli^e tenth yekt of my wigr» and thiiti-^ 
** eth of my ibge, thkt H will betottie itie\o ijtbj^ hi the wiia«t df 
*^ so exaH4ed a^earccr, ati^ dR#c«nihn]« th« pursuit of glory to 
" whi<ih i haiv« -ttitirel^ devdtc^ iay«etf? Know, Aat this 
'< gk>ry emaxM^ allthiogk, sm4 'gi^fSsf a*tnift,fln<l tolid,gr«n^' 
*< deilr 4o -.Whsoe^tft kp^ar»^nsi]^ilifioaftit. f h what plate s^-^ 
*^ eirer I mar fight, I shall fant^ %«cilf tipoki the ^tage of th^ 
** wistJld, and in presetice of ail mankind. I eoi^es* that I 
^ ha^e achievied tnighty thhigs hi^etto ; Imt the eetintry We 
*^ are now ia, rej»voatthc^ me that a -#otniiii has ^dione stai- 
^* greater* It i6Semii*atifii6l itieaii. How many tarationsdiH 
" sh^<xmqiier I How mahy oliiM Were built by 4ier t Whait 
^ ma^tficent atid stiipendoQs wot*ks ^id ^e fkri^ I Hov 
*^ sAkanxeful i& it that t ^&M nor yef have attehied to so ex^ 
" aked a fyitcH of glory t Do but secoftd my ardour, audi 
^ shal gooA SttitMtes lier. I>elead mt onTy from tet i<e« eabals 
^ isd d6mi6Mie tt^sona,' by ^hidll moiit ^rlhces loare ike9t 
* itt^ea^ I Ull3tt ihe i^st lipoA my«i^ aitd f^ffl fe aaslr^NibJe 
^^ toyo» for an th« •venttf of the wlif .^' ' 

Thilimsecli gi«6r«n: i^ perfect id«a ^ Atejcaader'a ditf-- 
«cter. m Had iMynotidii e¥ tm glortr. He did not hniytr 
^i^hbr^e j;>rocfpte,th6rcrle,or«mi of it. He eertaihlfplad^ 
=«d it w^hrei^ it wfift n«ft. He -vfm kiftHi^lf prejMi^ th vt)l-- 
.ffftf eftw^ aodi^ieridiiid it. He i^<fcied him%«3fbor^ merely 
-iot i^kify ; aad that none cciuld^ 5e acM^ired but ty iifibomid*- 
^ tti^tttt^ attd ittegai^^ ob^diiet. fe hfef rtffp«ttieia» ^ftlicft 
•«ftfiir a w^fcakeft gidfy, he ft»ltowi;d tieifh^r tf^eaMrf, ^i^ti^, 
Xtor faimltiiitj' ; and5 a^ ^ Ki^ I»mbt€tdll8 (Stf^Hee diight t^ha¥e 
^ein a.t«iiie«lAd «lttftdsi^ «^ ill olHt^iiidh^Miilriii 9<iMr|9^ 
^biKt li^lier lijl bite^ lk<^ s^SBfeHi #(mM Mtet ie^ hk 
"vit^a, swd fent theiViMlt^s vei^ ttrv^S&gljr t& Sfippot^ Ms 
•tidictiioiiia en«erm4tcjr. 

iLMrattflf, ittid^coiiilfttted en^mtxki foritrttA dtmi iii thli 
lOactt. Hif afttffirardk went n^ tUb r&i^, kta km ftrT)|(y 
thifdle^^ftHf tipM tftebatte. R€lh«ft erffnte httiak^ tl(e 
SabHcifel « poirerfiil tifttflto «f I&diahd. "th^s^ iiad l«tim 
>0<M)iO idot aM M«0 h<»fse, and t«lbfdrcM th^nM^ 1*i^ 5dt> 
«hftiVy|ft t htn^Kver,* Che «rrtval«f Al^Ahdet- ^i»reiia « tc^ 
1^^ tdntnil^ the l^lK)!^ CMiBtrf ^ ai^titfCorditi^ tHef teiit 
^wtelfftdm to HMM ^ip fiiibHiittkm. A^^ hUth^ tellt 
another cMk^, which he ate tailed AlemdrtP^ )ie airmfd 
Ki Htv territories of Musicaans, a very rich pijnce> and af-^ 
1enrai0luiitiyR»<sfkiKf6aiiii8.|;efl^eiie ofdw 
l^«c|^ toirati fMe»]r iras dii9i|;fma»Iy tn^^ 

Saxa had poitaiied aU their anroWB^asfd ^irdrdsy jso that Hot 
. voiia<i» they made were mortal. Alexaod^r, who had the 
highest love and esteem ier Ptolemy^ was very muchafflicN 
«c^ and causedF hkn to be btoiight in his bed near hitn, that 
he himsdf mig^t have a^ ^^M hift <^ure. He was his near 
relation, and, according to som6 writers, a natilrai son tO' 
Philip. Ptolemy waseDe<if tlie bravest men in the annr, 
was highly est^med in war, and had greater taknts for 
peace. He was averse t^- luxury, vastly geiteroas, easy of 
access, and did not imitate the pmp which wealth and pros- 
perity had made the rest of- thdMacectonikn. noUemen as- 
sume ; in a woi:d, it is liard to say, whether he w^s moi« es- 
teemed by his sovereign or his country. We are told, there 
appeared to him in a dream aidragoii,whiclV presented him 
an herb, as an e$S»:tua^ remedy ; and Vhat upon his waking, 
he ordei-ed it to be sent for ^ when laying it i^>on tlie Wound, 
it was healfed in- a fevlF days, to the uitiversal joy of the army. 
*The ktagi. opntinuHig .his voyage,^ iirrived: at Patal'a,. 
•about the l;>eginn4ng (ithb^do^ays, tlMit is, aboui.thfe end of 
JKily ; .so that the. fleet was ^m^ montHs. at least fi^ro. its set-- 
ting out till its arrival at, tlMit|>)ace.'. Tbet^^^^ river Indus 
.divides iototwo kitg&4irmai i^nd i^rms^in tslaad^ A>ut mtich 
^flargeiT) like the jDelta^of tli^Nile ^^aiidheficd |he<Sty above 
mentioned received its liame, PaUla^ aceordin|^^to A¥riaTi,t 
itignifying in th4» Indian toogui^, th^ same »s De|t& ia the 
6t eek. Akxandih' tiaHted a f^^itadel to. be fai^ltinP^tala, as 
. also an harbour and' an arsenal for th^^ shkipfiig.; This he^' 
ring done, {le end)arjk^ oh -the rigM arih pf Uie river, ib od- 
,der to sail as; fae m AhQ. oceans exposing iii^is manner so 
many brav^ m^n to tlje mepoy fit a: rtV!Br with whi<^' they 
^ Ycre ^hqUy. unacquakited.' The only (isolation they bt^d 
.in this raiih ^ntei^riz^, «ait9 Aieacaiider^ unihjeerti9l»ted suc»^ 
cess. ^^^*l>« had ss^i^ed 2Q lea^MCJk (490 furto^) the 
pilots told him IHat they began to perceive thfrj9eaans.4uid 
.tberipiore<b€iievedthal^th^oce<in^o^ldiiQtbefiA.ifp£r. IJpon 
.this nf»ws, j^oaping for .joy, he besoi^ht thef^ilorti torov 
• with ^ th^ sitreigthj aad told Uie soldiery ^<.that they U 
.^ last were ^n^ tjo the, end of their. ^ils, which* U»y. had so 
^< eamQstiy desked ^ $hat; tidw, nothtrig; i;ipi|ld;opp^e ^leir 
^ val(ai^,^V^ad4t9 their glQ4py> thatw^out^^^^g'^iiy 
. ^ m4)re, m spilling -of bload^ A^ v^re masteni of ^ nnV 
<l verse (^ 4;hat^ploits h^ the saoie^hom^riito wi^ 
r^^ mturf ; andth^t they ir<mkl i>^'9p9cJ^mM6i^if^^ii]aibm» 
. ** oxdy to tl^ impnorta^ 8od*»*i . ♦ - . ^ • . "• ' <«• 

. . rtoftf^Uxti.p,6^v " fAritsfttiiiMkrfpt^Mii^ •^ ' 

S^Cf. Xri.- HHITORY or AL«XA'VD2R. SfJ 

Behig eome nearet the sfea, a ciitdmstaiice new and tm-% 
heard of by the Maeiedonians threw thtm into the titmost 
Gonfiisioiv and exposed the fleet to t!^ greatest danger ; and 
this was the -ebbing and'flo\ftJng of the oqean. Fbrrbing a 
judgment of this vast sea from that of the Mcditeirapcan, 
the only one ^ey kneW, and wliose ebbings are imperccptir 
ble, tb^ were very Tnu<^ astonished when they saw it 'rise 
t© a great height, an^ overflow the country, and considered' 
it as a mark of the anger •^^he gods, to punish their rash-* 
wess. They were no less surprised and terrified, some hours 
after^ when they saw tho-ebbiiig of the sea, which now with- 
drew as4t^n4befoN advanced, leavtegf -those lunds uncovf' 
ered it had so lately overfldwied: [ 

^rhe fleet was very much shat^M^, toe! the !^iips being 
now. upon dry lan4, the flekte were covered with Clothes, 
■with broken oars and planks, as after- a great storm. 

At last Alexander, after having sailed full nine months in 
rivers, arrived' at th^'Oaean, ^here gazing with the utmost 
eagerness upon that vast expanse of waters, he- iinagined 
that thb sig^t, woi^tliy 80 great a eonqoeror as himself, greats 
ly overpaid alilhe toUs- ho had' undergone, ftnd the many 
thousand saen he had lost 4o'a4»r*w at 4t. !f e tlven offered ' 
sacrifices .tb tlie. gods, 'and pa^tlctllarlytcl J^ptnne ; threw • 
into'the seathe bulls he slaughtered, and a great number of* 
golden oupft; andibtsowghlttie gods nottfO%^jffer any mortal 
afber ^m to exoeod tbe bounds of -his «xpeditlon. Finding ' 
that he had extended- his conquests to thei extremities of the 
earth on that side, heimagihed he had completed his mighf 
ty. design ; and highly deRghted with himself, he retw-ned • 
to rejoin the rest of his fle«tatid army, which waited for hinj 
at Fatala, and jin the neighbourhood of it. 


AiEXLAMDfeR 4S .dRIEVOUSLY DtSTR£SSl>:i> fiV «'AM|M£^ ' 

-Aui^AVDER,*. being retimed 45o Patala, pt^tpared all 
tlkingi for the departiite of his flft6l> He appoint^ Near^ \ 
chM'admirM of at, who was tHe only officer «hat had ' the 
coumgettaJKScsept of tkiscommislAon, which was a very haz. 
ardous^dn^i b«Dause>theyw6tfc to sail over a sea entirely un- 
known»to thehi. I The fcin^* was ^vcry much pleased at hi« 
acceplag qf i^ ; ^ aad^ .after /testifying 1^ adlnowMigR«ii| 

* Afiauii Hi hi4i<^; p. j|4'« 

upoo thataccouBt io Ui« mqtt-obligins t&fms^ hfi p^wnvM 
lumtotaibBthebest ihissu&theflee(, ao4to|^ wdtsonnd 
tke sea coast extendiag trtiTtt] the Iiw^jos. to the bottom «f the 
Pentan |;ulf ; aiid, afiei; having g^v^ tliese orders, he set 
out by land for BahjMik 
' *Keard«»dklnotk9mth«lQdiisatfhe8a«)etiiiievi& 

Alexander. It was not yi^ the season ^r^v for wSie^. It 
waa summer, when the s^ujtheoi searwMa,ris0|-aad the sea' 
SK» of the WMTth^wiods, which blow 'x^w'vMf^^ wss.aotyet 
cone. He there&re di4 aol set sag MU about- the end of 
September, which .was top sood ; and accordingly be .^»s n^ 
commoded by ^ifid^ -tipm^ days after his departure, and 
obliged to shelter himself for 24 daye, < 
. We are gblfgfd for th^se pactii:ulai?s to Airiao, wltohas 
gvcn us an e?^a.Jpiirpa^yQf his voyage, cc^ied frdm that« 

^ Jfearchus the adnuraJL- 

; . Alexander, aftier havuig left Patala, marclued tliraiigfa the 

cq«U)try of theQrits, thecft(4tal whsEieaJfiifas called Oca^ or 
HUambacis. Here he was jUi such want of proriaois that 
yip lost a great number of soldiers^ and bi>Qttghtbsclc from 
India scarce the fourth pa<it of ^s anny, whick hadxx^osi^' 
cd of 120,00© foot, «id M,000:hgr». , Siflknfcis, hadisod, 
and the excessive hpa^ ha4 mirfipi^ iheas aw^ in «»"{^*' 
todes.; but farnm^ :ina4e aa|iU«r«%teclutVoe aiaoDS^^ 
troops m tlvs.faarnen ^oun^y whMi wasi neither ploug^^^ 
fuar sowed ; its inkabit^ts . belong- savagesy who &red y^ 
hard, and led a most unc^mforUhie lif«. After they bad ate 
all the pa^^tree roots; that could be metwithf they were 
obtiged to feed upon thebe^tsofhurden, mdbitxtupmt^r 
^T^Tfts j apdt when tliey.had no beasts left to c*"^? f'^ 
»ggag«» tl^ey '^ere for^e^.^Q burnitlMsp ^chepsttiBt^'.^^ 
sake of which the Macedonians had'Van to the exti-einwcs 
of the earth. The plague, a^dviisase which generally acco"^' 
paides femine, completed the calamity of the soldicrsj ana 
destroyed great namb^^ofth^f • : 

After marching eo'days,' Alexander arrived on the cctj- 
iiubs oTGedrasia, where he- found plenty of all ti«i^ 1 ^ 
the soak was not only very fhiitfii, hot the kings and gr^^ 
men, who lay^tjaresjt that (eottntry^semthim a*i*^^^ ^K 
Vision^ He co^m>»<^ some, time jK»e^ ait«^»taJ«^ 
his army. The gov«^qi?s.of India Aatfaig ^^^^Tifwnr 
a, great. numl^ier. of ho»?s{» and aU-iaads of beMt« « ^ 

den, fiiom^the several J^log^itoiiis. sut^tj^ JnM^ he 
inpunted the troopa,tegiiipp^ thenl !3i^ ligd-'lfls*.'«' 
tlyuLig i anO. soon. afikT fjiktiU^dnikaifiKm:^^^ 


beaotlftil as those they had befoi^, ^hich it wais very easy 
for htm to db, as they were upoh the confines of Persia, 
at that time inj^ace, and in a very flourishing condition, 
Hi& ai*rived in €artiifenia, now called Kern>an, and went 
through it, not with the air and equipage of a warrior 
and a conqufepor, but in a kind of masquerade, and bac- 
chanalian festivity, committing the most riotous an^ ex- 
travagant actions. He was drawn by eight hors^, liim- 
self beiiig seated on a magnificent chariot, above which a 
;scafibld ^as raised, in the form of a square stage, where 
he passed ttee days and nights tn fieasts and carousing.-^' 
This chariot was preceded ahd'follbwcd by an infinite num- 
ber of others,' some of which, in the shape of tents, were 
covered -with inch carpets, and ptrrple Coverlets; and oth- 
ers, shaped likfe €radl^s, were overshadowed with branch- 
es of ti^ees. Ori the si<tes of tl>e roads, and at the doors 
of housefs, a great number of casks ready broached were 
placed, whence the soldiei^ drew' wine in lai'ge fiaggons, 
oups and goblets, prepared for that' purpose. 

The \vh«le country echoed wilh'tl\e sound of instmments, 
end the howling of the bacchanals, who, with their hair 
dishevelled; and like so many frantic creatores, ran up and' 
down, abandoning liiemsel^es to every kind of licentiousness. 
All this he did in imitatiort'of the triumph of Bacchus, who, 
as '^e are told, oixjssed all y^lsia in this equipage, after he had 
jconqtiered India. This riotcvus dissolute march lasted seven 
days, during all which time the army was never sober. It 
was verj' happy, says Quintus Curtius, for them, that the 
conquered nations did not? think of attacking them in this 
condi'^on -; for a thoii^Bd rtesohite rnen, well armed, might 
with g¥ea^ ease have defeated these <»nquerOrs of the world, 
whilst jihu*' plftit^ed in wirte artd excess. ' . . 

•Kearchus still kecpioip alorg thc'sea-coasi; froirt the 
mouth of tlie Indus, c;!ttne at last into th^ Persian gulf, and 
arrivecl* at the island bf HarmUFia, liow called Ormus. He 
diere ^vas iftform^d, tlTat Alexander was not above fivcdays 
jouifncy^ from him . Htiving left t\\t fleet- in a secure place^ 
he went to meet Aleseafideiv accompanied only by four per- 
sons. The king was very anxious about his fleet. When 
tiews wesbrottght'hi'm fltatl^eifclitis wa*' arri\'ed almost 
ak>ne, %e 4fn a'gijied Hlwit it -had^been eft tii^ely destroyed, and 
^at Ke^ai^h'us had been so very happy as to escape from 
tbefgeheraV defeat. • Hfe-arKval tciriiftrted him still more 
iKthi^o|pjini<Hi, wherthe behi^kr a cfertipany of pale lean 
creaturOs'/ whose conntenances 'wcre^ so much changed tltat 

, ,^ ., ,...r. f ♦•A*r»ait;iii^B*fitf;p. 343t-*-35». ' '^ " 


278 .HlSTOttT or ALEXANDER, B^ok XV^ 

it was $carcc possible to know them again. Taking Keardiiw 
aside^ he told him that he was oveijoye4 at his retui^ but 
at the same time was inconsolable ft>r the loss of his fleet. 
*' Vour fleet, royal Sir," cried he immediately, « tihanks to 
" the gods, is not lost ;" upon which he related the coi^dition 
In which he had left it. Alexander could not refrain from 
tears, and confessed, tha^ this happy news gave hUa greater 
pleasure than the conquest of all Asia He heard, with un- 
common delight, the account Nearchus gave of his voyage, 
and the discoveries he had ipade ; and bid him return back, 
and go quite up the Euphrates as far as Pabjrlop, pursuant 
(o the hrst orders he had given him« 

In Carmania, many complaints were made to Alexander, 
concerning governors and other officers, who had grievot^y 
oppi*essed the people of various provinces during his ab-- 
sence ; for, fully persuaded he would never return, they had 
exercised every species of rapine, tyranny, cruelty* and op-, 
presiiion. But Alexander, strongly affected with their griev- 
ances, and pierc^ to the veiy soul with their just complaints, 
put to death as many as were found guilty of mal-adminis-i 
tration, and with them 6pp soldiers, who had been the instru- 
ments of their exactions and other crimes. He even after- 
wards treated with the same severity all such of his officers 
as were convicted of the like guilt, so that his government 
was beloved bj^ all the conquered nations. Ji^ was of opin- 
ion, that a prince owes these example^ of severity to his 
equity, which ought to check every If ind of irre^larity ; to 
his glory, to prov^ h^ does not ponnive or share iirthe injus- 
tice committed in his name ; to the consolation of his sub- 
jects, whoo) he supplies with a vengeance themselves ought 
never to exercise j in fipe, tq the safety of his dominions, 
wh^ch, by so equitable an administration, is secured from 
many . dangi&rs^ and very often from insurrections. It is a 
gi-eat unhappiness to a kingdom, when every part of it re- 
sounds with exactions, vexations, oppressions, and corrup- 
tion, and hot so much as a singly man is punished, as a ter- 
ror to the rest ; and that the whole weight of the public au- 
thority falls only upori the people, and never on those who 
ruin them. .-••:-• i - 

The great pleasure Ale^candeiftook in the account which 
Kearchus gave him of his success^ voyage, made that 
prince have a great ind&iatipn to go upon the ocean. Re 
proposed no less than to sail, ifrom ^the Persian gulf, round 
Arabia and Africa, a^d to retai:fi into the Mediterranean by 
the strait^ of Gibraltar, called a^ that time Hercules' Pillars; 
a vOjrage which had been several times attempted, and once 
pertormiod by order of a king of Egypli called Kechao, fs I 

for/. Xfit HISTORY OF ALEXANDEE. • 279 

have observfed felscwhere. It was afterwards his design, 
when he should have humbled the pride of Carthagfe) against 
which he was greatly exasperated, to cross ih to Spain, call- 
ed by the Greeks Iberia, from the river Iberus : he next 
was to go ovet the Alps, and coast along Italy, where he wculcl 
have had but a short passage into Epirus, and from 
tlience into Macedonia. For this pui-poscjhe sent orders to 
the viceroys of Mesopotamia and Syria, to build in several 
parts of the Euphrates, and particularly at Thapsacus, ships 
sufficient for that enterprise ; arid he caused to be felled, oi> 
mount Lebanus, a great number of trees, which were to b^ 
catried into the above mentioned city. But this project, as 
well as a great many more Which he meditated, were all de- 
feated by his early death. 

Continui ng his march, he went to Passagardac, a city of 
Persia. • Orsines was governor of the country, and the great - 
est nobleman in It. He was descended from Cyrus ; and, be- 
sides thte wealth he Inherited froni his ancestors, he himself 
had amassed great treasures, having, for tnany years, ruled 
a large coiintry. He had donie the king a' signal piece of 
service. 'The pcrsoh, who eovcmed the provinces during 
Alexander's expedition into* India, happened to die ; when 
Oi'sines observing, that, for want of a governor, all things 
werie vanning to confusion, took the administration upon him-* 
self, composed matters very happily, and preserved thein 
'vti the utmost tranquillity^ till Alexander s arrival, H« 
went to meet him, with presents of alt kinds for lUmself, as 
weU' as h'» officers. -These consisted of a great- number of 
fme managed horsesj chariots enriched with g0ld and silver, 
pteciofis iBOVables, jewfels, gold vases of prodigious weight, 
f»urpler(^s^ and 4000 talents of silver in specie, (about 
600,0001.); However, this generojis magnificence proved 
fatal to hifltf ; for hte presented such gifts^P the principaV 
grandees of'thexourt as? infinitely exceeded' th^' epcpecta-J 
ticaxs, but gave nothing to the euhuch Bagoas, tlife king's fa- 
vourite j and this not through forgetfulness, but out of con- 
tempt. Some persons telling him how much the king loved 
Bagoas, he answered, *' I bonour the king's friends, but not 
*' an infamous eunuch ." These words bem]^ told Bagoas. he 
employed all his credit to ruin a prince descended* fiom the 
noblest blood in the east, and irreproachable in his conduct; 
He even bribed some ofOrsines* attendants, giving iem in- 
stroctions how to Impeach him at a proper season ; and in the 
mean time, whenever he was alone with the Icing, \m filled 
his mind with suspicions and distrust, letting drop aixibig'u- 
ous expressions of that nobleman, as if by chfUice, r\VV dis- 
aeinUling very artfully the motives of his disc^tcntJ Ve\- 


ertheless, the kiog suspei^^ed his judgment ^r the pref^nt; 
but cUscovei^ lots esteem tlian before foi* Orsi^es, wbo^nev 
nothing of what wa$ plotting agauiht hiin, so secretly was tbe^ 
affair cai*ricd on ^ and the eunuch, in his private discourses 
vith Alexander, was perpetually cliarging. him .either with, 
exactions or treasoB. 

The great danger to which princes are exposed, is the 
sufiering tliwmselves to be prejudiced and over-reached ia 
this manner by their OEivourites ; a danger bo conunpHf that 
St. Beraixd, writing to Pope]^ugeniui4a6suve& him,^ t^^ if 
he were exempted u^om tfus v^gkness, he ^ay boa^t luijaeelf 
tobji tlu; only man in the world that ;s iK>. . VVhatiaji€r« 
spoken .of prioQes is applicable (o all wha represent Utepk 
Great men generally usten* with pleai^ur^b to 4ie slan^eyer ; 
and for tlii^ reason, becau£e he generally puts .<xi the mask 
of af!!^ctiQn and zesd, which ^qothje^. their pride. Slander aW 
ways makest some impresMon on the most ^quital^ minds^ 
and leaves behind it such dark and gloomy traces, aS' raiaa 
$uspicions, j.euluu$ies, and distrusts. The Wtful daqdeiser ifi 
bold and indt^ati^ki bccaube he is^ure to/e&cap^ impanr 
ished,'andis scnLsit)le that, he iunsrbfut :very/4ittle dat^r in 
greaUy prejudicing oUiers.. Wit^ i^^vd't;as]ie.^^i|i^^h^ 
seldom inquire into ^ecrc^t calumnies^ either ii^tioletitQey 

giddiness, or shame to appear suspicious, fearful, er dtSr 
ent ; in a word, from their un\vilUBgne8s to own^t^a^ thp]p 
■were imposed upon, and had abandoned themselves a. i^sfai 
credallty.^ In diis manner, the most unsullied virtue^ and 
the most irrepixAchable fidelity, are frec^^en^y btQUi^fe t» 
inevitable ruin. . . • ^ - - . :/'«•*.•' 

Of thi$ we haye 9; sad example on- the presen^TOOCftsiwi; 
Bagoasy ^fter.haVlng taken his measuiref at a-i&taiic^tat 
last gave birth tp lus v^ark desigjr. A Wander,.. hai>inp 
caused the moiuiotient, of.X^yrus,to he opened, ^:prder.t» 
perforin fun^i^al honoucsjto .the ashes ot thatgrea^pifince). 
found noUi't^g in it, but an old rotten shield^ two Bpythiaa; 
bows, afid.a scimitar ; whereas he hoped to find it Ml o( 
gold and silver, as the Persians had reported. The kins' 
laid a golden, crown oa'his u^n,; and CQveve<jl, ft ^v}th his 
cloak ; vastly surprised that ip powerful and renowtted.a* 
prinQc had not b'eeen buric/l.witlvrgjyeater pompthaj^ apn^ 

vatc map.' Bagoas, thinking this a proper- time for him to- 
peak, *^are we to wonder,*' says lip>.'- to find .the tQoibs <^ 
' king;s so empty, since thehou-scs of the governflrsof pro- 

** yinceiarfe filled with the g<)ld of which they iiave d«^wed 
*^ tliemt I, indeed,, had never seen this monumenJt ; hut i 
*' have Ueard Darius say,that immense treasures were buri- 
*' e4 in iu . Hgnpe flowed the unbounded lib^c«U^^ apd^^l^Q?*: 

« Pe Ctoiidor. 1, ii; c. 14. 

** fusion of Orsines, who> by bestowing what he could not 
^* keep, without ruining himself, thought to make a merit of 
*' this in your sight." This chaise was without the least 
foundation ; and yet the magi, who guarded the sepulchre, 
were put to the torture, but all to no pui^pose ; and nothing 
was disco^-ered relating to the pretended theft. Their silence 
lathis occasion ought naturally to have cleared Orsines » 
out the artful, insihuating discourses of Bagoas, had made a 
deep impression on Alexander's mind, and by that means 
given calumny an easy access to h. The accusers, whoni 
Bagoas had siiboi-ned, having made choice of a favourable 
moment, came and impeached Orsines, and charged him 
with the commission of several odious crimes, and, amongst 
the rest, with stealing the treasures of the monumeiit. At 
this charge, the matter appeared no loriger doubtful, and the 
indications wei^e thouglit sufficient ; so that this prince was 
loaded with chains before he so much as suspected that any 
accusation had beeii brought against him ; and was put to 
death, yrithout bein^ so much as heard, or confronted witli 
his accusers. Too unliap'py fate off kirtgs, who do not hear 
and examine things in person, and who still continue infat-> 
ilated, notwithstanding the numberless examples they read 
in history jof princes who have been betrayed in like man- 

I hare ali'eady said, that thei^d had foiloX^^ed the: king ah 
Indian czilled Caldinis, reputed the wisest man of his count- 
try, who, though he professed the pmctice of the most se- 
vere philosophy, had however been persuaded in his ex- 
treme old age, to attend upon the court. ♦This man hav- 
ing lived 83 yeai*s, without having been ever afflicted with 
sickness 5 and having a severe fit oi the colic, upo^i his 
.arrival at Passag^rdad, he resolved to put himself toi-'Cf^ th* 
Resolutely determined not to let the perfect health he had 
Always enjoyed be impaifed by lingering pains, and being 
also assured of falling into the hands of physicians, and 
being tortured with loads of medicine^ he besought <;he king 
to order the erecting erf a funeral pile foi* him ; and de- 
sired, that after he had ascended it, fire might be set to 
it. Alexander imagined Calinus might easily be dissuad- 
ed from so dreadful a design ; but finding, in spite of all 
the arguments he coUld use, that Calanus was still inflexible, 
be at last was obliged to acquiesce with it. Calanus theu 
rode on horse-back to the foot of the ftineral pile ; cfiered uf> 
his prayex^ to the gods ; caused libations to be performed 

* ArrUn, U vii^ p. 176. Diod. U vii, p. J73, s^j^ Plut. in ^Ica* 

2%i^ tflSTOlY OK At£XAKX>1Eft» J^VOk Xfr 

Upon himselfy and the rest of the ceremonies to be obserred , 
'Which are practised at.fuoerals ; cut olTa tijift of his hair^ 
in imitatiott of victims : embraced such of )m friends as 
wei-e present ; entreated them to be merry that d^y> to feast 
and carquse witii Alexaiider ; astsiftring them at the same 
time, that they vroukl soon see that prkice in Babylon. . Af** 
ter spying these wori^ he ascended) v^ith the utmost cheer- 
lubiesst tlie funeral pilc» laid himself down upon it, andcov;^ 
ered his face i and, when the flame catched hiin, he did not 
IBake the least motion ; but, 'with a patience and constancy 
that surprised the whole army, continned in the posture in 
-which he at fii*st )rad laid himsdf ; and completed his sacri- 
fice, by dying pursuant to tlie custom practised by the s^gea 
of his country. 

» The historian informs us, that people difiered very 
much in opinion witli i*e8pect to this action. Some con- 
demned it, as suiting only a frantic senseless wretch ; 
others imagined, he was prompted U> it out of vain-glon , 
merely for the sake of facing gaaed at, add to pass for a 
miracle in constancy (and these were not mistaken) ; i& 
fine, others applauded this false heroism, which had ena<* 
bled him to triumph in this manner over sorrow and death. 

Alexander beuig i^jaroed. in^o his tent alber tht^dreadf 
ful ceremony, invited several of his friends and generalof- 
ficera to supper ; andy in compliance witli CaUmus's re- 
quest, and to do him honour, he proposed a crown as a 
reward for him who ^lould quaif most^ He who con- 
oucred on this occasion was Promachus, who swallowed 
tour measures of wine, that is 18 or 20 pints, Aftear re- 
ceiving the prize, which was a crown worth a f talent, 
he survived his victory but tlwee days. Of these guests, 
41 i^ed of their intemperance : a scene worthy of cloi^g 
that which Calanus h^ a little before exhibited ! 

t From Passpgardac, Alexander came to Persepohs ; and, 
sttvveying the remains of the conflagration, was exaspera- 
ted against himself for his folly in setting it on fire. From 
hence he advanced towards Susa. Nearchus, in compliance 
with his orders, had b^un to sail op the Euphrates with 
his fleet ; but, upon advice that Alexander was going to Susa, 
he came down again to tiie mouth of the Pasi-Tigris, and 
sailed up this river to a bridge where Alexander was to 
pass it. Then the naval and land armies Joined. The 
king offered to his gods sacrifices, by way of thanks for his 
happy return, and gretvt rc^cings were nmderia the camp. 
Keai-chus recei%'ed Uie honours due to £im, for the care he 

•Dwd, 'f xcoo crowBf. J Aiiiah. 6t Ipdic. p, 347- ^h 

had tftfcei^of the flwt ; and for having eondocted it so f^r 
/*afe, tlM?o»gli.niMnabeirk»^ dangers.. - . ' 

. iyes;»ndeii^)(iin Susa^aHihe captive^ c^quaytyheh^ 
tefttlieir0. JHtp.martiedjSt^tiravDarius's eldest da^ugfiter, 
iaiid give the yoiijugeiit. to hi3 deaj^ H«phastion ,; and in o?- 
SiXfiT ti*at,'^ fi}i^kin|>^*th€9eiinan'ia^ djoi*^ common, hispwTi 
9HgUt not becen^red^ ho p^rsB^ikd th^ greatest noblemc^n 
in his court, i.aftd his prinQipttJ fayomites, to imitate hire. 
Accordingly they chose from avmmgst the noblest famines of 
Persk^ abobt ^0 young .n^^dens^ wboni.they married. , His 
design wav by these alliances, to' cement so strongly tl>e 
uoilpi^ of tbte X\^ najtions, th^t they ahwtd tlienceforward 
form bnt on^ (»«der his empire. The. nop^^ds y?ef e solcn?- 
nised. a^ter the Persian.. nianner. He Hkciwise; feasted j^ll 
tht ^est.ef the Macedonians who !»ad married Ijefpre in that 
oofiRtry.' It. Is. related thajttli«[revi»cre 96oo gaestsat tins 
feast^ and th^t he gave each of them a golden cup iqr t^e 

Nc^ satisfted with this bounty, he vwonld also pay his soJ- 
diers* debts. Btst fiitding that several WoiAd not declare the 
swmlhej}'' owed, far fear of its being an artiike merely to 
discover those amcmg. them who were tod lavish of their mo« 
msy fht appohited in his eanip, ofUcers, where aH debts were 
paid,^witho\it asking the name either of debtor or creditor. 
His liberality was very great on this occasion, and gave prp- 
di,^ious satisfaction ; .we are told that it amounted to near 
10,000 talents* ; but his indulgence, i» permittmg every 
person to conceal his name was a still more agreeable cir- 
cumstance. He reproached the soldiers for seeming to sus- 
pect the truth orf his promise, and saMl to them, 'H that a 
•* kir^ ought iieter to forfeit his word with his subjects ; 
*' nor his subjects stispect that he could be guilty of so sjmmp^, 
*' ful a prevarication .'^ A truly royal m axim, as it fornis 
. the Security of a people, and the most solid glory of a prince; 
vhich, at the same time^ may be renounced for ever, by the 
violation of a single promise ; which, in afiaira of govern- 
ment, is the most fatal of all errors. , 

And now there arrived at Susa 30,000 Pershm young 
nen^ mostly of the same age, and called Epigones, that js, 
succ^essors ; as coming to relieve the old soldiers in thtiir 
duty and long fatigtfes« Such only had been made choice joi 

* About x>500.oool. ^ . . . ^ • 

fOugar chrenai out oun ton basiiea alio ti e alcthetiein 

pros tos: hufieko ovs,^ oulc Ion ardiometwn tm^ n/ia. ji r 

Mciheuein dokcinjoh badka* 

m UUfofkf of AttkAtiVti. Book Wi 

^ m^Tt (he 'Stronger and best' shaped In aU Per&ia,and ha.iS 
been sent to the govemofs of such cities as were eithef 
fdiinded or coriquered b^ Alexander. These had^instrtfcted 
them In mtlitaiy discipltnej and In aH thhigs relating tqth<e 
science of war; They tircrfe all. Very neatly dressed and 
armed after the Macedonian manner. These came and 
encamped before the city, trhere,' ^aw^g ttp in battle ar- 
ray, tliey were reviewed ; and performed their exercises 
before the king, who was extremely well pleased, and very 
bountifvd to thent afterwards, at which the Macedonians 
took great umbrage; And indeed Alexander ^^bseftingthesf 
•were harassed and tired out with the length of the war, and 
often vented momvurfi and complaiiiits in the assemblies, he 
for that teason was desiroas of traifningnp thote new forces, 
purposely to check the licenttoasness of the veterans. It is 
dangerous to disgust a whole nation^ aad to Ikvcur foreiga-*" 

crs too openly/ 

•In the mean time HarpaWs, whom Alexander, during 
his expedition into India, had appointed govemof of Bahy-i^ 
Ion, quilted fais service. Flattering himself with the hopes 
that this prince wotdd never return from his wars in that 

* country, he had given a loose to all Idnds^ of licentionsness,- 

• and consumed in hisinfofnoos revels part di the wealth widi* 
which he had been hit rusted. As soon as he was informed 
that Alexander, in his ^return froto India, punished very se- 
verely such of his lieutenants as had abused theit power, 
he m^diuted how he might best secure himself ; and for thxtf 

- purpose he anfassed 5000 talents, that is, above 750,0001. a^' 
sembled 6OOO soldiers, witlidrew into Attica, and landed at 
Athens, f Immediately all si^ch orators as made a trade ef 
eloquence, ran to him hi ctowds, all t-eadv to be corrupted 

' by bribes, as they were before by hopes ot them. HarpaKts 
did n<^ fail to distribute a small part of his Wealth among 
these orators, to win them over to his Interest, but he of- 
fered Phociort 700 f talents, and even put his persoir under 
Ills protection, well knowing the prodigious authority he had 
over the. people. 

The fame of Ms probity, and particularly of hh disihter* 
estedness, had gained him tiiis credit. Philip^s depudeshad 
oliered him great sums of mone^ in that prmce*s name, and 
entreating him to accept them,- if not for himself at least for 
his children, who were so poor that it would be impossible 
for them to support the glory of his name : "If they resem-' 

•Ffttf.iii Bemoflh, p. i$f, Z^t. f ttut, la Phoc. p. U^* 

1700,000 crowDf, 

Sect^ XVII, ■■• »is^t)H«r of JiLBXANDiifr. "^ 

*^We me," repHed ?Phioci,ony « * the fittle spot of groilnaf 
" wkh the. produce of which I have.h^Ohefto IWed, and -which 
**ha8 raised me .to the giopyjyou raeution, tvUl be sufficient 
" to maintah^ shem ; if it will no^, Ixio not; intend to leave 
« them wealth, merely te foment and heighten their luxury/^ 
t Alexander iiaving likewise jent^hiM 100 ^talents, Phociim 
stskcxl those who brought them, upon what design Alexan- 
der sent, htm^ C^teat a sum, and did i^ot reitiit «iny tathe 
rest of the Athenians ? "It Is/' replied Wity^ *<:becatt9e Alex* 
: ^^ainder looks npoh ybu aa. the ofuy Justi«MM t?irtuon^ man." 
i Saty^ PJbocien^ f^let him fi^fikr me atiil :to ienj<^ that i:hArad** 
. ^ter, arid -hies reafiy what I aiA taken forv*' '• 
i ! /The feader:\iill' sup^xasie/tbaeh^ did not give a mor^-ia- 
rvxsirable reception to the {^fersons 9ttt hy mrjialus. And 
indeed he spoke to tbem in ?ir^ harsh termftj declaring, 
that hetfilnidsi iimnedialiely taktt cueh uneatares as SfoiM 
be yefy;dssagfreeaiaAe to tlief^ersoiv on t? hose <rraiid th^ 
. came, imcasB. he .did iK^.icaine off bribing the city ; 4o that 
Harpalus lost aH hopes from .tiiat cptarter. ^ 

-BemoBtheiier did not at first show imore^fiiivoar to l¥ar« 
^alitB.> He advised. tiite Atbentkn»>to^ di^ive him out .from . 
■ijtfdr eli^,. and' not to involve it in a^waf, upon a very xkA* 
jusl{ QocsasioB^ and'ttt; «lib iHrtse time^ wttihcut the least ne- 
CBssityvv^ ^ . ;'■:•.:•...•>/ / 

.Some days after, JSarp&lus, as an inventory was taking 
^Jiia^i^QCids, haying obserred' that Demosthenes took tf psir-' 
-ticufen* pleasure in viewibg- one of the king's cot^ of solid 
'^1d^ iiM tliat he adnurcd the fa^iion ancl the beanty of the 
.!waflqnahsidp, desisHd^ hiini to «ike it in bia;)iaiid,'aiidtdl 
•Mm the wei^t of k. Demosthenes tnkitl^ (he* ctip, wis 
surprised ait ita he^vhiess, and ac^^ordingly a^kedhoW m\n2h 
i£j«c3gh<id2 HarpEilus'ans^ered t^fth a smiie^ 20 {talents 
1 beliisver^ And that very ^evening Sent hwn that «nm Wt«h 
the cup: for so ^i-ieat was- Har|fallis*s penetration, that he 
ic«uld djwajprcrbytheair, and certain glances,* tfee f4iibleof a 
snan struck with<^{lse charms of gd^. Dembsthenes coufld n«t 
.yesist its^pawer/but, overeonie by this ptesehtj and being |f no 

: *^%xM\ Gbalfes ermit, i<leih bic, iftqair, «g«lbiS>illof «lec, 4*i ttie 

1^4 thijnc .'dienkstQiD fvttliixitf fid/^diffiiniUB Itot fsttfri, t»lo mcit 

. Jiiip«nfi9.^r^'.> 9l& ii^n^» ioxnmm ; Cor » Nep« in Phob. c^. v. 

fPlut. in Ph'oG. p. ^49. |t 00,000 cfowosi fzo, 000 crowns 

4Mch iomyoMB the'g(Sl(f wBidi had b«tii ac^'epCed by Demofthcfii^y 
to a garrifon of the coeray which a f^tcrxidr ihad received itifo hit 
cley^iDd thereby difpo&led himreff of the command of ic^ . JLI^oi»^ 

SH HtSTOR? OF ALEXAlfDtft. • Scok XV^ 

longer master of himself, he joined en a sUdden with 
Harpalus's party innd the very next mormng, wrap- 
ping his neck well imwooUen cldths,hewenttothe assem^ 
bly. The people theft ordered him to rise and make a 
Speech, but he refused, making signs that he had kist his 
voice ; upon which some wags cried aloud, that their or- 
ators had been seized in the night, not with a* squinancy, 
bat an argyraiKy ; th6rd)y intimating, that Iiarpalu&'« nno- 
ney had suppresscld ;his voide^ 

The people, being told next day .of the gift ^hxch had 
. been sent to Demosthenes, were highly exasperated, and 
refused to hear his justification^ . Harpafara was thereupon 
expelled the city i and in order to discover the persons ^ho 
had taken bribes, the magistrates commanded a strict 
search to be made in all houses, tha£ of Caricles excepted, 
who having married- but a httlsr befbre-w as exempted frdm 
this injury out of respect to his bride. The poUteness 
shown on this occasion dots honour to Athens, aiid is not 
always exercised elsewhere. ' » 

' D^osthenes to prove his innocence, proposed a decree, 
by which the senate of the areoni^S was empowered to 
.take cognisance of thi» matter^ . He was the. fisst they tried 
. and fined, upon being* eon vioted, 50* ttaleots, lor the pay 
ment of which he was thrown into prison ; however be 
found means to escape, and left his <5ouQtry. Demosthenes 
did not behave with resolution and magnanimity in his baiN 
ishment, residing ^^enerally at ^gina or Trezena, and ev- 
ery time he cast his eyes on Attica,^ Ms faie would be coir. 
. ered with teai^ ; and he 8u£feI^ed such w6rds. t6 dnm from 
.him as were unworthy a brave maa } words which by no 
means cpri'espond with his resoilute andgenerons behavioor 
during^ his administrsftlon.. Cicero was reproachisd with the 
same weakness in his exile^ wluch showi that groa^ men 
are not such at all times, and on all occasionsi - • . 

4 It were to be wished for the honour of eloquence, that 

what Pausanias relates in justification of D^mostfaenes were 

. true ; and it is very probable, it was so. A^^^o^dii^ to this 

atithor, Harpalus, after flying from Athens, was seized by 

Pbilo»eties the Macedonta6 ;: dnd being^racked, to* extort 

. from him. the named of such ^ Athenians as>had been bribed 

. i>y him^ he did &ot once mention IDjniKVithciaes, whose name^ 

.' • . -' . .) •. ".jf .\r 1 

. *f c i« «ni{>cffil»ki« tf aofllte the tgrc«abk pl»y of iBfe. Gicek. Wordsb 

OucA *u/io sUfiagchee e/ihrazo/n ail* mj^* krguragthe^ eU- 

: ephthai nuktorj<m -demagogcm, * 

tiOjOQO^owoa • ' |Pauliio.l,ivp«S4S. 


had'he \xm guiHj,^ he would not have supfpresied before » 
Philoxenus, m that orator was his enemy. 

Upon the first report of Harpalus's flying to Athens, A-* 
lexander, fully determined to go ip p^son to punish Hap- 
palus and the Ath^iians^iiLafl commaodiiMl^a fleet to be equip* . 
ped. But alter new« was brought that the people in their 
assembly had ordered hingi jto depart their city, he laid a»de 
all thoughts of returning into Europe, 

Alexander, having still the curiosity to sec the ocean, . 
came down. from .S«sa> upon the river Eulg&us ; and after 
having coaled tb/e Persian gulf to the mouth of the Tigris, 
he went up the river towards the army, which was en» 
camped on the banks of it, ne^r tjje cjty of Opis, under the 
command ,of Hephaestion, 

Upon his arrival there, lie published a declaration in the 
camp, by which all the Macedonians, who by reason of their 
age, wounds, or any other infirmities, were unable to sup- 
port any longer the fatigues of the service, were permitted 
to return into Greece ; declaring that his design was to dis** 
charge them, to be bountiful to them and send them back to 
their native country in a safe and honourable manner. Hi* 
iptention was, in making this declaration, to oblige, aqd at 
the same time give them- the strongest proof how greatly 
they were in his esteem. However, the very contrary hap- 
pened ; for, being airily disgusted upon some other ac- 
counts, especially by the visible preference which Alexan- 
der gave ttt the foreigners, they imagined that his resolu- 
tion was to make Asia the seat of hfe empire, and to disen- 
gage himself from the Macedonians 5 and 4:hat the only mo* 
tive of his doing this was, that they might make room for the 
new troc^ he had levied in the conquered countries. This , 
alone was sufficient to exasperate them to fury. Upon which 
without observing the least ortier or discipline, or retarding 
the remonstrances of their officers, they went to the king 
^ithan air of insolence which they had never assumed till 
then, and with seditious cries unanimously demanded to be . 
^scharged ; saying further, that since he despised the sol- 
diers who had gained him all his victories, he and his father 
Ammon might carry on the war against whomsoever, and 
la whjit manner they pleased ; but as for themselves, they 
were fully determined not to serve him any longer. 

The king, no way surprised, and without once hesitating) 
JHmps from his tribunal ; causes the principal mutineeifSy . 
whom he himself pointed out to his guards, to, be immedi- : 
ately seized, and orders thirteen to be punished. This bold * 
and vigorous action, which thunderstruck the Macedonians, 
^^Ppressed their coucage in aa instaitt. Quite amazed and .. 

f9$ nuronr or AtBxAi^iiERji Jkck XK 

coefomidedy md .seance dafriisg to look atmie sm^ther^ tbejr 
stood with dowi«cast ey^s^ aiv^ "Were so dis)>intedv8nd trem- 
bled io prodigibivsly, that they were unable either to zgfiik 
or even to thhik. Seeing them In this condition^ he r^aacxaadr 
ed.hiB tributtal, wbere after repe^kk^ to thdmV with a severe 
countenance, ai^d a menacing tone of voice, thse nimierous 
favours which l*hilip his father ha4 bestowed upon them, 
and all the marks of kindnefis and friendship by whij(^ he. 
himself had dxstingaifihed them, he concluded with these 
words : ♦♦you all desire a discharge ^ I grant it you. Go^ 
^Snow and publish to the whole world,- tHat jreu have left 
*'• your prince to the mercy of the nations He had cjcoqnered, 
" who were more affectionate to him tliaii you." After 
speaking this, he returned suddenly into his tent ; cashiers- 
iiis Old guard ; app(^nts aiYOtlVer in its place, all composed 
of Persian soldiers ; shuts himself up * for some days, and 
would not see any person all the time. 

Had the Macedonians been sentenced to die, U coidd not 
Jiftve surprised them more than when news was brought 
tHem> that tlie king had confided the guard :of his person to 
the Per^«R3. They could surpress tlieir grief no longer, so 
that nothing was heard but tries groans and ' lamentations. 
Soon after they all ran together to t^ king's- tent,- tferow 
down their arms, confessing their ^itt ; aciknc«r|.edg1ng 
their fault with tears'aqd sighs ; declare tliat the 4oss of life . 
>WU not h^ so grievous as the loss- of honour ; and pi^tcst 
that they will not leave the place till the king has pardoned 
them. At last ^Mexander co^ald no longer resist thp tender 
proofs they gave* of their sorrow and: repentance ; so that 
when he himsi^f, at bis coming out of hs tent, satvf tketti in 
tliis dejected 'condition, he could not refrain from tears ; 'aod 
afiei*'some gentle reproaches, which were-so6ened by an 
air of humaoity au4 kindness, he 4eo1area so loud as to be 
heard by themaU", thai he restored' t^m* to his lipiefidship. 
Thite was restoring them to life, as was manifest hom their 
shout^. ' 

' -He afterwards disoharged such Macedcmians as were no 
longer able to carry arms, and' sent them hack to their na* 
tii-e country with rich presents. He commanded that at the 
exhibltingof the public games, they should be allowod the- 
chief places inr .the theatre, and there sit wtttt xrowtis on 
their heads.; and g^v^ orders thataieehUdren of those who 
had; last ttoeir fives <in his service, should^ receive^ do'Hng; 
tlieir minority,^ the same pay which h*d,l>een' given their 
fathers. Siich suppoirt and honours grafted' to^veterins, 
m*ist necessarily ennoble, in a very conspicooos manner, thft 
«4lita»y pix)&ssion.4 It is not |K)'saiibte w -a-^;ovcr»m4$Ht to 


curieh eveiy -soldier in particular ; but it may animate and 
console him by marks of distinction, which inspire a strong- 
er ardour for war, mor§ constancy in the service, and no- 
bler sentiments and motives. 

Alexander appointed Cratenis tiommander of these sol- 
diers, tp whom he gave the government of Macedonia, Tljcs- 
paly and Thrace, which Antipater had enjoyed ; and the 
latter was commanded to bring the recruits instead of Cra- 
terus. The king had long since been quite tired with the 
complaints of Ids mother and Antipater, who could not a- 
gree. She charged Antipater of aspiring at sovereign pow- 
jBr, and th^ latter complained of her violent and untractable 
disposition ; and had often declared in his letters, that she 
did not behave in a manner suitable to her dignity. It was 
with some reluctance Antipater resigned his government. 

* From Opis, Alexander arrived at Ecbatana in Media, 
where, after having dispatched the most urgent affairs of 
the kingdom, he again solemnised games and festivals, — 
There had come to him from Greece 3C00 dancers, makers 
of machinery, and other persons skilled in diversions of this 
kind. It happened very unluckily, during the celebration 
of these festivals, that Hephaestion died of a disease which 
he brought upon himself. Alexander abandoning himself 
to immoderate drinking, his whole court followed his exam* 
pie, and uotneliraes spent whole days and nights in these ex- 
cesses. In one of them Hephastion lost his life. He was 
the most intimate friend the king had, the confidant of all 
his secrets, and, to say all in a word, a second self. Crate^ 
rusonly sisemcd to dispute this honour with him. A few 
^Qi*ds» which one day escaped that prince, shows the differp 
ence he made between these two courtiers. *' Craterus,** 
says he, <^ loves the king, but Hephaestion loves Ale?f an- 
der," This expression signifies, if I mistake not, that He- 
phastion had devoted himself in a tender and aiiectionate 
manner to the jjersjon of Alexander ; but that Craterus lov- 
ed him as a king, that is was concerned for his reputation, 
and swnetimes was less obsequious to his will than he was 
xealoas for his glory and Interest. Aii excellent character, 
but very uncommo!i. 

Hephxstien was as much beloved by all the courtiers, aii 
by Alexander himself. Modest, even-tempered, beneficent, 
free from pfide, avarice and jealousy j he never abused hii 
eredit, nor preferred himself to those ofBcers whose merit 
made them necessary to his sovereign. He was universal- 
ly regretted ; ti«* ^^^ deatb threw Alexander iuto execs*. 

•A.M. 368o,Aot,J.C.-3M, 


aivc »iTOW, to wWch he abandoned himself in such a mn* 
ncr as was unworthy so great a king. He seemed to re- 
ceive no consolation, but in the extraordtnary funeral hcn- 
ours he pa}d to his friend at his arrival in Babylon, whither 
he commanded Perdiccas to carry his corpse. 

In order to remove by business andemj^ojrment, the me* 
lancholy ideas which the death of his fcivonte perpetually 
awakened in his mind, Alexander marched his army a- 
gainst the Cosssi, a warlike nation inhabiting the moun* 
tains of Media, whom not one of the Persian monarchs had 
ever been aWe to conquer. However the king reduced them 
in forty days, afterwards passed tiic Tigris, and marched 
towards Babylon, 

SECTION xvni. 




Alexander being arrived within a league and an half 
of Babylon,* the Chaldeans who pretended to know futuri- 
ty by the stars, deputed to him some of their did men to ac* 
quaint him, that he would be in danger of his life in case 
he entered that ci^ ; and were very urgent with him to es 
no farther. Tlie Babylgiriish astrologers were held in sudi 
great reputation, that this advice made a prodigms im- 
presuon on his mind, and filled him with oonfaskm and 
di'ead. Upon this, af^er sending several of the grandeas of 
his court to Babykm, he himsett went another way ; and 
having marched about ten leagues, he stopped for some time 
in the place where he had encamped his army. The Greek 
philo8q>hers being tdd the foundation of his fear and sem- 
ises, waited upon him ; when, setting m the str o u a cst tight 
the prindples of Anaxagoras, whose tenets they mllowed, 
they demonstrated to him, in the strongest manner, the van' 
ity of astrology } and made him have so great a contempt 
IcM' divination in general, and for that dP the Chaldeans in 
particular, that he immediately marched towardf Babylon 
with his whole army. fHe knew that there were arrived in 
that city ambassadors from aH parts of the world, who wait- 
ed for his coming ; the whole earth echoing so much with 

• Arrian. 1. vK. p. »94— 309. Q^ Catt. I. X. c 4—r- Pl»t; 
io Alex. p. 705—^07. 
t W^. U Vll p |f7—i?3. Joith. I, til c. ij.-x(« 


&e€t.XVttL HiStOiY or AtExANUXR. 2Si 

the terror of his name, that the several nations came, "with 
inexpressible ardour, to pay homage to Alexander, as to 
him who was to be their sovereign. This view, which agree- 
ably soothed the strongest of all his passions, contributed 
very much to stifle every other refiectian, and to make hiin 
careless of all advice that might be given him ; so that he set 
forward with all possible diligence towards that great city, 
there to hold the states general, in a manner of the world. 
After making a most magnificent entry, he gave audience 
to all the ambassadors, with the grandeur and dignity suita- 
ble to a great monarch, ^md, at Uie same time, with the af- 
fability and politeness of a prince who is desirous of winning 
the afiection <rf all. He loaded those of Epidaums with great 
presoits for the deity who prclsides over their city as weU as 
over health, but reproached him at the same time. <^ JEscu-r 
**lapiu8,'* says he, ^has showed me but very little indul- 
f* g^ice, in not preserving the life of a friaidr who was as 
•* dear to me as myself.*' In private, he discovered a great 
i^endship for such of the deimties of Greece, as came to 
congratulate him on his victories and his happv return ; and 
he restored them all the statues, and other curiosities, which 
Xerxes had carried out of Greece, that were found in Susa^ 
Babylon, Passagardac, and other places. We are told, that 
itmoiig these were the statues of Hattnodius and ArlstogitOB^ 
and ^at they wete brtitight back to Athens. 

ilie anilMsadors from Corinth, having oflbred him in the 
tome of ^e city, the freedom of it, he laughed at an offer 
%hich seemed altogether unworthy of one who had attained 
Ki existed a pitdi of grandeur and power^ However, when 
JS^xasasOmr was tdd that Corhith had granted this privilege 
to Hercules only, he accepted it with joy, and pi(}ued him« 
wlf upon treading in his stepsy and resembling Inm in all 
thin^. But, cries Seneca,* in what did this frantfc young 
«ian, with whom successful temerky passed for viHue, rc<» 
temble Hercules ? The latter, free from all self^nterested 
^ews, travelled through the worM, merely to serve the sev-* 
eral natkos he visited, and to purge the earth of isuch rob^ 
hers as infested it : whereas Alexander, who is justly en** 
titled the plunderer of nations, made his glory consist in car- 
tying desmation into all plaecs, and in rendering himself the 
terror of teankind^ 

At the same time he wrote a letter, which was to have 
been read pubBdy in the assembly of the Olympic games, 
'wherei^ the several cities of Greece were commanded to 
F^mit all «ules to return into their native countryi those 

. * teics. da Beacf . 1. 1 c. s> 

292 BISTORT or ALEZAHBKff. ^^ I^. 

excepted who had committed sacrilegey or any ether crime 
deserving death ; and ordered Antipater to employ an arni' 
ed force against soch cities as should refuse to obty. Thi» 
letter was read in the assembly. But as for the Atbsnians 
and ^tolians, they <Ud not think themselves obliged to put 
ordeis in execution, which seemed to interfere with their 

Alexander, after having dispatched these affairs^ finding; 
himself now at leisure, began to think of Hephaestion's buri- 
al. This he solemnised with a ma^ficence, the like of 
which had never been seen. As he himself undertook the 
management of this funeral, he commanded all ths neigii' 
boariiig cities to contribute their utmost in exalting the pomp 
of it. He likewise ordered all the nations of Asia tdextiD* 
guish what the Persians call the sacred fire, till dlecererao* 
ny of Uie interment sliould be ended ; which was conuidered 
as an ill omen, it being never practised in Persia, except at 
llic death of its monarchs. All the officers and oouitierj, td 
please Alexander, caused images to be carved of that ia« 
vourite, of gold, ivory, and other precious materials. 

At the same time the king, havmg pi-ocored a great num* 
her ef architdcts and skilful wf»*kiiien, first caused nesr &i^ 
furlongs of the wall of Babylon to be beat down | a&d having 
got together a great number of bricks, and levelled the 
spot designed for the funeral pile, he had a moBtmagMo* 
cent monumental stracture erected over it. 

This- edifice was divided into 30 parts, in each whcrew 
was raised an uniform building, the roof. of which ^•^* 
ercd with great planks of palm-tree wood. The whole form* 
ed a perfect square, the circumference of whicli was adm*« 
cd with extraordinary magnificence. Each side was a»j^ 
long, or leO fathoms in length. At the foot of it, ftnd a the 
first row, were set 244 prows of ships gilded, ondje battrej* 
«es,* or Bupp»>rters, whereof the statues of two aiHjhers, »»J 
cubits high, with one knee on the ground^ w4re fixtd ; ^ 
two other Yiatoes, in an upright posture, completelraHnco) 
bigger than the life, being five cubits in height. The spt^ 
between tho prows were spread and adorned with PJHT^ 
cloth . Over these prows was a coiotuiade of large flanabeaiJ J 
the shafts of which were 15 cubits high, embefli«hcd witn 
crowns of gold at the part where they are hdd. The flaroe 
of those flambeaux ending at the top, tcnmnated towaros 
eagles, iriiich, with their heads turned downwards^ and cx» 
tended wings, served as capitals. Dragons fixed D«sr, « 

• Is Oreck Epofiides, or eati. Thete arc two piccw of tifflbf'r 
which prrjca u the right sod the left 4ftU ftom. 


upon the base, tamed theit heads upwards towards the ea- 
gles. Over this colonnade stood a thirds io the base of which • 
was rep^sented, in relievo, a party hunting animals of eve* 
ly kind. On tlie superior order, that is, the fourth, the com- 
bat of the centaurs was represented in gold. Finally, on the. 
Bfthf golden figures, representing lions and bulk, were plac- 
ed alternately. The whole edince terminated with military 
trophies, after thd Macedonian and barbarian fasfiion,^s so 
many cymbals of the victory of the former, and defeat pf the 
latter. On the entablatures and roof were represented sy- 
rens, tiie hollow bodies of which were filled, but in an ix^- 
perceptiUe manner, with musicians, who sang niourni^l airs 
and dirges in honour of the deceased. This edifice w^s up- 
wards S 130 cubits high, that is, above 195 feet. 

The beauty of the design of this structure, the singularity- 
and magnificence of the decorations, and the several orna- 
ments of it, surpassed the most wonderful productions of 
fancjT, and were all in an ea^quisite taste. Alexander had 
appointed to superintend the building of this edifice, Stasl- 
crates, a great architect, and admirably well skilled in me- 
cbanioB, in all whose inventions and designs there appear(*d» 
not only prodigious magnificence and surprising boldness, 
but such a ^eatness as was scarce conceivable. 

* It was this artist, who discoursing some time before with 
Alexander, had told him, that of all the mountains he knew, 
iKme would so well admit of being cut into the shape of a man, 
as mount Athos in Thrace : that, if he therefore pleased but 
to give orders, he would make this mountain the most dura- 
ble of aU statues, and that which would lie most open to the 
view of the universe. In its left hand it would hold a cuv, 
consisting of 10,000 inhabitants ; and from its right should 
pour a great river, whose waters would discharge them- 
lelves in the sea. One would have thought that this project 
would have pleased Alexander, who sought for the great and 
marvellous in all things ; nevertheless he rejected it, and 
wisely answered, that it was enough there was one prince 
whose felly mount Athos would eternize. This was meant 
of Xerxes, who having endeavoured to cut through the isth^ 
luus of that mountain, wrotef a letter to it in the most proud 
and senseless terms. ^ With regard to myself," says Alex- 

* ?Iat. de fortun. Alrx. tera». L p. 335. 

t Proud Athot, who Kftctt thy bead to hesven, be nut so bold 
tt to oppoie to aif workmeo rack rocks and ttooeiu they cao- 
Bot eat s otberwiie, I mill cut tbce quite to ptecct} and. throir 
i^s Into the sea« Plat, de ira colub. p* SSS^ 

<J94 HISTORY or iiLBXAVDirt. Mwk XT» 

ander, « mount Caucasus, the river Tanidt,* theCaspaa 
^^ sea, all whidi I passed in triumph, shall be mf mo&u- 
" mcnt." 

The expence of the splendid monument which this pmcc 
erected in honour of Hephaestion, with that of the forcral, 
amounted to upwards of 12,000 talents, that Is, mote than 
1 ,8 00,0001. But, what man was ever so ridiculously and ex- 
trav-^ntly profhse ? All this gold, all this silver, vas no 
other than the blood of nations, and the substance of provin* 
ces, which were thus sacrificed to a vain ostentation ! 

To crown the affection which Alexander had for his de- 
ceased friend, something was still wanting to the honours he 
paid him, to raise them above human nature ; and this was 
what he proposed, and for that purpose had sent tothettoi* 
pie of Ammon a trusty person, named Philip, to Inqtiirethe 
will of the god. It doubtless was the echo of that of AleX' 
ander ; and the answer was, that sacrifices might be oflered 
to Hephaestion, as a demi-^. These were not spared in 
•ny manner ; Alexander himself first setting the example, 
when he made a great feast, to which upwards of 10,000 
persons were invited. At the same time he vrrote to Cleo- 
mencs, governor of Egypt, commanding him to build a tem- 
ple to HephaKStion in Alexandria, and another in the i*^ ?* 
Pharos. In this letter, which is still extant, to excite his (W- 
igence, and hasten the work, he grants the governor (who 
was despised universally for his injustice and rapine) a gen- 
eral panlon for all his crimes, past, present, and future; 
provided that, at his return, the temple and city should be 
completed. And now nothing was seen but new altars, tem- 
ples, and festivals ; no oaths were administered but m the 
.name of the new deity : to question his divinity was a capital 
crime. An old officer, a fi*iend of Hepharation, having be* 
wailed him as dead, in passing before his tomb, had like to 
have been put to death for it ; nor would he have been pai^ 
doned, had not Alexander been assured, that the officer 
wept,, merely from some remains of tenderness, and net as 
ifoubting Heph»stion*s divinity. I cannot say whether Awx- 
ander prevailed so far as to make any one give credit toHe- 
ph»stion*s divinity ; but he himself appeared, or at 1«***.^ 
deavoured to appear, firmly persuaded of it ; and g|<>ri^j 
not only that he had a god for his father, but that he himseiJ 
could make gods. How ridiculous is all this I . « i^ 

During almost a year which Alexander continued io Bal^ 
Ion, he revived a great many projects ip his mind ; «ncha5 
to go round Afiica by sea ; to make a complete discorerf w 

* The laisi chca it here meaot^ 

iSrit. Xflll, Histcitr dfAiKXAirinrtti' s#5 

rII the nations lying ronnd the Caspian sea, and fofinbltlMglt^ 
coasts ; to conqoer Arabia, to make war with Carthage, ard 
to subdue the rest of Europe. The very theng^ts of sxttmg 
still feti^ed him, and the great vivacity of his iTAagination 
and ambition would never sufifer him to be at rest ; nayj 
coald he have conquered the whole worid, he would hare 
sougiit a new one, to satiate the avidity of his desires. 

The embellishing of Babylon also employed his thoughts 
very much. Finding it surpassed in extent, in convenicnc}', 
and in whatever can be wished, either for the necessities or 
pleasures of life, all the other cities of the east, he resolved 
to make it the seat of his empire ; and for that purpose, was 
desirous of adding to it all the conveniencies and ornaments 

This city, as well as the country round about it, had sufi 
fered prodigiously by the breaking of the bank or dike cf the 
Euphrates, at the head of the canal called Pallacopa. /i^t 
river running out of its usual channel by this breach, over* 
flowed th^ whole country ; and forcing its way perpetually^ 
the breach grew at last so wide, that it would have cost a!i 
most as much to repair the bank as the raising of it had don^ 
at first. So little water was left in the channel of the Eu- 
phrates about Babylon, that there was scarce depth enough 
tor small boats, which consequently was of great prejudice 
to the city. 

Alexander undertook to remedy this ; for which purposife 
he embarked upon the Euphrates, in order to take a view di 
the place. It was on this occasion that he reproached, in a 
ludicrous insulting tone of voice, the magi and Chaldeans^ 
^ho accompanied him, for the vanity of their predictions j 
since, notwithstanding the ill omens they had endeavoured 
to terrify him with, as if he had been a credulous woman, 
he however had entered Babylon, and was returned from ft 
very safe. Attentive to nothing but the subject of his voyage, 
he went and reviewd the breach, and eave the proper or- 
ders for repairing and restoring it to its former condition. 

This design of Alexander merited the greatest applatisc. 
Such works are truly worthy great princes, and give im- 
mortal honour to tlieir name, as not being the eflftct cf a rl- 
cliculdus vanity, but entirely calculated for the public good. 
'Bf the execution of this project, he would have recovered a 
whole province which lay under water, and have made tht 
river more navigable, and consequently of greater service 
to the Babylonians, by turning it all again uitd its diannel as 

This work, after having been carried on the length of 30 
furlongs (a league and a half), wm stopped by cUfficuldes 

896 numcmw ow AMxAWMa. B<f^ 17. 

owiM to tM aatara of the 8oB ^ «nd die death of tlus pmee, 
which happened <ooo after, put an eod to this project, and 
•everal others he had iomed. An^^remec^iise, unknowDto 
Biea, prercated its executioo. The real obstacle to the suc- 
cess ov it, was the curse which God had pronounced ataiust 
tiiis eitjr ; aa anathema wlUch no human power could diyert 
cr retard. *I ^^ will col off from Babylon the name and 
^ remnant,** had the Lerd of hosts sworn abore 300 years 
before: ^< I will also make it a possessiixi for the bitten, and 
^ poob of water : and I will sweep it with the besom of des- 
« tmction— tit shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be 
^ dweh in from generation to generation, neither shall the 
<* shoiherds make thar fold there." Heaven and earth 
would sooner have passed away, than Alexander's design 
bean pat in execution. No river was now to flow by Baby- 
loo ; the places round it were to be overflowed and chao^ 
into uninhabitable fens ; it was to be rendered bacceasible 
bf the prodigious quantides of mud and dirt ; and the city, 
as well as the country about it, were to be covered with 
atagnated waters, which would make all access to it imprac- 
ticable. iThus it now lies ; and all things were to coaspire 
to reduce it to this dejected state, in order that the propbrcy 
night be completely fulfilled; <<$ for the Lord of hosts hati^ 
f< purposed, and who shall disannul it I And bis hand is 
^ stretched out, and who shall turn it back V* Nothing shows 
n^re evidently the strength and weight of this inviooble 
carse, than the eilbrts of the moat powerfol prince that ever 
feigned ; a prince the most obstinate that ever was, with re- 
gard to the carrying on his projects ; a prince^ of whose en- 
terprises none had ever miscarried ; and who Med io this 
cnly, though it did not seem so diflKcnlt as the rest. 

Another design which Alexander meditated, and bad most 
at heart, was Uie repairing the temple of Belus. Xerxes 
had demottshed it m his i^tum from Greeee^andit hadlua 
in ruins ever nnce. Now Alexander was resolved, not only 
to rebuild it, but even to raise a much more magnificentteio- 
ple. Accordingl)^, he had caused all tlie rubbish to be re- 
moved ; and finding that the magi, to whose care he had 
left this, went on but slowly, he made his soldiers worK. 
notwithstanding 10,000 of them were daily employed at it, 
Ibr two months successively, the work was not ^^^ 
the death of tliia prince, so prodigious were its ruii^. |)Whea 

* Iwisb, e. a'lv. %%.'%%. f It»ld» e. aiii. la 

% See what it taid OQ this sabjcct in the hiicf rj af Cyn***^ 
§ U^iak c. ziv. a;. 
IJolopbos cemra Afpisa. Ii if c, ۥ 

Sea. iVll. XtST^St Of A%ZXA»tEt, iMf 


it catne to the turn of the Jewish soldiers, \rh6 were in hid ^ 

aiinjr, to work as the rest had done, they could iMt be pre-» ^ 

vailedupon to give their assistance ; but excused themselves 

with saying, that as idolatry was iavtii^ by the tenets of their 

religion, they therefore wercf not allowed to assist in b«ild4 ^ 

ing of a temple, designed for idolatrous worship ; aod ac« 

cordingly not one lenca hand on this occasion. They were , V 

punished for disobedience, but all to no purpose ^ so tiMit at N 

last Alexander, admiring their perseverance, discharged 

and sent them home. This delicate resolution of the Jews 

is a lesson to many christians, as it teaches them, that they 

ai*e not allowed to join or assist in the coihmiSsi<m of an «£•• 

tion that is contrary to the law of God. 

One cannot forbear admiring the conduct of providefice 
on this occasion. Ged had broke to pieces fay the hand of 
his sef vant Cyrus, the idol * Belus, the god who rivalled th« 
Lord Of Isra.el : he afterwards caused Xerxes to demolish 
his temple. These iirst Uows which the Lord struck at 
Babylon, were so many omens of its total ruin ; tad it waft 
»1npOssibi£e for Alexander to coiniplete the rebuilding of tbi» 
temple^ as for Julian, some centurlea after, to restore ihae of 
Jerusalem. . . • , , 

Although Alexslnd^ Employed himself in the wprfk* aboft 
mentioned, during his stay in Babylon, he spi^ the greater 
est part of his time itl such pleasures as Ihal city afforded i 
and one , would conclude, thak the chief aijM, both of hia o6^ 
cupatiouB euxd dtversionB, irfA to s\upi^hittiseli^ 8*d to ihiv^ 
from his nvind the melancholy and afficting ideas of an im^ , ^ 

peudiii^ deatiit with which iie WHs threatencid ky. all Uii^ 
predic^ttia ol th6 nmgi) aud other. soQthamyers ; For though^ 
m certain moments, he seemed not to rejj^rd the rairSBifl^. 
fiotices Whioh had bet^giliea hsm, he Waa however seriodsly 
afifected .with them ia^ardly ; aild the^e glootuy riffectisn. 
ivere for ever rdsiming t» his mind < They terrified him ail 
l^Ut to sitch a degress, that trheneirer the most ii«igni6eaii% 
thing bf^pfieaed) if etir s6 Uttlef extraotdinaiyandanusiialt 
his imagiAalion 6\reUed it iiftiMtdiately to a prodigy. Had: ia* 
teiprclpd M into bh .unhappv omen. The palace was noir 
filled wilh sacrifices, wkh penona whose oAcc waa to per# 
form expiations and purliications, and with others who pre* 
tended to prophesy. It was certainly a spectacle worthy.^ 
philo^p^ic eye, to see a pnnce, at whose nod the world treili • 
bled, abandoned to the strongest teri*ors j so true is it, says 
Plutarch, that if the contempt of the gods, and the incredur 
lity w^(^ prompts u^ neither to fe^ or.believe aay things 

*Oo4 gives htm tha nsme in Iisiab. 

^X BISTOKT O* ALKl^AirVBB. Book tf. 

be aneat flMortQiie,the toperstitkns man, whose soulisa; 
prevto die most abject fea^ the most ridictilons Mies, is 
equally wriiappf ^ It Is plain that God, by a just judgment, 
took a pleasi^re in degrading, before all ages Md nations, and 
in sinrag lower than the condition of the virigar, the man 
who had affected to set himself above human natore, and 

2u^ himself to the Deity. This prince had songht in aU 
I actioDS, tint vain glory of conquests whidv men most ad' 
mire, and to which thlsy affix, more than to any thing ebe, 
the idea of grandeur » and God delivers htm up to a ridicu- 
knt soperstitlGn, which virtuous men of good sense and un- 
deratandhig det{^te most, and than wblch nothing can be 
more weak or grovefine. 

Alexander was therefore for ever solemnising new fes- 
tivals, and perpetually at new banquets, in wtdch he ^uafied 
witii his usQU intemperance. After havhig ^)ent a whole 
n^t in cafoosbg, a second was proposed to him. He met 
accor^ng^y, and there were twenty gueats at table. He 
drank to the health of every person hi company, and thai 
Bledged them severally. After this, calUngfor Heradess 
cap^ winch held n« bottles, it was tiled, when he poored 
it aU down, drinking to a Macedonian of the companyr 
Proteaahy name, aid aflerwards pledged him agahimthe 
•ameforious bumpen He had no sooner swiiBowed it^btit 
fae foU upon the floor. •'Here then," cries Seneca*, de- 
•eribfaig the fatal eflfects of drunkenness, <<is this hero ; 
«* invincible to all tive toils of prodigious manches, Co the 
<< dangers of negea aiid combats, to the most violent ex- 
•«tremes>af heat and cold ; here he lies, oooq^Kred by b» 
•(intemperance, and atniok to the earOi by Hie fttal cup 
•< of Hercules V 

In this condi^ he was sdaed with a violent fever,and 
carried half dead tcHkis palace. ThefoveroontinBed,the)ngh 
aome good intervals, Ih w^hich fae nve the necessary op 
dera for the saiikig of the iest, and tha marclObg of bis 
land«<forces, being persuaded he should aoon recover. Bot 
at last, finding hhnsetf past aH hopes, and 1^ voice be^ 
mng to fail, he drew hia rfaig fri^a his finger, sad gave it 
toPer^qcasywiihefdcrstOGflBveyhiacofpee «»tha tettple 
ofAmmoa* x 


Mlenndnmitet Idnera* tat pr^, tot (feidt;, per f»*'»T* 
tevporttm locommqae difficaltatt. tfantierst, tot AoQio* '< 'fjS^ 
cadcntfa, tet maris tatam dimiKranc t intempcnbtis bib<fl^}» 
Ula Hefsahoevf ac fsidii aeypbat c^MCk. Scaet. ^ •^ 


Notwithstanding* his g^t ireakness, he however strug 
gitid with death, and raising himself upon his elbow, pre« 
sented his soldiers, to whom he could not refiise this last tes- 
timony' of friendship, his dying hand to kiss. After this, 
his principal courtiers askmg to whom he left the empire, 
he answered, ^^to the most worthy ;*' adding, that he foresaw 
the decision of this would give occasion to strange fiine* 
ral games after his decease. And Perdiccr.s inquiring for- 
ther, at what time they should pay him divine honours, he 
replied, "when you are happy." These were his last words, 
^nd soon after he expired. He was thirty-two years and 
eight montlis old, of which he had reigned twelve. He 
died in the middle of the $pring, the ^fst year of the 114th 

fNo one, says Plutarch and Arrian, suspected then that 
Alexander had been i)oisoned ; and yet it is at this time that 
such reports generally prevail. But the state of hb body 
proved that he did not die that way : for all his chief offi- 
cers disagreeing among themselves, the corpse, though it 
lay quite neglected for several days in Babylon, which stands 
in a hot climate, did not show the least symptoms of putre- 
faction. The true poison which brought him to his end was 
wine, which has killed many thou»nds besides Alexander. 
It was nevertheless believed afterwards, that this prince 
had been poisened by the treachery of Antipater's sons : 
that Cassander, the eldest of them, brought the } poison 
from Greece ; that lolos, his younger brother, threw the fa- 
tal draught into Alexander's cup, of which he was the bearer; 
and that he cunningly chose the time of the great feast men^ 
tioned before, in order that theprodig^s quantity of wine 
he then drank might ponceal the true cause of his death. 
The state of Antipater-s affairs at that time gave some 
grounds for tliis suspicion. He was persuaded that he had 
been recalljcd with no other view than to nun him, because 

*QjR9Pqiiam violcotia morbi dSUbtbstur, in cubitom tsmeo tttt* 
tus, deitimm omn«b«s, qui earn continirere vellcot, porreiit. Qoii 
aniem illam osculari noo correret* qoc jam lito oopreisa, ipaiimi 
nercitQi rompleiQi, humaDitace qmm spirita vividiorc, tttffiuC f 
Val. Max. I. », c, x. 

fA. M, 3683, Ant, J. C. 311. 

%\x. IB pretended that chiB poiton wa* aq ettreiRcIf cold wafer* 
which dittita drop by drop, from a rock in Arcadia, called Non« 
acrif. Very little of it Mis s and It Ib fo vastly Aarp, that It 
corrodes whatever vcfiel receives it, thofe cscepted which ar« 
made of a mules hoof. We are told, that it was brovght for this 
horrid purpose from Greece to Babjioo, in a vessel o^he Utter sore. 

SOO . •' XtSTOlT -OT A IBXAVDCt. Book JL7, 

of his mal a^hnihialrsiioD dumg his vice royalty ; and it 
was not altogether improbable that he GomTnajided his soni 
to cominit a ciime, which would save his own life) by taking 
away that of his sovere^. An undoubted circorastaace is, 
that he could never wash out this stain ; and that, as kag as 
he lived, tlie Macedonians detested hiro as a traitor wholisd 
poisoned their king. Aristotle was also suspected, but with 
•BO fi^reat foundation. 

Whether Alexander lost his life by poison, or by excessive 
4riidLing, it is surprising to see the prediction of tlie ma^ 
and soothsayers, with regard to his dying in Babylon, so cx^ 
lictly fulfilled. It is certain and indisputable, that God has 
t^escrved to himself only the knowledge of futurity ; and i£ 
the soothsayers and oracles have sometimes foretold things 
which really came to pass, they could do it no other way 
than by their impious correspondence' with devils, who, by 
their penetration and natural sagacity, find out several me- 
thods whereby they dive to a certain degree into futurity with 
regard to a]>proach]ng events, and are enabled to make pre* 
.dictions, which, though they appear above the reach of hu- 
man understanding, are yet' not above that of malicious spir- 
its of darkness. The ktmwledge * those evil spirits have 
of all thexircumstances which precede and prepare an event; 
the part they frequently bear in it, by insjnring such c»f the 
wicked as are given up to them, with the thoughts and de- 
sire of doing certain actions, and committing certain crimes ; 
«n inspiration to which they are sure those wicked persons 
will consent : by these things, devils are enabled to foresee 
und foretel certain particulars. They indeed often mistake 
in their cwijcctures, but f C^od also sometimes permits them 
to succeed in them, in order to punish tlie impiety of those, 
who, in contradiction to his commands, inquire their fate erf 
such lying spirits. 

The moment that Alexander's death was known, the 
who'e palace echoed with cries and groans; The van- 
quished bewailed hitn with as man^^tears as the victors. 
The grief for his death occasioning the rememtjrance of his 
many good qualities^ all his faults were forgotten. The 

*Dx!nooes pervert's (solent) malefa^a rasders, 4« qsohrni mo* 
riboi Cicrtt sont quod sine eis talia snsdeiltiinit cocaeiMuri. SQad- 
~^At antom mnria ct invliibiUbiis modis* 8. Aug. de Dtviaat. l>£c- 
tnon. p» 509. 

• f Facile tut ct noa incoBgrnQm ; at omnipotons ct jnftos, «d 
eorom po4oam qaibya hca prsedienctnr-^-occnlco apparatv minnte* 
voruiQ fiiorum «tiani fpiritibos talibuaaliqaid dnrkiatiooii imp^tiac. 
W, Aug. ds i>iv. Qwi»t* ad Sinplic. 1« ti, Qo^ft j. 

Sect. XVIIL BISTORT or ai^^xavder. 8dl 

Persians declared him to have been the mostjust, the kind* 
•est sovereign that ever reigned over them ; the Macedonians* 
the best, the most valiant prince in the universe ; and all 
exclaimed against the gods, for having enviously bereaved 
mankind of him, in the Sower of his age, and the height of hi* 
fortune* The Macedonians imagined thjeysaw Alexander, 
with a firm and intrepid air, still lead them on to battle^ 
besiege cities, climb wali^t, and reward such as had distin« 
guished themselves. They then reproached themselvef 
Jbr having refused him divine honours, and confessed they 
had been ungi'atefi^l and impious, for bereaving liim of 4 
name he so justly merited. 

After paying him this homage of veneration and tears, 
they turned their whole thoughts and reflections on them<r 
selves, and on the sad condition to which they were re^r 
.duced by Alexander's death. They considered that they 
were on the farther side (with respect to Macedonia) of th^ . 
Euphrates, without a leader to head them, and surrounded 
■with enemies, who abhorred tlieir new ycAie. As the king 
died without nomii^ating his successor, a diseadful futurity 
presented itself to their, imagination, and exhibited nothing 
but divisions, civil wars, and a fatal necessity of still slied^ 
.ding their blood, and of opening their former wounds, not to 
conquer Asia, but only tcL.gkk(e a king to it, and to raise to 
. tlie.thrpne perhaps some mean officer or wicked wretch. 

This great mounnng was not: confined merely to Babylon, 
but spread over all the provinces ; and the news of it soon 
reached Darius' mother. One of her daughters was "vvith 
lier, who being still inconsolable for the death of Hephaestion 
her husband, the sight of the public calamity recalled all her 
private woes. But Sy<sigamys bewailed tlie sevei»al misfor*. 
tunes of her family ; and this new aiBiction awakened the 
remembra^ice of all its former suflf^rings. One would hav« 
thought that Darius was but just dead, and. that this unfor- 
tunate mother solemnised the funeral of two-sons at the samft 
time. She wept the living no less tlian the dead : '< who 
*< now," would she say, ** will take care of ray two daughf 
'^« tcrs ? Where shall we find another Alexander ?" She 
•would fancy she saw them again reduced to a state of cap- 
-tivity, and that they had l6st their kingdom a second time ; 
but with this difference, that, now Alexander was gone, they 
had no refuge left. At last, she sunk under her grief. Thi^ 
prii^cess, who had borne with patience the death of her fath-i 
er, her husband, eighty of her brothers, who were murdered 
in one day by Ochus ; and, to say all in one woi*^»j that, of 
i^ams her scm^ and the iwln of hei* &mi)y ; though she h^d^ 


I say, submitted patiently to all these losses, she, however, 
had not strength of mind sufficient to suppon herself after 
the death of Alexander. She would not take any sustenance, 
and starved herself to death, to avoid her surviving this last 

After Alexander's death, great contentions arose among 
the Macedonians about appointing him a successor, of which 
i shall give an account in its proper place. After seven days 
spent in confusion and disputes, it was agreed that Arida&us, 
bastard brother to Alexander, should be declared king ; and 
tliat in case Roxana, who was eight months gone with child, 
should be delivered of a son, he should share the throne in 
conjunction with Aridseus, and that Perdiccas should have 
the care of both ; for Andxus was a wes^k man,- and want* 
cd a guardian as much as a child. ^ 

The Egyptians and Chaldeans having embalmed the king's 
corpse after their manner, Aridaus was appointed to convey 
it to the temple of Jupiter Ammon . *T\vo whole years wc re 
employed in preparing for this magnificent funeral ; which 
made Olympias bewail the fate of her son, who having had 
the ambition to rank himself amone the gods, was so long de- 
prived of burial, a privilege allowed to the meanest of morlais. 



The reader would not be satisfied, i£i after having given 
a detail of Alexander's actions, I sh€fuld not take notice of 
the judgment we are to form of them ; especially as auihors 
have entirely differed in their opinions, with regard to the 
merits of this prince. Some have applauded him with a 
kind of ecstacy, as the model of a perfect hero, which opin- 
ion seems to have prevailed ; others, on-^e coiitrary, have 
t^presented him in such colours, as at least suUy, if not quite 
eclipse, the splendour of his victories. 

This diversity of sentiments denotes that of Alexander's 
-qualities ; and it niust be confessed that good and evil, virtues 
and vices, were never more equally blended, than in t the 
prince whose history we have written. But this is not all ; 
for Alexander appears very different, according to the time 
or seasons in which we consider him, as Livy has very just- 

» JEliao, I. xiM, c. 30. 

f Lnxuria, iDdostrU ^ coinmit^te, aiTOgantia \ imUii bomsfw ap» 
iSbui mhtas. Tacii. 


ly observed. In the inquiry he makes concerning the fate 
of Alexander's arms, supposing he had turned them to- 
wards Italy, he * discovers in him a kind of double Alexan- 
der 5 the one wise, temperate, judicious, brave, intrepid, but 
at the same time prudent and circumspect s the other im- 
mersed in all the wantonness of an haughty prosperity ; 
vain, proud, arrogant, fiery ; softened by delights, abandon- 
ed to intemperance and excesses ; in a word, resembling 
Darius rather than Alexander ; and having made the Mace- 
donians degenerate into all the vices of the Persians, by the 
new turn of mind, and the new manners he assumed after 
his conquests. 

I shall have an eye tathis plan, in the account I am now 
to give of Alexander's character, and shall consider it under 
two aspects, and, in a manner, two eras ; first, from his 
youth to the battle of Issus, and the siege of Tyre, which fol- 
lowed soon after ; and secondly, from that victory to his 
death. The former will exliibit to us great qualities Avith- 
few defects, according to the idea the heathens had of these * 
the second will represent to us enormous vices, and, notwith- 
standing the splendour of so many victories. Very little true 
and solid merit, even with regard to warlike actions, a feW 
battles excepted^ In which he sustained his reputation.. 


We are first to acknowledge and adwiire m Alexander. 
ia happy dispositioi^, cultivated and improved by an excel- 
lent education. He had a gi*eat, noble, and generous soul, 
f He delighted in bestowing and doing service, qualities he 
had acquired in his infant years. A young lad, whose busi- 
ness it was to gather up and throw the balls when he play- 
ed at tennis, to whom he had given nothing, taught him a 
good les'^on on that subject. As h^ always threw the ball^ 
to the other players, the king, with an angry air, cried out 
to him, " and am I then to have no ball ?** " No sir," re- 
J)lied the lad, " you do not ask roe for it." This witty and 
ready answer gave great satisfaction to the prince, who fell 
a laughing, and afterwards was very liberal to him. After 

* Et loqaimnr de Aletandro nondmn merso secuDdis rebus qua- 
fuin nemo intoierantidr futt. * Qui si ez habitu novae fortunae, novi- 
que, ut ica dicam, ingenii, quod stbi victor inducrat, spectetur. Da- 
tio magit quam Alezandro io Italiam venissct, et ezercituixi Mace* 
doniae oblituiu, drgeneraotemqae jam iDPersaxum mores addnxiaaee; 
X'tv. 1. iz. n. 1 8. 

t Plttt. in Alex* p. 687. 

304 iirsTbRY or alexakve^^. JSmk XK 

this, there was no occasion to excite him to acts of generos- 
ity ; for he would be quiie angry with, such as refused them 
at hii hands. Fhiding Phocioa inflexible on this head, he 
told him by letter, " that he would no longer be his friend, 
•* in case he refused to accept of his favours.** 

Alexander, as if he had been sensible of the mighty things 
to which he was born, endeavoured to shine on all occasions,^ 
and appear more conspicuous than any ether, pei'son. No 
cne was ever fired with so strong a love fbr glory j and it is 
well known, that ambition^ whidi is considered by christians 
fts a great vice, was kx>ked upon by the heathens as a great 
▼irtue. It was that, which made Alexander 8i»ppOTt with 
eoornge, all the toils and fatigues necessary fbr those, ^vho 
Would distinguish themselves, in tlie exercises both of b«df 
and mind. He was accustomed very early to a sober,feard, 
plain way of life, uncorrupted with luxury or delicacy of any 
kind ; a way of life liighly advantageous to young soldiers. 

I do not know whether any prince in the world had a no- 
bler education than Alexander. He was very conversant in 
eloquence, poetry, polite learning, the whole circle of strts, 
and the most abstracted and moat sublime scifences. Homt 
Ikappy was be in meeting wiHi so great a preceptor I: None 
but an Aristotle was fit for an Alexander. I am overf^e^ 
to find the disciple pay so illustrious a testimony in respect 
to his master, by declarmg he was- more indebted to him, in 
one sense, than to his' father. A man who thinks and speaks 
va this nianaer, mijiat be fully -sensible of the great advantag- 
es of a good education. 

The effects of this were ?oon seen. Is it possible for iis to 
julmire too much, the great solidity and judgment, which thi* 
young prince discovered, in his conversation with the Persian 
ambassadors ? His early wisdom, whilst, in his youtli,hc ax:t- 
cd as regent during his father*^ absence, and pacified the 
feuds which had broke out in Macedonia ? His courage and 
bravery at the battle of Chasroncea, i» whith he soglonously 
distiHguished himself ? . 

It is a pain to me, to see him wanting ia respect tp ws 
father at a banquet, and employing severe insulting ejcpres- 
sions oh that pccasiotti It is true, indeed, that the affront 
which Philip put upon Olympias, hiis mother, in divorcing 
her, transported him io amajiner out of himself ; but siail no 
pretence, no injustice, or violeixje, can either justify ov fix-^ 
cuse such usage to a fatlier and a kiog?, 

* He afterwards discovexrqd »iore m©dera«tiQn». T«h«P) 9* 
^ca^w of tlie iiii^lent a»id. sedjitkMis kmQW^»9 hM ^Y ^ 

* Plot, IB Alex, p.^. 


Mdiers in an insurrection, he said, " that nothing was^ore 
*' royal, than for a man to hear with calmness himself ill 
*< spoken of, at the time he is doing good." It has been ob- 
served, that the great prince of ♦Conde did not think any 
thing more worthy of admiration in this copqiieror, than tlie 
noble haughtiness with which he spoke to the rebellious sol- 
diers, who refused to follow him: " Go," says he, " ungrate- 
*' ful base wretches, and proclaim in your countiy, that you 
*' haye abandoned your king among nations who will dbey 
** him better than you. Alexander," says that prince, ''aban- 
** doned by his own troops among barbarians, who were not 
*' yet completely conquered, believes himself so worthy of 
** commanding over others, that he did not think men fcould 
*' refuse to obey him. Whether he were in Europe or in 
*' Asia, among Greeks or Persians, it was the same to him. 
"*' He fancied, that wherever he found men, he found sub- 
** jccts." Alexander's patience and moderation, which I 
took notice of at first, are no less wonderful. 

The first years of his reign are perhaps the most glorious 
of his life. That at 20 years of age he was able to appease 
the intestine feuds which raged in the kingdom ; that he 
either crushed or subjected foreign enemies, and those of the 
most formidable kind ; that he disarmed Greece, most of 
the nations whereof had united against him ; and that in less 
than three years, he should have enabled himself to execute 
securely those plans his father had so wisely projected ; all 
this supposes a presence of mind, a strength of soul, a cou- 
rage, an intrepidity, and, what is more than all, a consum- 
mate prudence ; qualities which form the character of the 
true hero. 

This character he supported in a wonderful maYiner, dur- 
ing the whole course of his expedition against Darius, till the 
time mentioned by us. fPi^tarch very justly admires the 
bare plan of it, as the most heroic act that ever was. He 
formed it the very instant he ascended the throne, looking 
upon this design, in some measure as a part of what he in- 
herited from his father. When scarce 20 years old, sur- 
rounded with dangers both within and without his kingdom, 
finding his treasury drained and incumbered with debts, to 
the amount of 200 talents, (about 30,0001. sterling,) which 
his father had contracted ; having an army which was 
greatly inferior in number to that of the Persians : in this 
condition, Alexander already turns his eyes towards Baby- 
lon and Susa, and proposes no less a conquest, than tliat 
©f so vast an empire. 

J St. ETronond. f ^^^^^ ^ ^^^* Akx. p. 3«7, * 

Was this tSic efkct of the pride and rashitess of yoath I 
HskA Plutarch. Certainly not, rq>lies that authoi'. No man 
ever &rmeda warlike enterprise with so great preparations, 
and such mighty succours, by which I Understand, continues 
Plutarch, magnanimity, prudence, temperance, and courage ^ 
preparations and aids with which philosophy supplied hiiui 
and which he thoroughly studied ; so that we may affirm, 
that he was as much indebted for his conquest to. the lessons 
of Aristotle, his master, as to the instructions of Philip, his 

We may add, that, according to all the maxims of war, 
Alexander's enterprise must naturally be succcssftri. Such- 
«n army as his, though* not a very great one, consistiug of 
MaceUonians and Greeks, tliat is, of the best troop»at that 
time in the world, and trained up to war during a Long course 
cf years, inured to toils and dangers, formed by a happy ex* 

ferience to all the exercises of sieges aod battks, animated 
y the remembrance of thoir past victories, by the hc;>es of 
^9 immease booty, and q>ore so, by their hereditary. 
rcconcileable hatred to the Persiaps ; s)ich an army, I say, 
headed by Alexander, was almost sure of conquering an ar- 
my, composed, inde^ of io^qite QUTubers of msn, bat of 

' few soUliers. 

The swiftness of the- execution' was answeratde^o the wb^ 
dom of the project. After having giiined the a|^ction erf all 
hu» sclerals and officers by an unparalleled liberality ; and 
of all his soldiers by an air of goodness, affability, and even 
familiarity, which, so far from debasing^ the majesty of a 
prince, ad^s to the respect which is. paid to him, such a zmsA- 
and tenderness as is proof against all things ; after this, I 
s^y, the next thing to be done, was Iq OJStoiil^h his esemies 
by bold enterprises, to terrify them by e-xamples of severity 
aji|d la^t^, to win them by acts of. humanity and elemenc>v 
He succeeded wonderfiilly in these. The passage of the 

' Granicus, fbUowe^l by a famous victory* ; tlie two celebrated 
sieges of Miletus and Halicama^fu^, showed Asia a youog^ 
conqueror, to whom no pa^t of military knowledge was un-' 
tnffwn. Th^ raising of tjip la^tcity to the very foundations. 
Spread ap uniyer.<^l teiTor ; but the allowing all those the 
enjoyment of their lii^erlies ainl ancient laws who submitted 
cheerfeiUy, made the. wprld bfelijEve, that the conqueror had 
Qo oth^r view, than to m^lue nali^is happy, and to procure 
th;^rn an easy aud lasting pei^ce. 

His imp^tlfjncc to bajth^ljimfelf-v when-covered with sweaty 
in the river Cydims, might be looked jL^pon- as a gay juvenile/ 
actioit, Unworthy of his dignity ; but we must not judge of it 

.from i^ n^ui^i^i^ oji ^ M^^ ^S^* Xk« aafiidDt% ^l 

whose exercises were relative to< these of war, accBStttned 
themselves early to bathing and swJinmmg. It is well 
known, tliat, in Rome, the sons of the noMlity, after having 
heated themseives in the Gatnpus Martitie^ witii rtmniDg, 
wi-ebtling^ and' httpling the javelin, used to plunge into, the 
Tiber, whic^ run* by tiiat city. By these exercises they en- 
abled the«is^v^s to pas» riters and lakes in an exiemy'^ 
Country ; for those are never crossed, but afber painftil 
marches, and after having been long exposed to the sun- 
beanis, which, with the weight of the soldiers arms, must ne- 
eeosat;ily make them* sweat. Hence we may apologise to 
Alexander^& bathii>g himself ita a river, which had like tpr 
have been: so fetal to him, especialljr as he might not know 
that the waters of it were so e3sces8i¥ely cold* 

The two battles of Issus and Arbela, with ^e siege of 
Tyre, one of the most famous of antiqui^, efitirely proved 
tliat Aiexandeir possessed sA\ the qualities whioh form the 
great s<^ier ;- as siall in- making choice of a field of battle ; 
!»uch a presence of mind in the heat of action as is necessary 
for- the giving out proper ordei^ ; a courage and bravery^ 
which the most evident dangers only animated ; an impetu- 
ous activity, temperd and guided by such a pmident reserv-* 
eclness, as will not suffer the hero Co be carried away by an 
indiscreet ardour ^ la^Iy, such a resolution and constancy, 
as is neither disconcerted by unforeseen obstacles, nor di*-' 
couraged by difficulties, though seemingly msurmountable^- 
and which know no other bounds or issue but victory. 

Historians have observed a great* difference between' 
Alexander and his father, in their manner of making wan 
Stratagem, and even knavery. Were the prevailing arts of 
Philip, who always acted secretly, and in the dark ; but hift 
«on pursued his schemes with more candour, and withoiit 
disguise. The one endeai^oured to deceive his enemies by 
cunning, the other to subdue them by force of arms. TUie 
former discovered more art, the latter had a greater souli.' 
tPhiiip did not look upon any methods, which Conduce td 
conquest, as ignominious ; but Alexander could never pre*** 
"^ail with himself to employ treachery. He indee^,^ endea-' 
vouredtbdraw over the ablest of all Darius' generals ; but 
then he employed honourable means. When he marched 
near Memnon's laiids, he commanded hk soldiers, u^n tho 

•Vjocendi ratio utf'^e diver». Hic aperte, Hie artibcls bella^ 
tr^ctabat. Dbceptis ille gauderti hostibas, bic pal am fnsis. PhidcD- 
tioriUe consilio, hie aoimo magniHeeotior— |^alU afiud Philipguai 
tnrpis ratio vinwodJ, Justin, 1. ix, €♦ S* 

f Paafii». 1, vii, p, 4i5« - * 


severest penalties not to make the least havoc in them. His 
design, by this conduct, was either to gain him over to his 
side, or to make the Persians suspect his fidelity. * Mem^ 
non aUo delighted in behaving -with generosity towards Alex' 
ander; and hearing a soldier speak iU of that prince, ^^Idid 
« not take thee into my pay," says that general, striking 
him with his javelin, ^' to speak injuriously of that prince, 
*' but to fight against him.'* 

The circumstance which raises Alexander above most 
conquerors, and, as it were, above himself, is the use he 
made of victory after the battle of Issus. This is the mc^ 
beautiful incident in his life : is the point of light in which 
it is his interest to be considered ; and it isimpossiUefor 
him not to appear truly great in that view. By the vie* 
tory of Issus, he had possessed himself, not only of Dari- 
us' person, but also of his empire. Not only Sysipmbis, 
that king's mother, was his captive, but also his wife and 
daughters, princesses whose beauty was not to be paral- 
leled in all Asia, t Alexander was in the bloom of his life, 
a conqueror, free, and not yet engaged in the bands of 
marriage, as an author observes of the first Scipio Afrh 
canus, on a like occasion : nevertheless, his camp was to 
those princesses a sacred asylum, or rather a temple, in 
which their chastity was secured, as under the guard of 
virtue itself, and so highly revered, that Darius, in his ex- 
piring moments, hearing the kind treatment they had met 
with, could not forbear lifting up his dying hands towards 
heaven, and wishing success to so wise and generous a con- 
queror, w^o governed his passions so absolutely. 

In the e^umei-ation of Alexander's good qualities, I must 
not omit ohe rarely found among the great, and which ncT- 
ertheless does honour to human nature, and makes life hap- 
py ; this iis, his being formed with a soul capable of a tendej 
friendship ; his openness, truth, perseverance, and humiUtf > 
in so exalted a fortune, which generally considers itself oniyj 
makes its grandeur consist in humbling all things around it, 
and is better pleased with servile wretches, than with tree 
sincere friends. , 

Alexander endeared himself to his officers and soldiers, 
treated them with the greatest familiarit); ; admitted them 
to his table, his exercises, and conversations ; was deepij 
troubled for them when involved in any calamityj gne\ 
for them when sick, rejoiced at their recovery, *"?^?V 
ed in whatever befel them. We have examples of tnis « 

*-plut.ifi Apoph. p. 174. 

t fit juvciM, «t c«;Cbi» «l ▼ictOT, V*!, Mw. K «5i ^' ^? 

Sect, XIX. HISfrORY OF ALfcltANB^ER. 5# 

Hephassticn, in Ptoleroy, in Crdterus, and many others. A 
prince of real merit does no ways debase his dignity, by 
such a ^milianty and condescension ; but, on the contra- 
ry, is more beloved and respected upon that very account. 
Every man of a tall stature does not scruple to put him- 
self upon a level with the rest of mankind, well knowing 
that he shall overtop them all. It is the interest of truly 
diminutive persons only, not to vie in stature with the tall^ 
nor to appear in a crowd. 

Alexander was dear to others, because, they were sen-^ 
sible he was beforehand with them in affection. • Thb cir^ 
cumstanfce made the soldiers strongly desirous to please 
him, and fired them with intrepidity; henCe they were 
always ready to execute all his orders, though attended 
^th the greatest difficulties and dangers : this made them> 
submit patiently to the severest hardships, and threw theitv 
mto the deepest affliction, whenever they happened to give 
him any room for discontent. 

In this jHcture which has been given of Alexander, ^hat 
was wanting to complete his glory ? Military virtue has been 
exhibited in its utmost splendour : goodness, clemency, mod- 
eration, and wisdom, have crowned it, ami added such a lud-- 
-to-e, as greatly enhances its value. Let us jsuppose that Alex-- 
ander, to secure his glory and his victories, steps short m 
'his careeir ; thnt he liimself checks his ambition^ and raises^ 
Darius to the throne, with the same hand that had dispoS-* 
■Bcssed him of it ; m<akes Asia Minor, inhabited chiefly by 
Greeks, free and independent of Persia ; that he declares 
himself protector of all the cities and states of Grcefwe, in no 
other view than to secure their liberties, and tJic enjoyment 
of their respective laws and customs ; ttiat he afterwards re-- 
turns to Macedon, and there, contented wijii the lawfrtt 
• hounds of his empire, makes all his glory and delight consist 
in rendering his people happy, in procuring it abandance of 
aU things, in seeing the laws put in execution) and making 
jbstice flourish ; in causing virtue to be had in honour, and 
endearing himself to his subjects t Jn fine, tliat noi^ becom^, 
by the terror ^hi^ apms^and nmeh more so by the fame ^f 
his virtues, the admiration of the whole wvrld, he sees him-- 
self, in some measure, thearWter of all nations, andexercis-- 
es. over the mind&of men such an empire a&is^ infinitely mofte 
lasting and honourable than that which is founded on fear 
only - Suppo8it% all this to have happened^ Alexander would* 
have^been a« great, as glorious, as good a prince as ever 
•l^leseed mankind. 

To the forming'so^eata character, a greatnessrof sou!,. 
*ad a most refined, taste for time glory, aro required, such a* 


Is seldom met with in hlstoiy . Men generally do not * con- 
rider, that the gloiy which attends the most shining co&- 
quests, is greatly inferior to the reputation of a prince, who 
has despised and trampled upon ambition, and known how to 
give bounds to universal power. But Alexander was far froQi 
possessing these happy qualities. His uninterrupted felicit)^, 
that never experienced adverse fortune, Intoxicated and 
changed him to such a degree, that he no longer appeared 
the same man ; and I do not remember that ever the poiso^i 
of prosperity had a more sudden or more forcible effect tbag 
upon him* 


From the siege of Tyre, which was soon after the battle 
of Issus, in which Alexander cUsplayed all the courage and 
abilities of a ffreat warrior, we see the virtues and noble 
qualities of this prince degenerate on a sudden, and maJte 
•way for the greatest vices and most brutal passions. If we 
sometimes, through the excesses to which he abandons him- 
self, perceive some bright rays of humanity, gentlenessj ana 
moderation, these are the efiects of a happy disposition, 
which, not being quite extinguished by vice, is however gov- 
erned by it. 

Was ever enterprise more wild and extravagant than that 
.of crosshig the sandy deserts of Lybia ; of exposing his ar- 
my to the danger of perishing with thirst and fatigue ; of in- 
terrupting the course of his victories, and giving his enemy 
time to raise a new army, merely, for the sake of marcihiDg 
80 far, in order to get himself named the son of Jupiter-Am- 
mon ; and purchase, at so dear a rate, a title which coma 
only render him contemptible ? . • u 

- fHow mei^n was it in Alexander, to omit always in his let- 
ters, after Darius*s defeat, the Greek word, which signihes 
healtht, except in those he wrote to Phocion and Antipater. 
as if this title, because employed by other men, could nave 
degraded a king, who is obliged by his office, to P^^"^?'.^^ 
least to wish all his subjects, the enjoyment of the felicity 
implied by that word. 

Of all vices, none is so grovelling, none so unworthy, n©^ 
only of a prince, but of a man of honour, as drunkenness ; i» 

•Sci« ttbi vert principis, nU fempitema sic gloria— Afct"» ^' '**f^, 
traseciam templaqae demoh*tur et obgcurat oblivioj contrai 
temptor ambitionis, et infinitse potential domitor ac (rsD*tor 
mus ipia vetustate florescie. FHo. in PaB« Trajan. 

t^lnt. in Phoc, p. 749. - 


bare name is intolerable, and strikes us with horror. How 
infamous a pleasure is it, to spend whole days and nights in 
oarouang, to continue these excesses for weeks together ; 
to pride one's self in exceeding other men in intemperance, 
and to endanger one's life in no other view than to gain such 
a victory ! Not to mention the infamous enormities that at* 
tend these debauches, how greatly shocking is it to bear the 
frantic discourses of a son, who, being intoxicated with the 
&mes of wine, industriously strives to defame his father, to 
sully his glory, and, lost to all shame, prefer himself to himj 
Drunkenness is only the occasion, not the cause, of these 
excesses/ It betrays the sentiments of the heart, but does 
not place them there. Alexander, puffed up by his victo* 
pies, greedy and insatiable of praise, intoxicated with the 
mighty idea he entertained of his own merit, jealous of, and 
despising all mankind, has the power, in his sober moments,' 
to conceal his sentiments-; but no sooner is he intoxicated, 
than he shows himself to lie what he really is. 

What shall we say of his barbarously murdering an old 
fi'iend ; who, though indiscreet and rash, was yet his friend? 
Of the death of the most honest man in all his court, whose 
only crime was his refusing to pay him divine homage ? Of 
the execution of two of his principal officers, who were con^ 
demned, though nothing could be proved against them, an4 
on the slightest suspicions ?. 

I pass over a great many other vices, which Alexander, 
according to most historians, gave into, and which are not 
to be justified. To speak of him, therefore, only as a war-r 
rior and a conqueror — qualities in which he is generally con? 
side^d, and which have gained him the esteem of all ages 
and nations-^all we now have to do, is, to examine whether 
this esteem be so well grounded as is generally supposed. 

I have already observed, that, to the battle erf Issus and the 
siege of Tyre inclusively, it cannot be denied but that Alex* 
andier: was a great warrior and an illustrious general. But 
yet I doubt very much, whether, during these first years of 
nis exploits, he ought to be considered in a more conspicuous: 
Hght tiian his father ; whose actions, though not so dazzling, 
are however as much applauded by good judges, and those 
of the military profession. Philip, at his accession to the 
throne, found all things unsettled. He himself was obliged 
to lay the foundations of his own fortune, and .was not sup* 
ported by the least foreign . assistance. He raised himself 
to the power and grandeur to which he afterwards attained. 
He was obliged to train up, not only his soldiers, but his of* 
ficers ; to instruct them in all the military exercises ; to in? 
lire them to the fatigues of war \ and to his care ai^d ^bil|!^ 


ides Macedonia eved the rise of the celebrated phalans, 
that is, of the best troops the world had then ever seen, and 
ito which Alexander owed all his conquests. Hew many obN- 
stacles stood in Philip^s way, before he could possess him- 
self of the power which Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, had. 
succesuvelyvexercised over Greece 1 The Greeks, who were 
the bravest and most sagacious people in the univer8e,^OQld 
not acknowledge him for their chief, till he acquired thatti«- 
tie by wading Uirongfa seas of blood, and by gaining number^ 
less conquests over them. Thus we see, that the way was 
prepared for Alexander's executing his great deugn, the 
]ilan whereof, and the roost excellent instructions relative 
te it, had been laid down to him by his father. I^w, will it. 
not appear a much easier task, to subdue Asia with Gre* 
dUm armies, than to subject the Greeks, who had so 4)ften 
triumphed over Asia ? 

. But, without .carrying fttrther the paralldi of Alexander 
with Philip, which all who do not donsider heroes according 
to the number of provinces they have cc»iquered, but by the 
iatrinaic value of their actions, must give in favour of the 
latter, what judgment ane we to form of Alexander, after 
his triumph over Darius I And is it possible to propose 
lum, daring the latter part of his hfe, as a miodd worthy the 
Imitatien of tho% who aqiire to the diaracter of great sol*" 
diers and illustrious conquerors T 

. In this Inquiry, i diau be^ with that which is uaanL- 
^Aously agreed by all the writers on this subyect to be the- 
feundatioo of the solid glory of a hero ; I u^ean, the justice 
of the war in which he engages, without whidt he is not a 
ponquevor and a hero, but an usurper and a robhnr. JS^ex^ 
ander, in making Asia the seat of war, and turning his arras 
agsMist Darius, had a plausible presence lor it; b^auae the 
Bersians had been in all ages, and were at tliat time, pn>- 
fessed enemies to the Greeks, over whom he bad been aprt 
pdnted generalissimo, and whose mjnirie» he therefore rai|^t 
thmk hiniself justly entitled to revenge. But then what 
T^[ht had Alexander mer iSojt great mimber of nations, who 
did not know even thenamie of Greece, and had never done 
him the least injury ? The Scythian Ambassador qxike very- 
jodiciuisly, when he addressed him in these words : "What 
^^have we to do with thee ? We uever once set .our feet in 
*^thy country. Are not those who live in woods, allowed to 
^^ be ignorant of thee, and the place irom wfaenee thou com<- 
" est f Thou boastesty that the oaly design of thy marching 
*^is to extirpate vobbers t thou thyself art the greatest rob* 
*^bcr in the world.*' This is Alexander's exact character^ 
m which there is nothiog tq he rgsecte^. 


A pirate spa^^e to him to thC; same, effect, and in stroii^e^ 
teriTis. Alexander asked * him, what right he had to intest 
the seas ? ''The same that thou hast," replied the pirate 
with a generous liberty, "to infest the universe : hut because 
^' I do this ip ^ small ship, I am called a ixibber ; and b&- 
* cause, thou actcst the same part with a great fleet, thon 
*^ artintitled coiiqueix)r.*' This was a witty and ju^tanswer* 
s^s f Stf Ajistin, who has presewed this small ^9|^entot 

Iftherefore it oughttobe laid down as a maxim (and no 
reasonablie man can doubt of its being so), that every war 
undertake^ iperely from tlie view of ambition, isu«jui»t ; and 
that the priniQe who begins it is guilty of ail the sad conse-- 
quences, and all the blood shed oti that occasion, what idea 
ought we to form df Alexander's last conquests ? Was ever 
ambition more (extra vagant, or ratlier moise furious, than 
that of this prince ? Come 4 from, a little spot of ground| 
and forgetting the narrow limits of his paternal domains, af» 
ter he has far extended his conc^jicsts ; has subdued not only 
the Persians^ but also the Bactriansand Indians ; has added 
kingdom ,to Jjiftgdom : after all this, I sajr, he still finds'him- 
.self pent up, and determined" to force, if possible, the bar- 
Hera of nature ; he endeavours to discover a new world, and 
does not scruple to sacrifice millionsiof men to^his ambition 
,or,curio4ty. It j$ related jthat jAlexander, upon Anaxar- 

^Elegaoter 9t veradcer AJex8»dro iUi Magno :Compr«hefitiit |^« 
<raea reipondic. N»m cum idem* r«B bomineiu imerrogaaset, qaid 
ci irideretur ot mu-ft haberet lofcttaai ; ille, libera^ contiKnada ; 
'Qjiid trbi.ioj(|Mit,.tttorl>cm tenatroin— Scm^ quia id ego fsigoo niv* 
igio faciD, lacro ]Mcor» quia (n magna «lMie^ iaporator—- Rcfert 
Nod ias Marc ex. Cjccc- iii. d« r*^- 

f S. Auat. dc Cvi. Pei. 1. iar. c. ji. 

t Agcbac infeliceni AlexaQdram furor allena devaftandi, et ac ig* 
/ftoujDiucbat.- JaiB^iBtiimiiil regtntiD »«kai»egna^o&i>jectt (orc^* 
ftCfsit;) jans Gtcaei. PerMfi^ae mdem tMBeet : jum aciaoir a Dario 
liberal, cauooea. jusow acctpniot. Hie tamed, ultra Oceaonm So- 
levqnc, tDdigqatar ab 'Heffculia li.iWriqtte veftigiit* trtdoriam fle»^ 
tere ; ipsi oatuF^ vjoa parat«*Hit, lit ita dicaatt^ maodi dlMidra pav 
^juopk. Tanta cat ocecitaa nftaniiomi et tanto iniiiornm soMtatn ob« 
Itvio. WU tBodo igDobilis %DgttU oMi siDejCODcrover«it-I><mMOiia,de^ 
iectaaloe tecrataa^ p«r.anam redsOrnii orbem, triatls cttk SeneOb xx-9- 

SAlexMidroipeetiUi insatiabfle laodi«f qui Affaxarclro--'Himi»effl^ 
jbUnmiuidte csae. reCereoti ;He« ine,ioq»ir, iDiMrDm.qv»il;i4ff oifo 
Jinidem adhac potitnsaam ! Aogcfta bomifii poa«cMiA"gr4(>rIsefftf)% 
qaac Deorum oarnivm domicillo sufieclt* Val« Max, Ij viiij c 14* 


chus tiie philosopher's telling him that there was an uifiiut^ 
number of worlcb, wept to think that it wobid be impossibly 
for him to conquer them all, since he had not yet conquered 
one. Is it wron^ in * Seneca, to compare those heroes, whp 
have gained renown no otherwise than by the ruin of na- 
tions, to ^ conflagration and a flood, which lay waste and 
destroy ah things ; or to wild beasts, who live merely bf 
blood and 'slaughter f 

Alexander, t passionately fond of glory, of which he 
neither knpw the nature nor just bounds, prided himself upon 
treading in the steps of Hercules, and even in carrying hi; 
victorious arms farther than him. What resemblance was 
there, says the same Seneca, between that wise conqueror^ 
and this Irantic youth, who mistook his' successful rashness 
for merit and virtue ? Hercules, in hi^ expeditions, made no 
conquests for himself. 'He over-ran the universe as the sub - 
duer of monsters, the enemy of the wielded, the avenger of 
the good, and the restorer 6f peace by land and sea. Alex- 
and^, on the contrary, an unjust robber from his youth, a 
cmel rarager of provinces, an |nfamoiis murderer of his 
friends, makes his happiness and glory consist in rendering 
himself formids^e to all mortals, forgetting tliat not cmly the 
fiercest animals, biit even the vflest, make themselves feared 
by their poisons. 

But, lea^nng this first consideration, which represents con- 
querors to us as so many sdourges sent bv the wrath d[ hea- 
ven into the world, to punish the sins of it, let us proceed to 
examine the last conquests, abstractedly iti themselves, of A- 
lexander,in brderto see whatjadgment wp arc to form of them.* 

It must be confess^, that the actions of this prince diffuse 
a splenddijr that dazzles and astonishes the imagination^ 
which is ever fimd of the great and marvellous. His enthu- 
siastic courage raises and transports all who read his history, 
as k tran^^Kirted himself, l^t diight we to givie the name 

^Esi(io gcotHini clan, opo a^ofM feen pellet nortalmn, qoam 
bvodatio-^qnam cooflagratio. Senee. NaC QoM. I. iii. in Pne&t. 

f Homo glbrtae dedbns, ciijm nee natoraiit oec tnodam novtfat, 
HercnUt vetdgii wqaaoi, «c oe ibi qvideoi renateat ubl ilk defe- 
ceram. Qoid illi (Hcrcalt) stmtli habebat vetaont adoletceits, cui 
pro virtace crat felis temerttas i Horculea nihil stbi victt ; orbem 
lerraram trassivit, dob coocupMrendo, «ed viodicaado. Qiiid vtnce- 
ret inaloriim hMtis, booornn vindez, temrvm marisqae pacator i 
At bic a pueritia tatro, genttomque veftator, cam boftium pcmicies 
^aam amtaMrnm, ^ai sntnininD bootttt, daceret tenori esse conctis 
IDortliaMif s obliCQs, noD ferocisauoa taotum aed igiiaviietiiia quoq«^ 
ynlipil^ jBhseci ob virus maloin. Sense, de bcsef* 1 1 tf <^« 


of bravery and valoar to a boldness that is equally blin^ 
tash, and impetuous; a boldness void of all rule, that will 
ticver listen to the voic^ of reason, arid has no other gruide 
than a senseless ardour for false glory, and a wild desire of 
distinguishing itself, be the methods ever so unlawful i Thi* 
character suits only a military robber, who has no attend- 
ants ; whose life is only exposed ; and who, for that reason, 
may be emplbj^ed in some desperate action : but it is far 
Otherwise with regard to a king, ibr he owes his life to all his 
^rniy, and his whole khigdom. If we e:tcept some very 
rare occasions, on which a prince is obliged to venture hts 
person, and share the danget with his troops in order to pre-* 
Serve them, he oiight to call to mind, that there is a great 
difference between a general and a private soldier. True 
-^alour is not desirous of displaying itself, is no ways anx« 
jous about its own reputation, but is solely intent on present- 
ing the army. It stieers equally between a fearful wisdom , 
that foresees and dreads all difRculties, and a brutal ardour^ 
"^hich industriously pursues and confronts dangers of every 
kind. In a word, to form an accomplished general, pru- 
dence must soften and direct the too fiery temper of valour ; 
As this latter must animate and wariti the coklnessr and slow' 
ness of prudence. 

Do any of these characteristics suit Alexander ? Wheri 
"(ve peruse history, and follow him to sieges and "battles, we 
are perpetually alarmed for his safety, and that of his army ; 
and conclude evety moment that they are upon the point of 
being destroyed. Here we see a rapid flood, which is going 
-to draAt" inland swallow vtp this feonqtieror ; there we be-» 
hold a fct^aggy jhock, up which he climbs, and perceives 
found him soldiers, either transfixed by the enemy's darts, 
«r thrown headlong by huge stones into precipices. Wt 
tremble when we perceive in a battle the axe jn^ ready to 
<aeavc his head ; aftd mtjch more, when we behold him alpnc 
iti a fortress, whither his rashness had dra\^n him, exposed 
tb all the javelins of the enemy. Alexander was ever per- 
suaded that miracles would be wrought in his favour, than 
Vhich nothing could be laott unreasonable, as Plutarch ob- 
serves ; for miracles do- not always happen ; and the gods 
at last are weary of guiding and pteserving rash mortals, 
"Who abuse the assistance they afford them. 

*Plutarch, in a f treatise where he makes theeulogiura 
«f Alexander, and exhitnts him as> an accomplished hero, 

•Pitit, de fcM'toD. Alex, orat, ii, p. j4f. 
'fThistreatifle, if written Iby Plutarch, teetna acjaveoife perforOK 
tectt^and bta ttrj moch tke tif of a decUu&Mldto, 

316- BrsTQjtr OF M-BXAirpjlji. M^ek XV,- 

f^vtH a Icmg detail o^serml woaii^s he receiyed in eveiy 
part of hU body r 9^d pretends that the only design of kv' 
tune, ia thus perciDg him ^ith wounds, was to make his 
courage more cooBpicuous.- A renownod warrior, whose eu- 
logium Pltttarch fias drawn la another part of his writiBjgs, 
did not JMdge m- this manner. *Some persons ^plaudiDg 
him for a wound he had received 4n battle, the i^eneral hisa- 
«elf declared, that it was a fault which could be excised only 
in ayooog o»a% and justiy deserved ceu&ure. It has been 
observed in Uanuibal's praise, and I myself have taken no- 
tice of it elsewhere, that he was never wounded f in aU his 
battles. I cannot sa^ whether Ca&sar ever was« 

The last dbicrvatifsi. which relates in general tfi all Alex*- 
ander's expeditions in Asia, must necessarily lessen y&rj 
much the his victoiies, and the ^esndour of hlsrep- 
Qtatlon ; and this is thegpnim «uid chdj^ter pf ^ iujtiQu» 
against whom he fc^ght. Xivy, in ^ dkr^ssico, where he 
inquires what would have been^he fate ofAkiuinder's ^nns^ 
in case he had turned them towards Italy, and where he 
shows that Bome would .certainly have checked his <;on- 
quests, insists stroiig^on the reflection io question. Heop- 
yosGS to this prince, m. the article of coura^ a ^eat num-- 
ber of illustrious Romans, who would have resisted Ulmon 
all occasions ; and «n the article of prudfnce, that august 
senate, which Cyjieas, to jg;ive a more jioble idea of it to» 
Pyrrhus his sovereign, said, was conoposediofiso m^y kings. 
•^Had he marched!,'' a^ys-Livy, "against, thp Romans, he 
^' would soon have jeuAd tliat he was ao lonjgjer combattijag 
** against a Darius, whn^ encumbered with gold and purine,. 
" the vain equipage of his |;raiideur, ^d lira^ging ^iter him 
*^ a multkivie of women and enuuchs, came as a prey raJjier 
** than as«m enemy.; and whom Alescander.ccnqueiidwith- 
** out shedding muoh bloody And without wanting any -other 
" merit, than that of daring^se what was reaHycon- 
'< teinptible. He would have found Italy very jdififerent from. 
** Xndift, til)rough which h^ marched in a riotous wauDer^ hi&- 

«Ti«iot|iein. PIqt. in Pek^» p, t^B. 

f McOt»oa is «M4e of «ae tipgk wo4iq4^ 

tNon iimcnm Dario rent cue diyisBet, ^em toalfervQi «c l^do-*^ 
Bum agmcQ trabcptfen, inter ipiirp«rft«i ac^He aurupi, onttAtan. 
ffrtvns toir jpfMHKiibtti, prs^dmt irtrm qMm hoft^m^ nihil aliacT 
9Mm Ixoff »«t« vtim cmAcmfKns ilo^fM«of$>t.d^vkit Leungs fA'9«) 
Italiie, qaam Indiae, per q^tiini tenmlenco agmine .commestabiindQf 

cef!pipiiMretTettigia r«6^a, dom^c» (Mia. obi m»9ffJ3im*Tl»^ 

^<*f, XfX. History of alxxavdkr. 317 

** army quite stupified with wine ; particularly when he 
" should have seen the forests of Apulia, the mountains of 
<* Lucania, and the still recept footsteps of the defeat of Alex- 
*' ander his uncle, king of Epirus, who there lost his life." 
The historian adds, that he speaks of Alexander, not yet de- 
praved and corrupted by prosperity, whose subtle poison 
worked as strongly upon him as upon any man that ever 
lived ^ and he concludes, that, being thus transformed, he 
would have appeared very difierent in Italy from what he 
had seemed hitherto. 

• These refiections of Livy show that Alexander partly 
owed his victories to the weakness of his enemies ; and that, 
had he met with nations as courageous, and as well inured 
to all the hardships of ^ar as the Romans, and commanded 
by as able experienced generals as those of Rome j that then 
his victories would not have been either so rapM, or so unin- 
terrupted. Nevertheless, with some, from hence we are to 
jadgeof the merits of a conqueror, Hannibal and Scipio are 
considered as two of the greatest generals that ever lived, 
and for this reason : both of them not only understood per- 
fectly the military science, but their experience, their abil- 
ities, their resolution and courage, w.ere put to tlie trial, and 
set m the strongest light. Now, should we give to either of 
them an unequal antagonist, one whose rcputatron is not an- 
swerable to theirs, we shall no longer have the same idea of 
them : and thdr victories, though supposed alike, appear no 
longer with the same lustre, nor deserve the same applause. 
Mankind are but too apt to be dazzled by shinmg actions, 
and a pdmpous exterior, and blindly abandon themselves to 
prejudices of every kirid< It cJannot be denied but that A- 
lexander possessed very great qualities' ; but if we throw 
into the other scale his errors and vices, the presumptuous 
idea he entertained of his merit* ; the high contempt he had 
for other men, not excepting his own father ; his ardent 
thirst of praise and flattery ; his ridiculous notion of fancy- 
ing hixiQself the son of Jupiter ; of ascribing drvmity to him- 
self; of requiring a free victorious people to pay him a ser- 
vile homage, and prostrate themselves ignominiously before 
him ; his abandoning himself so shamefully to wine;'liis vio- 

^Rcf«rre \n Htoto fege piget niperbam nntttionetn vestif , et de- 
^^deranis liiimi jtccotmrn adiilattoMi,-ctttiii vietia Macedooiboa 
jravea, oedum victoriboi; et fcsda lupplida, et inter vinum et^tpjo^ 
'Tat caedea amicoium, et vaoitatem emeatiendae stirpia. Quid at 'Vint 
•amor io dieaficrrt aerior ? qoid ti trna ac praefarfida ira I {tm 
. ^cqoatn dabiimi ioter acriptorea refero) OQllane haac daoiM icipt* 
i >HSi^t vittotUliii dncifiaa ? Liv«. 1. U. a. l%* 
C c 2 

lent aager, wluch luts to brutel ferocity ;. t^ iinj«st«D4 
t>art>aroug execntion of his bravest and most faithful offioersf 
and the murder of his most worthy friends in the midflt of 
feasts and carottsak i can any one» says Livy^ believe that 
lOl. these imperfections do not greatly sKdiy the reputatioDof 
a coaqueror ? Bnt Alexander's frantic ambition, which 
knows neither law nor limits ; tlie rash intrepidity with 
which he braves dangers, without the least reason or ne- 
cesutv ; the weaki^e|8 and ignorance of the nationsy tots&y 
unskilled in war, against whom he ioo^ i do not these en*' 
crvate the reasons for which he is thought to have merited 
the surname of Great, and the title of hero I This however 
I leave to the prudepce and equity of 91V reader. 

As to myseU; I am surprised to find that all orators wK^ 
M>plaud a pnnce, never tail to eon^are hitn to Alexander* 
They fancy when he is once equalleid to this king, it is im*^ 
possible for panegyric to soar higher ; th^ cannot imagine 
to themselves any thing more august ; and think they have 
•mitted the stroke which finishes the gkny of a hero, should 
they not exalt him by this compf^risoB. In my opinion this' 
denotes ^ false taste, a wrong cum of t^ksDg ; and, if )^ 
might be allowed to say it, a want of wdgment, which mia( 
naturally sliock a reasonable mind. For, as Alexander was^ 
invested with simreme power, he oughs to have falfiUed thf 
IKveral duties^ ot the sovereignty. We do net find that hi 
possessed the first, the most essentia], and most excelteni 
virtues of a great prince, who is to be the fafter^ the guar^ 
dian, ajul shepherd of his people ; to govern them by good 
}aws ; to make their trade boti by sea ^imI land flatting ; 
to encourage and pn)tect arts and acienoap ^ to est^^^Ufik 
' peace and plenty, and not s«iiler t9S subjects 4o be in ai^ 
manner aggrieved or injured ; to maintain an agre^kble hsT" 
SBony between all orders of U^&^&Ute, and make them cqd' 
9]^re, in due proportion, to the publin welfare ^ to employ 
himself in doing justice ^ aH his subjects ; to hciur their dis-- 
pttties, and reconcile them ; to consider himscilf as the fether 
^his ^eqple, consequently as obliged to provide for aU their 
liecessities, and to procure them -the sever^^ jn^ments of 
life. Now Alexander, who almost a ^i^ment af^ he M- 
cended the tlirone, left Macedonia, and never returned back 
inXoiti did not endeavx^^r at any of th^ase things, wJMdi how« 
^ver arethe chief and nsost tBui)st8ii»tia^4frtiesef af^mit 

. He seems possessed of such qualities only as are of tte 
4eccnd rank, t mean theseof war, and these are aU ezttttV' 
a^t ; aicicaj-ned to the raskcst and most odious «xce^ 
and to theextremeaoffbiiy aadfwf ^ whikfchia kinfdewr 

is left a ptey to the rapkic njtd esra^Jttens of Antipater ; tnd 
all the conquered provinces abandcned to the insatiable av^-' 
rice of the governors, ivho carried their oppression so far, 
that Alexander was forced to piit them to death. Nor dd 
his soldiers appeaif hi a more advAhtageoUs Kght s forthestf, 
after having plundered the KireaUhef the east, and after the 
prkice h*d given them the highest mai'ks of his beneficence, 
grew so licentiotls, so debauched and abamloned to vices «f 
^evety kind, that he was forced te pay their debts, amounting 
to l,500,jD^el. What strange men were these I How deprav- 
^d their school t How pemicioBs the fruit ci their victories f 
Is it dcttRg honour to a prince, is it adormng his panegyric, 
to ccRipare him with such a m6dd I 

jHre Romans indeed seem to have held Ales^ander^s mem- 
ory hi^rfbat venei^ticn ;.bttt I very much qiiesti<», whether, 
m the vh^Qous ages of the commonwealth, he would have 
feeen considered as so ^eat a man. Csesar * seeing his sta*"^ 
tae in a temple in Spam, during his government of it, after 
his prastorship, could not foitear groaning and sighing, wheti 
*e conipated the few glortotts aetions achieved by him to the 
mighty exploits of this coaqiieror. It wajrsaid that Pompey, 
in one of his triumphs, appeared di^ssed iil that king's suf - 
tent. AngBstus pardoned the Alegcandrians, for the sake of 
their founder. Caligelay in a ceremony » ^hich he assum^ 
€d the eharaGfter of a mighty ccn^ror, wore Alexander's 
coat ef fnad^ IKot no one carried his veneration for this 
laonanreh so far as Caraeafla. Ue used the same kind ef 
arms and j^lets as that prince i he had a Mabedoniim pha]-r 
anx in His amiy » he persecuted t)ie FeripateUcs, and woidd 
hafve tatxied idl the books ef Aristotle their foujoder, because 
he was sa^pected t#have conspired with thbsc ^ho^kcmed^ 

I believe that I may justly assert, that if an impartial p^^ 
«on of gocid sense reacte Plutarch's lives of filustrious men 
•With attention, Chey H^ill leave 6ueh a tacit and stfong iniw 
presMon In his mmd, aa wiH make him consider Alexsnd^ 
ene of the least taluabhj among tfeem. But hew strong would 
the oontrast be foendj had we the lives of Epamini^ndas, df 
HaimlbaU and Sciplo,the ^ss of wiaich can never be to© much 
irej^rettedi How mtle wouM Alexander appear, set off wHJi 
all his titles, and sorronndied by afl his ecmqaestfs^ evtn if coif^' 
sideted in a miliury Mght, iKiien eomj^red to th«ise heroes, 
%ho were truly great, and worthy their ertalted reputatipn'f 

• died. 1. xsxvll p. 5s. Afp,d«.;M.lyfldurJd.p.ft53, ^^ 
^ lb p. 4i4» i4| I. lix. p. 6sh l^ li Uxvti. p< 87^ 



TvE reader will not be diBpteased with rov bserting herr 
|>art of the admiral^ reflections* of the bishop of Meaox, 
oo the character and government of the PersianS| Greek5|- 
and Macedoniaiis, whose histoiy we have heard. 

The Greek nations^ several oi whom had at first lived ua^ 
iler a mooarchical form of government, having studied the 
arts of civil polity, imagined they were able to govem'them- 
selvea, and most .of their cities ^rmed themselves into com- 
monwealths. But the wise legislaU»rs,^ Who arose in everf 
country, ai a Thale^ a Pythitgoras^ a. Pittacus, a I«ycuigus, 
a Solon, aad many others mentioned in hist<»7,' prevented 
liberty from degenerating into licentiousness. Laws drawn 
.up with great simplicity^ and- few in number, awed the peo^ 
pie, held them* in their duty, and made them aU-consjiire ttr 
the general good of thb country. 

The idea of liberty which such a coadoct inspired, was 
wonderful ; for t^e liberty whichr the Greeks figured to 
themselves, was subject to the law,- that Is, to reason itsd^ 
acknowledged at sutoh by the whoje i)adon< They would 
not lei men rise to power amoh|; them, ^ifagiiitrat^ who 
were feared during their office, became aftemrards j^ivate 
men, and hadnoauthbrity but what their Experience gave 
^em. The law was considered as^ichr sovete^ $ k w«^ 
.die appointed magistrate^, prescribed the .limits of their 
power, and punished their mal-administratioQ, The advan- 
tage of this government was, the <^tizeas bore so ntuch the 
;|;reater lo^e to their coootryy »» all shan^ ip the govern- 
ment of it, and as every individual was capable of atlaiaiBg 
its highest dignities'. , 

The advantage which accrued to Greece froBif philosoph)^ 
.With regard to the preservation of its form of government 
is incredible. The greater freedom these nations enjoyed, 
tiie greater necessi^ there was to settle the laws relatix^ to 
manners and those of society, agreeable to reason and good 
Sense. From Pythagoras, Thales, Anaxagoraa^ Socrates, 
, Archytasy Plato, AenQ^)hon, Aristotle, and a . moltitude more, 
.the Greeks received their noble precepts. 

But why should we mentioii philosophers <»ly I The writ- 
iiijgs of ev^n ttie poets, which were m every body's hands, 
diverted them very much, but instructed them still more. 
kThe most renowned of conquerors conadered Homer as a 

t . .'■■•.:■• ' , ' • . . • -. I 

*PIt€e«neof^f/iufarial^ory, Partiu.^.4^ 

master^ who taught Inn to ffsrtva ^tel^. This gf^atpoet 
instructed ^ople nio less happily in obeiiieace and the dutieii' 
of a good citizen. 

When the Greeks, thus educated, saw the delicacjr of the 
Asiatics, their ,dres» and -beauty .emulating that of woneu^' 
tiiey held them hi the utmost contempt. But their form -tf 
governments that had no othjer rule 4han their prince's ^iU^' 
which took place of all law's, not e^cc^iting the most i»adre49^ 
Inspired them with horror : and the bar&rians were the 
most hateful of objects to Greece. 

* The Greekshad ambibed <thia hatted in the most eaTljr 
timeay and it was become almost natural to them. A circuiDi* 
stance which anade these uatioiis delight "so much ja Homer V 
poema, wAshis cekbcating the advantagea and victories «f^ 
Drcvsce over Asia. On the side of Asia wwia YeiW39 that k' 
to sa^, jt^e plea^re^yJthe idle loye%and efibminacp on thal^ 
«f Gxjeece was Jun% or in other wqydsi ^MvUy with£oi^tt<'* 
gal affection, Mercury with eloquence, and Jupi^ter with wisf 
policy.' WJEth the Aj&iatics waa Mara, an impetuona and bru- 
tal deity^' that is toaay, war carried on with fiu^ : with th9 
Greeks I^hts, or in other woMs, the science of war and vsl* 
iour, ccMiducted by reason. The Grecians, from this tim%' 
had ever imagmed ^at understandii^ and true hi^ai^ery 
were natiiirai ^^ W'Cll a^ peculiar to them. They conld not 
bemT the thoughts oi Asia's desijj;n toeonquer them 9 asd ii| 
bowing to this yxOu^ they would ha^e itto^^ht ^tx&y ted ^-^ 
jected vM*tae tp {Jeasure^themind.tQ the hody,a&d trne couv 
rage to £oEoe withfoit rea^fin^ which coasisted merely k^ 

The Greelb lirefe atroc^gly ii^pured with these, sentiment v 
when DaxiUs, spa jof Hystaspes, and X^xes invaded theoi 
with atmies ao prodigiQwJy numeroua a&.^exoeeds all belief* 
The Persians £cmnd otten, to tlieir co^, the great advaata^a 
which disciplu^e haa over muUitude and conStfian ; and how 
peatly superior gottrajge,when conducted by art, is toa bUod 
)im>etuosity. ." ^ 

. Persia altei* havmg been ^ often conquered by the G^eka,; 
had nothing to do but to sow divisions ammtg them 4 and the^' 
height to which e<^qnest had raised the ilatter, facilitated 
Ihia e^Eect.^ fAs &&r held them in the bands of union, vic-r 
tory and security dissolved them. Haviiig always been U6cd 
^o ^ht^^d conquer, they no ^ooni^r believed that the power 
of the Persians could n6t distress them, but th^y turned tbdv 
^nss against each other. 

Among &e several republics 6f vfafok Greece was com- 
posedi Athens and Lacedscmon were undoubtedly the chief. 
These two great coromonwealths, whose manners and con- 
dact were directly opposite, perplexed and incommoded <m& 
another, in the common design they had of siibj«:ting all 
Greece ; so that they were eteriially at variance, and this 
snore from a contrariety of interests than an oppositioi of 
tempers and dispositions. 

The Grecian cities Wonld nblr subject themselves to cither ; 
fcr, besides tliat every one of them desired to live free and 
independent, they were not pleased With the government of 
«ither of those two commonwealths. We have shown, lA 
the course of this history, that the PeloponneSan, and other 
wars, were either owing tb, or supported hfy the reciprocal 
Jealousy of Lacedaemonia and Atiiens. But at the sam^ time 
thatthis jealousy disturbed, it supported Greece in some 
measure ; and Icept it from' being dependent on d&er of 
tttose republics. 

The Persians soon perceived this state and conditkin of 
Greece ; after which, the whole secr«5t.oft!M!r ^tics was 
to keep up these jealousies, and foment these divisions. La- 
cedsmoma, being the mo^t ambitious, was tbefit^t that made 
them engage in the Grecian quarrds. The Persians took 
-part in them with the* view erf subjecting the whole nation ;' 
and industrious to make the Greeks weaken one another, 
they only waited for the fevourable instant to crush them alf 
together. •And now the cities of Greece Condtfered, ia 
their wars, only the king of Persia , wfaont thi^ dalled the 
great king, or the king, by way of eminence, as* if Ihey al<< 
"teady thoujgiyt th^msefves his subjects. HbWever, when 
Greece was iroon the brink of slavery, and ready to fall in- 
to the handis oi tlite barbarians^ it was impossible ror the gen- 
ius, the ancient spirit of the country, not to roustt and take 
the alarm. Agesilaus, klug of Laced aemonia,' made the Per- 
sians tremble in Asia Minor, and showed that they might l)0 
humblec^. . Their weakness was still ,more evident by the 
glorious reireat of the ten thousand Gtecfcswho had follow- 
ed the younger Cyrus. . . , , , , 

It was then that all Greiec^ saw' more pfsuhly than' cvciy 
that it possessed an invincible body of soldiery, which -^vas 
able to subdue all nations ; and that nothing but it^ feuds and 
divisions could subject it to an enemy, who was too weak* to* 
ffesist it when united. 

^ Philip of Macedon, a prince whose abilities wftre equal ttf 
im valour, took so great advantage of the ^visions whickr 

• JP'ki. de Lcg« 1. Hi. Ifoofst. iB Pan^ 

feigned between the various cities and coininoimeaIth$,that 
though his kingdom was but small, y;et, as it was united^ and 
his power absolute, he at last, partly by artifice, and partly 
by strength, rpse to greater power ftan any of the jGrecian 
states, and pbiigeid tnem all to march under his standards 
against the cammon en^my. This was the state of Greece 
when Phjilip lost his life,, and Alexander, hi» son, succeeded 
to his kingdom aiid to the designs he had pn^ected. 

The Macedonians^ at his accession, were not only wdl disf 
ciplined, and inured' to tojUs, but triugiphajit ; and become^ 
by so many successes, almost as much superior to the othei^ 
Greeks ui valour and discipline, as the r/eat <^ the Greeks 
Vere superior to the P^^^ans ai^ t9 suph nations a^ resepi« 
bled them. ' , ; - 

Darius, who rdgned over Persia in Alexander's time, wa$ 
a just, brave, and generous prince ; was beloved by his nib- 
jects, and wanted neither good sense nor yJigo|Qr fot the exe- 
cution ortiis desiens. But if we compare them ; |f we op'*- 
pose the genius of Darius, to the penetrating SMbUme one of 
Alexander ; the valoi;ir of the ibrm^, to,the nalgh^y^ invinci-* 
ble courage, which obstacles anin^^ed, of the- latter ; with 
that boundless desire of Alex^ndex* p^ augi^ienting hisglory^ 
and his entire beljef that all things ought to bsow flie neck to 
him, as being foii'med by providence superior to the rest of 
tnortals— a belief with which he inspired ncSit only bis gene- 
rals, but the meanest of liis soldiersjwhpithereby rose above 
difficulties, and even above tjiemscjyps— the reader will easi- 
ly judge which of the mpiiarclis ^ras to be y ^c^nous. 

If to tl^ese considerations wjb add iJiit? advantages which 
the Greeks and Macedoniaps had over their <Bn6mies,it must 
be confessed, that it was impossible for the Persian empire 
to subsist any longer, when invaded by so great a hero, and 
by such invincjible armies. ' And thus we discover^ at one 
and the same time, the circumstance which ruined the em- 
t>ire of the Perslaiis, and raised tliat of Alexander. 

To smooth his way to victory, tjhe Persians happened to 
lose the only general who was able to make head against the 
Greeks, and this was Mempon of Rhojdes. So long as Alexi- 
ander fought against this ilVustrious warrior, he might glory 
in having vanquished an enemy worthy of himself. But in the 
very infancy of a diversion, which began already to divide 
Greece, Memnon died, after ivhich Alexander obliged all 
things to give way before him. " \ ■ • ■ 

This prince made his entrance into Biabylon, with a splen- 
dour and magnificence which had never been ^eai before ; 
and, after having revenged Greece ; aftet subduing, with ini 
jPiedible swiftness, all the nations $ubje<Jt to Persia ^ t6 secijr^ 

Ilk new empire on etefy nde^ or rather to sa^teliisarobi- 
^OBy and rrader his name more fiunous than that of Bacr 
ehoft) he marched iafeo India^ and tiiere extetided his con- 
qaests ftrdieif than that cele!)rated con(pjerorhad done. But 
Hw fnoaarch) -whose impHiiaud'careerneHher deserts, tiversy 
inrmoQiitaiBBCoiild ttop, was obliged to yield to ttie murmurs 
itilhui' soldiers, who called* aioad' for ^aae atid repose. 

Alexander Tetumed to Babylon, dreaded and reapected, 
■ot as: 8 conqueror, twt a» a god'. Nevertl^eless, the formi- 
jdaUc empire he had acquired, subsisted no longer than his 
Ikity wluch wM but ^lert.' At 33 years of age, in the midst 
•f ^e grandesl designs that ever man formed, and flushed 
'^th ttM sm^ast lM>pee of sacce!^, he- died, before lie had lei- 
sure to'settlehis affairs on a solid foundation ; leaving behind 
liiiA a. weak brottfer, aihd diildren Very young, dl incapable 
iof si^pottifi^ tfM Twigfat of such* a power. 
'• But the circumstance which proved most fatal to his fam- 
ily and «mplre,was his having* taught the generals who sur- 
vived hhn, to breatJie nothjn^ but ambition and war. He 
loresaw the prodi^ous ^gtlis they would go after his death. 
.To curb their'ambitiauB views, and for fear of mistaking in 
bis conjectures, he did not- dare to name his successor, or 
Ithe guardian of his children. ' He only foretold, that his 
Ifriends would solemnise his^ obsequies -with l^loody battles ; 
and he expired in the flower of hisage, full <^ the sad image's 
of the confu^on which would follow his deajh. 

And indeed Macedonia, the kingdom he inherited, which 
his ancestors l>ad governed during so many ages, was invad- 
/ed on all sides, as a succession that was become vacant; 
^nd, after bein^ long exposed a prey, was at la$t possessed 
hy another family. Thus this great conqueror, ti^e mostre* 
iiownedrthe world ever saw, was the last king of his family. 
Had'he IJved peaceably in Macedon, the Vast bounds of his 
empire woiild not have proved a temptation to his generals ; 
knd he would have left to his children the kingdom he in-* 
{lerited from his ancestors, feut rising to too exaltpd a hdght 
iof power, lie proved the destruction of his posterity ; as4 
'«uch was the inglorious fruit of all his conquests, 1 



Alexander's Successors. 

Thia chafiter contains the competition and wart that mbntf^ 
ed between the generctlaqf Alexander^ from the death qf 
that firince to the battle of Ifisua in Bhrygia, which dei 
cided their troeral fates. These events inchide the sfiace 
^2^yearsy which coincide with the first 23 years of the 
reign qfPttUemy the son of Lagxts^from the year of the 
world 3681, to the year 3704. 



IN relating the death of Alexander the Great,! mentioned 
"*■ many troubles and commotions that arose in-the army oa 
the first news of that event. All the troops in general, sol- 
diers as well as officers, had Cheir thoughts entirely taken 
up at first with the loss of a prince wliom they loved as a 
father, and reverenced almost as a god, and'abandaned them- 
selves immoderately to grief and tears, A moun]ial silence 
reigned throughout the camp ; but this was soon succeeded by 
dismal sighs and cries, which speak the true language of the 
heart, and never flow frofti a vam ostentation of sorrow, which 
is too often paid to custom and decorum on such occasions.* 
When the first impressions of grief had given place to re^ 
flection, they began to consider^ with the utmost consterna- 
tion, the state in which Alexander had left them. They 
found themselves at an "infinite distance fi'om their native 
country, and amidst a people lately subdued, so little accus- 
tomed to their new yoke, that they were liardly acquainted 
with their present mastei*s, and ha<l not as yet had suflicient 
time to forget their ancient laws, and that form of govern - 
n\ent under which they had always fivcd. What measui^es 
could he taken to keep a country of such vast extent in sub- 
jection ? How could it be possible to suppress those seditions 

*PaiMiD nlentit et geoiicm \ nihil composiiQin in oitefltatioaem-« 
ntiiKOMeVtDC. Tactc. 


S25 B I s TO A T or £ook XVI, 

and rerolts which would naturally break out on all feides in 
lliat decisive moment ? What expedients could be formed to 
reitriiiii those troops within the limits of their duty, who had 
60 long been habituated to complaints and murmurs, and 
were commanded by chiefs whose views and pretension* 
were so different. 

The oaly remedy for these various calamities seemed to 
consist in a speedy nomination of a successor to Alexander ; 
and tlie troops, as well as the officers, and the whole M&ce- 
<lonian state, seemed at first to be very desirous of this expe- 
client : Aud, indeed, their common interest and security, 
with the preservation of their new conquests, amidst the 
barbarous nations that surrounded them, made it necessary 
for tlicm to consider this election, as their first and most i;n< 
portant care, and to turn their thoughts to the choice of a 
person qualified to fill so arduous a station, and sustain the 
weight of it in such a manner, as to be capable of supports 
ing the general order and tranquillity. But it had already 
been written * "that the kingdom of Alexander should be di* 
•'vided and rent asunder after his death,** and that it should 
not be transmitted in the usual manner "to his posterity." 
Ko efforts of human wisdom could establish a sole successor 
to that prince. In vain did they deliberate, consult and de- 
cide ; nothing could be executed contrary to the pre-or- 
dained event, and nothing short of it could possibly subsist. 
A superior and invincible power bad already disposed of the 
kingdom, and divided it by an inevitable decree, as will be 
evident in the sequel. The circumstances of this partition 
had been denounced near three centuries before this time ; 
the portions of it had already been assigned to different pos- 
sessors, and nothing could frustrate that divisicm which was 
only to be deferred for a few years, * Till the arrival of that 
period, men indeed might raise commotions, and ccmcert a 
variety of movements ; but all their efforts would only tend 
to the accon^plishment of what had been ordained by tlie 
sovereign master of kingdoms, and of what had been foretold 
by his prophet. 

Alexander had a son by Barsina, and had conferred &• 
name of Hercules upon him. Roxana, another of his wiyesi 
was advanced in her pregnancy when that prince died. Jb.c 
had likewise a natural brother called Aridsus ; but he would 
not upon his death bed dispose of his dominions in favour of 
any heir ; for which reason this vast empire, which no lon- 
ger had a master to sway it, became a source of comprtition 
and wars, as Alexander had plainly foreseen, when he de- 
clared that his friends would celebrate his funeral vi^ 

(rioocly battles. 

*P^, li-^. 


The division was augmented by the cqnality among the 
generals of the armyj none of whom was so superior to his 
colleagues, either by birth or merit, as to induce them to 
offer him the empire, and submit to his authority. The ca- 
valry were desirous that Avid jcus should succeed Alexander. 
This prince had discovered but little force of mind, from 
the time he had been afflicted m his infancy with a violent 
indisposition, occasioned, as was pretended, by some paVtic- 
tilar drink, which had been given him by Olympias, and 
which had disordered his understanding. This ambitious 
princess, being apprehensive that the engaging qualities she 
discovered in Avidxus, would be so many obstacles to the 
greatness of her son Alexander, thought it expedient to have 
recourse to the criminal precaution already mentioned. The 
infantry had dsclared against this prince, and were headed 
by Ptolemy, and other chiefs of great reputation, who begaa 
to think of their own particular establishment ; for a sudden 
revolution was working in the minds of these officers, and 
caused them to contemn the rank of private persons, and all 
dependency and subordination, with a view of aspiring to 
sovereign power, which had never employed their thoughts 
till then, and to which they had liever thought themselves 
qualified to pretend before tljis conjuncture of affairs. 

♦These disputes, which engaged the minds of all parties, 
delayed the interment of Alexander for the space of seven 
days ; zind, if we may credit some authors^ the body con- 
tinued uncorrupted all that titne. It was afterwards deliv- 
ered to the Egyptians and Chaldeans, who embalmed it after. 
their manner ; and Aridaeus, a different person from him I 
have already mentioned, was charged with tlie care of con- 
veying it to Alexandria. 

After a variety of troubles and agitations had intervened, 
the principal ofBcers assembled at the conference, where it 
"Was unanimously concluded that Aridaus should be king, or 
rather that he should be invested with the shadow of royalty. 
His infirmity of mind, which ought to have excluded him 
from the throne, was the very motive of their advancing him 
to it, and uniting all suffrages in his favour. It favoured the 
hopes and pretensions of all the chiefs, and covered their de-- 
signs. It was also agreed in this assembly, that if Roxana, 
who was then in the fifth or sixth month of her pregnancy, 
should have a son, he should be associated with Aridaeus in 
the throne. Perdiccas, to whom Alexander had left his 
ring in the last moments of his life, had the person of the 
prince consigned to his care as guardian, and was constituted 
regent of the kingdom. 

. *<^£art« ]• t» JaUlo. 1 xvui Piod« I. xvill, 

aai HtsTORT or Book XfTi. 

The same assembly, ivhatfever reaped they might bear to 
Hie memory of Alexander, thought nt to sxiimi some of bia 
regulations, which had been destructive to the state, and 
liad exhausted his treasury. He had' given orders for ^x 
lemples to be erected m particular cities, which he had nam- 
ed, and had fixed the expences of each of these structures 
mt 500 talents, which amounted to 500,000 croWBS. He had 
likewise ordered a pyramid to be raised over the tomb of 
bis &thev Philip, which was to be finished with a grandeur 
and magnificence eaual to that in Egypt, esteemed one of 
the seven wonders of the world.. He had IJlcewise planned 
out other expences of the like kind> which were prudeutly 
revoked by the assembly. 

•Within a short time after these proceedings, Roxanawas 
delivered of a son, who was named Alexander, and acknowl- 
edged king jointly with Aridseus. Rut neither of these 
prmces possessed any thing more than the name of royaltj^ 
as all authority was entirely lodged in the great lords ana 
generals, who had divided the provinces among themselves. 

Id Europe ; Thrace and the adjacent regions were con- 
Bigned toLysimachus ; and Macedonia, Epirus^ and Greece, 
Were allotted to Antipater and Craterus. 

In Africa ; Egypt, and the other conquests of Alexander 
ikn Libya, and Cyrenaica, were assigned to Ptolemy the sen 
«f Lagus, with that part of Arabia which borders on Egyp^* 
The month of Thoth in the autumn is.the epocha, Irora 
whence the years of the empire of the Lagides in Egypt be- 
gin to be computed ; though Ptolemy did not assume the 
title of king, in conjunction with the other successors ol 
Alexander, till about 17 years after this event. 

In the Josser Asia, Lycia, Pamphylia, and the Greater 
l^hiygia, were givpn to Antigonus ; Caria to Cassander ^ 
lAtlia, to Menancler ; the Lesger Phr}^gia, to Leonatus ; 
Armenia, to Neoptolemus : Cappadocia and Paphlagonia, 
10 Eumenes. These two provinces had never been sub* 
jected by the Macedonians, and Ariarthes king of Cappado- 
cia continued to govern them, as formerly^ Alexander hav- 
ing advanced with so much rapidity to his other conquests, 
as left him no inclination to amuse himself with the entire 
reduction of that province, contented himself with a slight 

Syria and Phoenicia fell to Laomedbn ; one of the two 
Medias to Atropates, and the other to Penficcas. Persia 
was aFs'igned to Peucestes ; Babylonia, to Archon ; Mesapo^ 
tamia, to Arcesilas ; Parthia and Hyracania, to Pratapher- 
nes ; Bactria and So^diania, to PhiUp. The odier r^ons 

*J>uid, I«xviit, p. 5S7, s^^' Jnftin. 1, ziit, c, 4* (j^Cttrtrl z« e, i«. 


Mere divided among generals whose names are now but lit- 
tle known. 

Seleucus, the son of Antiochus, was placed at tlie head of 
the cavc^ry of the allies, which was si post of great import- 
ance ; and Cassander, son of Antipater^ co^manded^ the 
companies of guards. 

The Upper Asia, which extends ahnost to India, and even 
India also, were left in the possession of those who had bee^ 
appointed govenwars of those countries by Alexander. 

*The same dispositipn generally prevailed in all the pro- 
.vjnces I have already mentioned ; and it is in this sense x\\^t 
.most interpreters explain that passage in the Maccabees, 
•which declares, that Alexander, having assembled the great 
:tnen of his court who had beeu bred up with hiiij^. divide^ 
his empire among them in his life-time : and indeed it was 
very probable, that this prince, when he saw his death ap- 
•proaching,iAnd>had no inGlination.«<o nominate a successor 
.himsj^lf, was contented with confirming each of his officers 
,in the government he had formerly assigned them, which 
is sufficient to authorize the declaration in the Alacabees^ 
^^ that he divided his kingdom among them while he wak 

This partition was only the work of man, and its dura- 
tion was but short. That Being, who reigns alone, and is 
the only king of ages, had decreed a different distribution. 
•He assigned to each his portion, and marked out its bounda^ 
•Ties and extent, and his dispcsition alone was to subsist. 

The partition c<Hicluded upon in the assembly, was the 
source of various divisicms and wars, as will be evident in 
the series of this history ; each of these governors claiming 
the exercise of an independent and sovereign power in his 
particular province. They however paid that veneration 
to the memory of Alexander, as not to assume the title of 
king^ till all the race of that monarch, who had been placed 
upon the throne, were extinct-f 

Among the governors of the provinces I have mentioned, 
TSome distinguished themselves more than others by their rep- 
utation, merit, and cabals; and formed different parties, to 
which the others adhered, agreeably to their particular viewjs 
'either- of interest or ambition; for it is not to be imagined, 
that the resolutions which are formed in conjunctures of this 
• nature, are much influenced by a devotion to the public good. 
lEumenes must however be excepted , for he undoubtedly 
-was the most virtuous m{^n among aU tiie governors, and had 

•Maccib, 1. 1, et 7. ^ t Jaft»o J- «». c ». 

}Plnt, ID Siunto. p. s8j, Cor. Nep, in Zvmcn^ «« 

SBfi HXST0X7 er JB^^XVl 

no superior in true braverjr. He was always €rm in the in* 
teresc of the two kings, from a principle ottnie probity. He 
was a native of Cardia, a city of Thrace, and hh birth was 
but obscure. PhiUp, who had observed excellent qualities in 
tiim in his youth, kept him near his own person in thjs quality 
of secretai*y, and reposed g;reat confidence in him. ne was 
equally esteemed by Alexander, who treated him with extra- 
ordinary marks of his esteem. Barsina, the first lady for 
whom this prince had entertained a passion in Asia, and by 
whom he had a son named Hercules, had a sister of tire same 
name with her own, and the king e^pcMised her toEumenes* 
We shall see by the event, that this wise favourite conducted 
himself in such a manner, as jtistly entitled him to the favour 
of these two monarchs, even after their death ; and ^ his 
sentiments and actions will make it evident that a mai^may 
be a piebian, and yet very noble by nature. 

fl have already intimated, that Sysigambis, who had pa- 
tiently supported the death of her father, husband, and son, 
was incapable of surviving AlexaAder. |The deatii of this 
princess was soon followed by that of her two youngest 
daughters, Statira the widow of Alexander, and Drypetis 
the relict of Hephs&stion. Roxana, who was apprehensive 
lest Statira should be pregnant by Aleicaiider as wtU a&her- 
sclf, and that the birth of a prince would frustrate the mea- 
sures which i)ad been taken to secure the succession to the 
sun she hoped to have, prevailed upon the two sisters to 
visit her, and secretly destroyed them, in concert withPcr- 
diccas, her only confident in that infamous proceeding. 

It is now time to enter upon a detail of those acti(»is that 
were performed by the successors of Alexander. I shaH 
therefore begin wiUi the defection of the Greeks in Upper 
Asia, and with the war which Antipater had to sustain 
against Greece ; because those transactions are most de- 
'tecbed, and in a manner distinct from the <^er events. 



The Greeks J whom Alexander had established, in the 
form oi colonies, in tlie provinces <m Upper A^a, continued 
with reluctance in those settlements, because thejr did tiot ex- 
perience those delight? and satis&cticms with which they had 
ifiattered themselves, and had long cherished an ardent de- 
sire of returning into their own country. They however 

*Arrian decltres he had another wife. Lib. vii, p. a^S, 
tOi. Curt. I. X. c, 5- fPlut. ju Alex. 

SAtM. 3S61, Aot.J. C. 393. Diod. I XTiiiip, j6x,j^9. 


durst not discover their uneasiness -wbilst Alexander waa 
living) but the moment they received intelligence of his 
deat$, they openly declared their intentions. They armed 
20,000 foot, all warlike and experienced soldiers, with SOOO 
horse ; and. having placed Pliilon at their head, they pre- 
pared for their departure, witliout taking counsel, or receiv- 
ing orders from any but themselves, as if they had been sub- 
ject to no authority, and no longer acknowledged any supe- 

Perdiccas, who foresaw the consequence of such an^nteiv 
prize, at a time when every thing was in motion, and when 
the trocps as well as their officers breathed nothing but indc^ 
pendency, sent Pithon to oppose them. The merit of this 
officer was acknowledged by all ; and he willingly charged 
himself with this commission, in expectation of gaining over 
Uiose Greeks, and of procuring himself some considerabie 
establishment in Upper Asia by their means. Perdiccas, 
being acquainted with his design, gave a very surprising or- 
der to the 'Macedonians whom he sent with that general, 
which was to extirminate the revolters entirely. Pithon, on 
his arrival, brought over by money 3000 Greeks, who turned 
their backs in the battle, and were the occasion of his obtain- 
m% a complete victory. The vanquished troops surrendered, 
but made the preservation of their lives and liberties the 
condition of their submitting to the conqueror, This was 
exactly agreeable to Pithon's design, but he was no longer 
master of its execution. The Macedonians, thinking it in- 
cumbent on them to accomplish the orders of Perdiccas, in- 
humanly slaughtered all the Greeks, withjout the least regard 
to the terms they had granted them. 'Pithon, being thus 
defeated in his views, returned with his Macedonians to 

♦This expedition was soon succeeded by the Grecian war. 
The news of Alexander's death being brought to Athens, 
had excited great rumours, and occasioned a joy that was 
almost universal. The people, who had long sustained with 
reluctance the yoke which the Macedonians had imposed on 
Greece, made liberty the subject of all their discourse ; they 
breath^ nothing but war, and abandoned themselves to all 
the extravagant emotions of a senseless and excessive joy. 
Phocicm, who was a person of wisdom and moderation, and 
doubted the truth of the intelligence they had received, ein- 
dearoured to curb the turbulency of their minds, which ren- 
dered them incapable of counsel and sedate reflection. As 
the generally of the orators, notwithstanding all his remon- 
strance6> believed the news of Alexander's death^ Phociun 

£PlHtiii Fhoc f. 75I1 1S\ 

ttZ lOSTOlT w Book XVI, 

roafe up and expressed bimself In this aotattncr : ^Uhitht 
^ really dead to-^day, he iviU likewise be so to-morrow, and 
^ the tiext day, so that we will have taaae enough to delil^ 
derate id a calm manner, and with greater secority.'' 

Leosthenes, who was the first that publiBhed this account 
«t Athens was contimMllyharangfiinguie people with exces- 
sive arrogance and vanity. Phocion, who was tired with his 
speeches, said to him, ^^ovng man, your discourse resem- 
^ bles the cypress, which is tali and spreading, but bears no 
^ fruit." He gave great ofience by q^XMxng £e inclina^ons 
^f the people in so strenuous a manner, and Hyperides, rising 
tip, asked him this question ^When would you advise the 
<* Athenians to make war ?" "As sooo," r^ed Phedon, 
^ as I see the young men firmly resolved to observe a strict 
'^discipline; the rich disposed to contxibute according to 
'^ their abilities, to the expence of a war \ and when the ora- 
* tors no longer rob the public. '* 

All the remonstrances of Phocion were ineffectual ; a trar 
ivas resolved upon, and a deputation agreed tabe seat to all 
the states of Greece, to engage their accession to the league; 
This is the war in which all the Greeks, except the 'Fhe- 
'bans united to maintain the liberty of their country, under 
'the conduct of Leosthenes, againiit Antipater and it was 
called the Lamian war, from the name of ^e city where- tlK 
latter was defeated in the first battle, 

♦Demosthenes, who was then an exile at Megara, bat who 
amidst his fortunes always retained an ardent ^eal for the 
interest of his country, and the defence of the cemm^m lib- 
erty, Joined himself with the Athenian amb^sadors. sent into 
Peloponnesus, and having seconded their remonstrances in a 
ivonderful mannef by the force of his eloquence,, he engaged 
Sicoyne, Argos, Corinth, and the other cities of Pelopaonc- 
BUS. to accede to the league. 

The Athenians were struck with admiration afra 2eal so 
noble and generous, atni immediately passed a deeree to recal 
him from bani^ment. A galley with thi«e rsmks c^ oars 
was dispatched to him at ^gina, £uid, whien he entered the 
port of Piraens,al1 the magistrates and priests advance out 
of the city, and all the citizens crowded to nieetthat iUtist- 
rious exile, and received him with the utmost demonstrations 
ef affection and joy, blended at the same time with an air of 
sorrow and repentance tor the injury they liad done hhn. 
Demosthenes was sensibly aflccted with the extraordinaiy 
honours that were rendered him ; and whilst he returned, as 
itlvereintrium]^ to his conmry, amidst the acclamations of 
" the people, he Mfted up his hands towards - heaven; to thfok 

fPtottla Demofi. ^.i%s% ^4ift^. 1, s^. ^ ^jf< 

Sect. II, ALSxAirM)i's sticctisoits. S53 

the gods for to illustrioas a protection, and congratulated him- 
self cm beholding a day more glorious to him, than that had 
proved to Alcibiades, on which he rettinied from his exile s 
for his citizens received him from the pure effect of desire 
and will ; whereas the reception of Alcibiades was involun* 
tary, and his entrance a compulsion upon their inclinations. 

*The generality of those who were far advanced in years 
were extremely apprehensive of the event of a war which 
had been undertaken with too much precipitation, and with- 
out examining into the consequences, with all the attention 
and sedateness that an enterprise of so much importance 
required. They were sensible also, that there was no ne- 
cessity for declaring themselves so openly against the Mac- 
edonians, whose veteran troops were very formidable ; and 
the example of Thebes, which was destroyed by the same 
temerity of conduct, added to their consternation. But the 
orators, v^^ho derived their advantages from the distraction 
of the public affairs, and to whom, according to the obser- 
vation of Philip, war was peace, and peace war, would not 
allow the people time, to deliberate maturely on the affairs 
proposed to their consideration, but drew them into their 
sentiments by a fallacious eloquence, which' presented them 
with Jiothing but scenes of future conquests and triumphs, 

Demosthenes and Phocion, who wantted neither zeal nor 
prudence, were of different sentiments on this occasion^ 
which was no extraordinary circumstance with respect to 
them. It is not my province to determine which of them 
had reason on his side : but in such a perplexing conjunc- 
ture as this, ^here is nothing suiprising in a contrariety of 
opinions, though the result of good intentions on both sides* 
Phocion *s scheme was, perhaps, t^e most prudent, and that 
of Demosthenes the most glorious. 

However that were, a considerable army was raised, and 
« very numerous fleet fitted out. All the citizens who were 
under the age of forty, and capable of bearing arms, were 
drawn out. Three of the ten tribes that composed the re- 
public, were left for the defence of Attica, tlie rest marched 
out with the allies, under the command of Leostheries. 

Antipater was fax from being indolent during these trans- 
actions in Greece, of which he had been apprised, and he 
had sent to Leonatus in Phrygia,^nd to Craterus in Cilicia, 
to solicit their assistance ; but before the arrival of the ex- 
pected succours, he marched at the head of only 13,000 
Macedonians and 600 horse ; the frequent recruits which 
he had sent Alexander, having left him no W>v^ troops i|^ 
allthe coui^try. 

f Qiod. I sviii. p, j07«->599i. 

434 ulsTbKY ♦# Aoai- JTrZ 

It is surprising that Antipatcr should atteraf>t to give bat^ 
He to the united forces of all Greece with such a band&l of 
men ; but he undoubtedly imagined, tliat the Greeks were 
no longer actuated by their ancient zeal and ardour for lib- 
erty, and that they ceased to consider it as such an inestima- 
ble advantage as ought to inspire them with a resolution to 
venture their lives and fortunes for its preservation. He 
flattered himself that they had begun to familiarize them- 
■elves with subjection •, and indeed this was the disposition 
of the Greeks at that time ; in whom appeared no longer 
the descendants of those who had so gallantly sustained att 
the efforts of the east, and fought a million of men for the 
pi*eservation of their freedom. 

AfUipater advanced towards Thessaly, and was followed 
by his fleet, which cruised along the sea coast. It consisted 
of 110 triremes, or galleys of three benches of oats. The 
Thessalians declared at first in his favour ; but having after- 
wards changed their sentiments, they joined the Atheniansi 
and supplied them with a great body of horse. 
. As the army of the Athenians and their allies l^rasmuch 
more numerous than that of the Macedonians, Antipater 
oould not support the charge, and was defeated in the first 
battle. As he durst not hazard a second, and was in no can- 
dition to make a safe retreat into Macedonia, he shut him" 
BtU up in Lamia, a small city inThessaly, in order to wait 
for the succours that were to be transmitted to him from 
Asia, and he fortified himself in that place, which^ >f as soon 
besieged by the Athenians. 

^Fhe assault was carried on with great bravary against the 
town, and the resistance was equally vigorous. LeostheneSy 
after several attempts, despairing to carry it by force, cliaDg*' 
ed the siege into a blockade, in order to conquer the place 
by famine. He surrounded it with a wall of circumvallationi 
and a very deep ditch, and t^ these means cut off all sup-* 
plies of provisions. The city soon became sensible of the 
growing scarcity, and the besieged began to be serioiKly^diS'* 
posed to surrender, when Leosthenes, in a sally they, made 
upon himf received a considerable wound, which rendered 
it necessary for him to be carried to his tent : upoa which 
tiie command of the army was consigned to Antiphilus, who 
vas equally esteemed by the troops for his valour and ability, 

*Lieonatus, in the mean time, was marching to the assist- 
ance of the Macedonians besieged in Lamia, and was coia« 
missioned, as well as Antigonus, by agreement made, be- 
tw.een the generals, to establish Eumenes in Cappadooia, 
by force of arms j but they took other measares, in consc-^ 

*A* ^ 36S(. Ant. ]. C. aaa. Flat| in laam. p. s^^ 

Sect, tl, Alexander's svccessors. ^3t 

quence of some particular riews. l^eonatus, who Yeposei 
an entire confidence in Eumenes, declared to him at part» 
ing, that the engagement to assist Antipater was a mere 
pretext, and that his real intention was to advance into 
Greece, in order to make himself master of Macedonia, He 
at the same time showed him letters from Cleopatra, the 
sister of Alexander, who invited him to come to Fella, and 
promised to espouse him. Leonatus being arrived within k 
little distance of Lamia,' marched directly to the enemy, with 
20,000 foot and 2,500 horse. Prosperity had introduced dis*. 
orders in the Grecian army ; several parties of soldiers 
drpw off, and retired into their own country on various pre^ 
texts, which greatly diminished the number- of the tnx)ps^ 
who were now reduced to 22,000 foot. The cavalry amounted 
to 3,500, 2000 of whom were Thessalians ; and as tliey con- 
stituted the main strength of the army) so ail hopes of suc*i 
cess were founded in them ; and accordingly, when the battle 
was fought, this body of horse had the greatest share of the 
victory that was obtained. They were commanded by Me* 
non, Leonatus, covered with wounds, lost his life in the field 
of battle, and was conveyed into the camp by his troops. The 
Macedonian phalanx greatly dreaded the shock cf the cav-» 
airy, and had therefore retreate4 to eminences inaccessible 
to the pursuit of the Thessalians. The Greeks having car-f 
j"ied off their dead, erected a trophy, and retired. 

*The whole conversation at Athens turned upon tlie glo* 
rions exploits of Leosthenes, who survived his honours but 
a short time. An universal joy spread through the city, fes* 
tivals were celebrated, and sacrifices offered without inter-* 
mission, to testify their gratitude to the gods for all the ad- 
vantages they had obtained. The enemies of Phocion tliinkr 
ing to mortify him in the jnost sensible manner, and reduce 
him to an incapacity of justifying his constant opposaticn to 
that war, asked him if he would not have rejoiced to have 
performed so many.gloi'ious actions ? "Undoubtedly I would,*' 
• replied Phocion ;*-' '^but I would not, at the same, have ne- 
glected to offer the advice I gavef/' He did not think that 
a judgment ought to be formed of any particular counsel 
from mere success, but rather from the nature and solidity 
of the counsel itself ; and he did not retract his sentiments^ 
because those of an opposite nature had been successful, 
which only proved the latter more foilwuate, but not more 
Judicious. And as these agreeable advices came thick upon 

*PIiit, in Phoc. p. yj;*. 

4Mon damnavit qaod tt&t viderat, qois, quod aliai male conauleA 
^t, bcDe ycascrat ; felidHi hoc cziniiD«|>»i iUud ctiam tapieotin^ 

IS6 «is«tT^F Book Xn. 

jwch other, Phodon, who wm apprehensive of the aequd, 
cried out, *«whcn shall we cease to conquer them i** 

Antipater was obliged to surrender hy capitulation, but 
history has not transmitted to jjs the conditions of the treaty. 
The event only makes it evident, that Leosthenes ooinpelled 
him to surrender at discretion, and he himself died a few 
days after, of the wounds he had received at ttie siege. An- 
tipater having quitted Lamia the day after the battle (for 
he seems to have been favourably ti-eatcd,) jmned there- 
mains of the army of Leonatus, and took upon him the com- 
mand of those troops. He was extremely cautious of haz- 
arding a second battle, and kept with his troops,like a judi- 
cious and experienced general, on eminences inaccessible to 
the enemy's cavalry. Antiphilus, the general of the Greeks, ■ 
remained with his troopiii m Thessaly, and contented him- 
celfwith observing the motions of Antipater. 

Clitus, who commanded the Macedonian fleet, obtained^ 
much about the same time, two victories, near the islands 
of Echinades, over Eetion the admiral of the Athenian navy. 

•Craterus, who had been long expected, arrived at last 
In Thessaly, and halted at the river Peneus. He resigned the 
cbmmand to Antipater, and was contented to serve under 
him. Hie troops he had brought thitker amounted, in con- 
junction with those of Leonatus, to above 40,000 foot, 3000 
archers or slingers, and 5000 horse. The army of the allies 
was much inferior to these troops in nutpber, and consisted 
of no more than 25,000 foot, and 3,500 horse. Military dis- 
cipline had been much neglected among them, after the 
victories they had obtained. A considerable battle was 
fought near Cranon, in which the Greeks were defeated f 
they however lost but few troops, and even that disadvan- 
tage was occasioned h^ the licentious conduct of the soldiers, 
and the small authority of the chiefs, who were incapable 
of enforcing obedience to their commands. 

Antiphilus and Menon, the two generals of the Grecian 
army, assembled a coundl the next 4&y9 to deliberate, 
whether they should wait the return of those troops who had 
retired into their own country, or propose terms of accom- 
modation to the enemy. The council declared in favour of 
the latter ; upon which deputies were immediately dispatched 
to the enemy's camp, in the name c^ all the allies. Antipater 
replied, that he would enter into a separate treaty with each 
of the cities, persuading himself that he should facilitate 
the accomplishment dPjiis designs by this proceeding ; and 
he was not decdved in his opinion. His answer broke off 
thenegodMioQ ( and the moment he presented himself lye- 

fore the cities of tbe AUiss^they duibanded their troq»s,and 
surrendered up their ^berties in tlie most pusiUanimoius 
manner, .each city being scdely .attentive to its separate ad« 

Xh^ circumstance is a su£5cient confirmation of wliat I 
;Jiave forn^erly observed with rela'tion to .the present disposi- 
;tian of the people of Greece. They were no longer ani- 
mated \vith the noble zeal of those ancient asserters of lih« 
.crty., who devoted their vhole attention to the good of the 
.public and .the glory of the nation 4 who considered the dan- ' 
^er of tlieir neighbours and allies as their own, and marched 
;with the utmost eicpedition to their assistance upon the first 
jiignal of .their distress. Wliereas now, if a formidable 
enemy appeared at the gates of Athens, all the republics c£ 
iCreecehad neither activity nor vigour :; Peloponnesus con- 
tinued without modon, and ^arta was as little heard of as 
K she had never existed. Unhappy eSects of the mutual 
Jealousy which those people had conceived against each 
other, and of their 4isregafrd to the;common liberty, in con- 
-science of ,a. fatal lethargy, into wMch they were sunk 
amidst the greatest dangers"! These are symptoms which 
prognosticate and prepare the way lor approacinng decline 
AiuX ruixu 

*" i^njtir"*^'^ improved this desertion to his own advantage, 
^nd^ai^rched immediately to Athens, which saw lierself 
;a^^doned by aU her allies, and consequently in no conditioa 
4to Idefend herself against a potent and victorious enemy* 
Beibre he entered the city, Demosthenes, and all those of hm 
rparty, who may be x^onsidered as the last true Gr^eelis, an4 
il>e. defenders of expiring liberty, retired from that place j^ 
.and the people, in order to transfer upon those great men 
tlie<!f*^proach resulting from their declairation of war against 
. Antii^at'er, and likewise to obtain liis good graces, condemn 
4ie<l them to die by a decree which Demades prepared. The 
rea-der has not forgot that these are the same people, who 
had- lately recalled Demosthenes, by a decree so much for 
his honour, and had received him in triumph. 
• .;• The same Demades procured a second decree for sending 
. ambassadors to Antipater, who was then at Thebes, and that 
(they, should be invested withiuH powers to negociate a treaty 
<tf p^ace with him. Phocion himself was at their head j; 
an4^Mhe cwqueror declared, that he expected the Athe- 
f\iai» should entirely submit the terms to his regulation, in 
tiirvpiamier as he himself had acted, when he was be- 
.^ged in the city of Lamia, ajwJ bad conformed to the 
iDai|l{^ulation imposed upon lum by Leosthenes their general. 
v.^.t *pittt. io Pbec. p. 753, 754. 

:- •' • E E 

338 ttisnORY OF Book XVI' 

Phocion returned to acquaint the Athenians with this an<> 
swer, and tbey were compelled to acquiesce in the conditions, 
as rigid as they might appear. He then came back to Thebes 
with the rest of the ambassadors, with whom Xenocrates had 
been associated, in hopes that the appearance alone of sp 
celebrated a philosopher would inspire Antipater with re^ 
spect, and induce him to pay homage to his virtue. But surely 
they must have been little acquainted with the heart of man, 
and particularly with the violent and inhuman disposition of 
Antipater, to be capable of flattering themselves, that an en- 
emy, w ith whom they had been engaged in an open war, would 
renounce his advantage thix>ugh any inducement of respect for 
the virtue of a single man, or in consequence of an harangue 
uttered by a philosopher who had declared against him. 
Antipater would not even condescend to cast his eyes upon 
him ; and when he was preparing to enterupon the confer- 
ence (for he was commissioned to be the speaker on this 
occasion), he interrupted him in a very abrupt manner ; and 
perceiving that he continued in his discourse, commanded 
nim to be silent. But he did not treat Phocibn in the same 
manner ; for after he had attended to his discourse, he re- 
plied, '*that he was disposed to craitract a friendship and al- 
*' liance with the Athenians on the following conditions : they 
"should deliver up Demosthenes and Hyperides to him ; the 
<* govern !nent should be restored to its ancient plan, by which 
*' all employments in the state were to be conferred upon 
<' the rich ; that they should receive a garrison into the port 
*' of Munychia ; that they should defray all the expences of 
**the war, and also a large sum, the amount of which should 
•*be settled." Thus, according to Diodorus, none but those 
whose yearly income exceeded 2000 drachms, were to be 
admitted into any share of the government for the future, 
«r to have any right to vote. Antipater intended to make 
himself absolute master of Athens by this regulation,'being 
very sensible, that the rich men who enjoyed public em- 
ployments, and had large revenues, would become his de- 
pendents much more effectually than a poor and despicable 
populace, who had nothing to lose, and would be only guided 
by their own caprice. 

All the ambassadors but Xenocrates were well contemted 
with these conditions, which they thought were veiy mpde?- 
rate, considering their present situation ; but that philosa* 
pher judged otherwise. *«Tliey are very moderate for 
slaves," said he, "but extremely severe for free men.'*- 

The Athenians were therefore compelled to receive into 
Mimychia a Macedonian garrison, commanded by Menyllus, 
a riaaVt of probity, and by some of Phocion's particular friends^ 


The troops took possession of the place during the festival of 
the great mysteries, and the very day on which it was usual 
to cArry the god lacchus in procession from the city to 
Eleuskia, This was a melancholy conjuncture for the Athe-' 
nians, and affected them nvith the most sensible uIBiction^ 
**Alas !" said they, when they compared past times with 
those they then saw, "the gods, amidst our greatest adver- 
*f sitles, would formerly manifest themselves in our favour 
"during their ,sacred ceremonial, by mystic visions and 
*^ audible voices, to the great astonishment of our enemies^ 
M who were terrified by them. But now, when we are even 
" celebrating the same solemnities, they cast an unpitying 
" eye on the greatest calamities that can happen to Greece i 
*!tliey III hold the most sacred of all days in the year, ajid 
"that which is most agreeable to us, polluted and dis- 
*Umgoi^ed by the most dreadful of calamities, which will 
'^even transmit its name to this sacred time through all 
'^succeeding generations." 

'The garrison, commanded by Menyllus, did not offer the 
i«ast injury to any of the inhabitants, but there were more 
than 12,000 of them excluded from emplc^ments in the state, 
h^ one of the stipulations in the treaty, in consequence of 
their poverty. : Some of these unfortunate persons continued 
in Athens, and lingered out a wretched life, amidst the con- 
temptuous treatment they had justly drawn upon themselves;, 
fOi^ the generality of them were seditious and mercenary in 
their diJkpositions,-had neither virtue nor justice, but flat- 
tered themselves with a false idea of liberty, which they 
were incapable of using aright, and had no knowledge of 
either its bounds, duties, or end. The other poor citizens 
departed from the city, in order to avoid that opprobrious 
condition, and retired intoThrie, where Antipatcr assigned- 
them a city and lands fur their habitaticm. 

*Demfetrids Phalereus was" obliged to have recourse to 
flighty and retired to Nicanor ; but Cassander,the son of An- 
tipater, reposed much confidence in him, and made him gov- 
ernor of Munychia after the death of his father, as will ap- 
l)ear immediately. This Demetrius had been not only the 
disciple, but the intimate friend of the celebrated Theophras- 
tUs ; and, under the conduct of so learned a master, had per*- 
fected his natural genius for eloquence, and rendered himself 
expert in philosophy, politics, and histoiy. fHe was in great 
esteem at Athens^ and began to enter upon the administra- 
tion of affairs, when Harp?wlus arrived there, after he had 
declared against Alexander. He was obliged to quit that 
city at the time we have mentioned, and was soon alter con- 

^Athen. I xii* p. SA^ t^^S* >Q H^tti. in Deinetr* 

M0 M&TOST ov BodH'XFJtl 

demntd there, Uknis^i abaeot, under s vaiiKpretetf of irxe- 

*The whole weight of An^^MrieT** di^eftsore &11 chiefly 
upon Demosthenes, Hyperides, and some other Ati w aii BW t* 
who bad ^ecn their adherento y and when he wsb iaformed^ 
that they had einded his vengeance by fiighk^edupatcfaeda: 
body of men with ordcra to seiae them, and pbtoed one An-^ 
chias at their head, who had formerf^ pfatyed im tvagnties. 
This man having found at .ffigina, the orator Hyperides, 
Aristonicus of Marathon, and Hymereasthebradier of De-- 
netrius Phalereos, who had all three taken sanetaary in tite 
temple of Ajax, he dragged them from thehr asylum, and 
sent them to Antipater, who was. then, at Cleones, where he* 
condemned them to die. 9ome authors havci even v^clarod^ 
that he caused the tongaeof Hyperides to be cut out. 

The same Archias having received iBteUtgttnce, tha^ De- 
mosthenes, who had retired into the island ol Cadaada, was 
become a supplicant in the temple of Neptune^ he sailed 
thither in a small vessel and landed with someThracian sol— 
diers : after wtuch. be spared no pains to persuade lilemos*- 
Uienes to accompany him to Antipater^ assin^inghhn that he 
^ould receive no iii^ry. Demosthraes-^is too well ac— 
qfuainted with nuuilundtorely on his promises ; andwas sea**- 
sible that venal scads, whey hanre Mred themsekes mto the 
service ei iniquity, those in£&inous mhiieters. in the eseeeu^ 
tion of orders equally crne^ and unjust, have as little: r^funi 
to sincerity and truth as. their* master sc .Ta prevent there*-- 
fbne his faUing into the hand o£ a. t^n^ant, who would haioe 
satiated his fury upon him, he swallowed poisen, wkicle hsr 
dlway a carried about liim^and wkmh se(^- 
When he found h]» strength dtDelining) he advanocai a fssm 
steps, by the aid ol seme domestics wha sii^iported lm% imd- 
fell down dead at the foot of the altar. 

^rhe Athenians, soon after tlus event, erected, a statue cf 
brass to his memory, as a te^inionial of their gratitude andf 
esteem, and made a decree, that the eldest branch of hisJam-*-* 
iiy should be bt*ought npi in the Frj^taneani, at the public 
€xpence, from generation to generation ; and at ttie loot.crf 
tiie statue they engraved tliis inscription, which was couch*- 
ed in two elegiac verses r ^< Bemostiienes, if thy power had 
^< been equal to thy wisdom, the Macedonian Mar& would 
" never have triumphed over Greece." What regard is te 
be entertahied for the judgment of a people, who were ca- 
pable of being hun^ied into such opposite extt^mes,atid whi> 
one day passed sentence of death on a citizen) and loaded hii» 
with honours and applause the next I 

* Plul, in Deinoith, p. 1^S% Mo^i 

5t(t. //. Alexander's successors. 541 

What. I have already said of Demosthenes, on several oc- 
casions, makes it unnecessary to enlarge upon his character 
in this place. Ke was not only a great orator, but an ac- 
complished statesman. His views were noble and exalted ; 
hi&zeal was not to be intimidated by any conjunctures, where- 
in the honour and interest of his country were concerned ; 
he firmly retained an irreconcileble aversion to all measures 
which had any resemblance to tyranny, and his love for lib- 
erty was such as may l)e imagined in a republican, as impla- 
cable an enemy to ail servitude and dependency as ever lived. 
A wonderful sagacity of mind enabled him to penetrate into 
future events, and presented them to his view with as much 
perspicuity, though remote, as if they had been actually 
present. He seemed as much acquainted with all the de- 
signs of Philip as if he had been admitted into a participation 
of his counsels ; and if the Athenians had followed his coun- 
sels, that prince would not have attained that height of pow- 
er, which proved destructive to Greece, as Demosthenes 
had frequently foretold. 

*He was perfectly acquainted with the disposition of Philip, 
and was very far from praising him, )ike the generality of 
orators. Two colleagues, with whom he was associated in 
an embassy to tliat prince, were continually praising the king 
of Macedonia, at their return, and saying, that he was a very 
eloqvient and amiable prince, and a most extraordinary 
drinker. " What strange commendations are these :" re- 
plied Demosthenes. " The first is the accomplkhment of a 
'*- I'hetorician ; the second of a woman ; and the third of a 
" sponge ; but none of them the praise of a king." 

With relation to eloquence, nothing can be added to what 
Quintilian has observed, in the parallel he has drawn between 
Demosthenes and Cicero. After he has shown, that the 
great and essential qualities of ah orator are common to them 
both, he marks out the particular difference observable be- 
tween them with respect to style and elocution. "The one,i " 
says he, " is more precise, the other more luxuriant. The 
"one crowds all his forces into a smaller compass when he 
*' attacks his adversary, the other chuses a larger field for 
" the assault. The one always endeavours in a manner to 
*' transfix him with the vivacity of his style, the other fre- 
*' quentl)f overwhelms him with the weight of his discourse, 
" Nothing can be retrenched from the one, ai\d nothing can 

* Plat, io Demosth. p. Zss^ 

f [q eloquendo est atiqaa diversitas. DenMor ille, hic copiosior. 
lUe conciudit a8tnctiii8,bic latiust pagnat. Die acumine semper, hic 
frcquenicr ct ponderc. flli nihil dctrahi potest, huic nihil adjici, 
CGrsB plus io ilIo».ip hoc Daturas. QuintiU 1; z. c. x« 

Ee 2 

342 HisTORi' or BQok XPL 

*' be added to the other. In Demoslhenes we dfscoTcr more 
** lalx5ur and studV) in Cicero more nature and genius." 

* I have elsewhere observed another diffisrence between 
those two gi'eat orators, which I beg leave to insert in this 
place. That which characterises Demosthenes more than 
aiiy^ other circumstance, and in which hehas never been 
imitated) is such an absolute oblM'ion of himself, and so scru^ 
pulous and constant a solicitude to suppress all ostenta^txi of 
wit : in a word) such a perpetual care to confine the atten- 
tion of the auditor to the cause, and not to the oratpr, that he 
never sufiers any one turn of thought or expression to escape 
him, from no other view than merely to please and shine. 
This reserve and moderation in so amiable a genius as De- 
wosthenes, and in matters so susceptible of grace and elo- 
quence, adds perfection to his merit, and renders him supe* 
rior to all praises. 

Ciceix) was sensBjle of all the estimation due to the elo* 
quence of Demothenes, and experienced all its force and 
beauty. But as he was persuaded, that an orator, when he 
is engaged in any points that are not strictly essential, ought 
to form his style by the taste of his audience, and did not 
believe that the genius of his tiihos was consistent with such 
a rigid exactness, he therefore judged it necessary to accom-^ 
modate himself in some measure to the ears and delicacy of 
bis auditors, who required more grace and elegance in his 
discourse. For this reason he had some regard to the agree* 
able, but, at the same time, never lost sight of any important 
point in the cause he pleaded. He even thought that tkis^ 
qualified him for promoting the intei^st of his country, and 
was not mistaken, as' to please is one of the most certain, 
means of persuading : but at the same time, he laboured for 
his own reputati(m, and- never forgot himself. 

The death of Demosthenes and Hypevides caused the 
Athenians to regret the reigns of PhiMp and Alexander, and 
recalled to their remembrance the magBanhnity, generosity^ 
and clemency which these two princes retained, even amidst 
the emotions of theh* displeasure : and how inctinabl6 they 
had always l)een to pardon offences, and treat their enemies 
with humanity. Whereas Antipater, under the mask of a 
private man in a bad cloak, with all the appearances of a 
plain and frugal life, and without affecting any tatle of author- 
ity, discovered himself to be a rigid and imperious master. 

Antipater was however prevailed upon, by the prayers of 
Phocion, to recal several persons from banishment,, not with- 
standing all the severity of his disposition ; and there is rea- 
son to believe that D<?metrius was one of this number : at 

* iQ tbv discovne cd tUfi clo^iiencc of the lias«- 

Sec^. PP. ALZXAifiMER*« svcckssoas. 34^ 

least, i^ 15^ certain that h^hada considerable share in the 
administration of the republic froni tiiiat time. As for those 
whose recal to Athens Phocion was unable to obtain, hepro" 
eured fop them more commodious situations, tiiat were not 
so remote a» their former settlements ; and took his meas-^ 
nres so effeetuallyy' that- they were not- banished, according 
to the first sentence, beyond the Ceraunian mountains and 
the promontory of Tenares ; by which means they did not 
live sequestered from the pleasures of Greece, but obtained 
a settlement in Peloponnesus-. Who- can help admiring, on 
the. one hand9.thtt amiable and g^eijou^ disposition* of Pho«r 
cioQ, wliQ employed: hi^ credit with Antipater, in order to 
procure a set of U^ortun^^ person^ some, alleviation of their 
calamities ; and, on the other hand, a kind of humanity in a 
prince, who was not very desirous of distinguishing himself 
by that quality, but was sensible, however, that it would be 
extremely rigid in him to add new mortifications to the in-r 
Qonvejiiencies of banishment, 

Antipater in other respects exercised his government with> 
great justice and moderation, over those who continued ii^ 
Athens ; he bestowed the principal posts and employments 
on such persons as Jie imagined were the most virtuous and 
honest men ; and contented himself with removing from all 
authority such as he thought were most likely to excite trou* 
blest. He was sensible, that this people could neither sup«^ 
port a, state of absolute servitude, nor the enjoyment of entire; 
liberty ; for which reason he thought it necessary to take 
fi^om the one whatever was too rigid, and from the otlier aU. 
that it had of excessive and licentious. 

The conqueror, after so glorious a campaign, set out for 
MacedonTa, to celebrate the nuptials of his daughter Phila 
with Craterus, and the solemnity was performed "with alt 
imaginable grandeur. Phila was one of the most accomplishr 
ed princesses of her age, and her beauty was the least part 
of her merit. ITie lustre of her charms was heightened by 
the sweetness and modesty that, softened her aspect, by ax> 
air of complacency, and a natural disposition to oblige, 
•which won the hearts. of all who beheld her. These engag* 
i"S, qualities were rendered still more amiable by the bright- 
ness of a superior genius,, and a prudence uncommon in. her 
sex^ which made her capable of the greatest affairsr It i^ 
even said, tliat, young as she then was, her. father Antipater^ 
who was one of. the. most able politicians, of his age, never 
engaged in any affair of importance without consulting her. 
This puMHcess never made use of the influence she had over 
her two husbands' (for after tlie death of Craterus, she es* 
poused Demetrius the son of Antigonus), but to procure sonie 
favour, for thcofllcers, their daughters^ or «ister»» If thij/ 

844 BISTORT OF £ook XVI4 

were poor^ shp famished them with portions for their mar- 
riage ; and if they wei*e so unhappy as to be calumniated, 
ahe herself was very active in their justification. So gene- 
rous a liberality gave her an absolute power among the 
troops. All cabals were dissolved by her pi*esence, and all 
revolts gave way^ and were appeased by her conduct. 



Much about this time • the f funeral obsequies of Alexan- 
der, were performed. Aridaeus having been deputed by all 
tlie governors and grandees of the- kingdom, to take upon 
himself the care of that solemnity, had employed two years 
in preparing ev«ry thing that could possibly render it the 
most pompous and august funeral that had ever been seen. 
When all things were ready for the celebration of this 
mournful but superb ceremonial, orders were given for the 
procession to begin. This was preceded by a gi*eat number 
of pioneers and other workmen, whose oflRce w^as to make 
all the ways practicable through which the procession was 
to pass. 

As soon as these were levelled, that magnificent chariot, 
the invention and design of which raised as much admiration 
as the immense riches that glittered all over it, set out froiq. 
Babylon. The body of the chariot rested upon two axle- 
trees, that were inserted into four wheels, made after the 
Persian manner ; the naves and spokes of which were cov- 
ered with gold, and the rounds plated with iron. The ex- 
tremities of the axle-trees were made of gold, representing 
the muscles of lions biting a dart. The chariot had four 
draught beams, or poles, to each of wliich were harnessed 
four sets of mules, each set consisting of four of those ani- 
iaials ; so that this chariot was drawn by sixty-four mules. 
The strongest of those creatures, and the largest, were chos- 
en on this occasion. They were adorned with crowns of 

;old, and collars enriched with precious stones and golden 



• A. M. 3683. Ant. J. C. 321. Dioa. 1. xviii p. 6®8— 610. 

f I could have wished it bad been ia my power to have explained 
•everal passages of this description in a more clear .and intellij^iblc 
manner than I have done ; but that was not possible for me to cSfect, 
(hough i had recourse to persons of greater capacitj thaa m/Klf. 

Or thndnBPlat was. erected d patiUon of entire gold^ \i 
fer# wide^ and IS in. lefvgthy snpportied by coktmns of the Jfonia 
muer,. embeliisfaed with the leaves of acanthus. The in^dd 
was adorned with a bla^e of jewels^ disposed in the form ol 
aheils. The chtcQxnfeteDce was bcautihed with a fringe of 
CpfeldcB network > tlve tjireads that composed the textiarc 
were an incK in thickness, ^nd to thibse were festeoed lanrgtf 
fed} V whose sound was heard to a great distance . 

The external decoradoas weredispesed intofbilir relievos:* 

The lisst represemted A&xander seated in ar^ military cha-^ 
riot, with a splendid sceptre in his hand, and sniTounded on 
cmesidc with a troop of Macedonians. iii>arni&; andisathe 
other with an. equal. nuxnber of Persians armed in their mao^ 
neif . These were preceded bf the king's e^pier ries, 

la the second. were:saexkelei)ihan.ts completely: haxmessedy 
with a band of Indians seated on the fore-part of their bodies f 
asd on ^le hinder,, attothec band of NUtcedoxaaRS anned a» 
ki the d^ of battle^ 

The third esikitttted to t&e view several squadrons of 
horse ranged in noilitary array. 

The.iourth nepresented ships prepaonng for a battle* 

At the entrance into Uie paviiiba were g^dien lions, thflft 
teemed ta guaisd d\e passage. 

The four comers wei^eradorned with sta)ttEeii:of^go]d,rtp^ 
sosenting victories wItifE trophies of artba m their hands. 

Under tlie^aviidpn wta&p^ced athHoneof gold ofia square* 
&cd%adotfnediwitb the heads of aniknals,* whose necks wenes 
eaccmpassed with gokicai rirdesa foot and ahaii inbresdtHi;^ 
ta ^eae were Isumg crowns that glittered witlk the liveliest 
coleurs^.and sedt as were carried in) proosssiltii at the cele<rf 
bvataoni of sacred soiemnities*- 

At the fbet of Uie throne was ]>laced the oolSa of AHexats^j^ 
deu^foitmsedlof beatsen gold, and half filled with. aiKsmatie. 
«pice3 and perfumesyas well to exhale an agreeable odenr, asr 
for the preservation of tlie corpse. A pall of purple wrought^ 
Wiihi gold covered the coffin^ 

Between this and tlie throne tlie arms of that n«march« 
were disposed in the manner he wove them while living. ^' 

The outside of the pavilion was likewise covered with piir-^ 
pic flowered with gold. The top ended in a very large crowiv 
ef the same metsl^whkh seemed to be a-cdmpiisit'on of olive 
branches* The ravs of the sun which dartedon this diadem y 
in conjunction with the motion of the chariot, caused it tof 
•aut a kingd of raj^s Bke ttiose of lightning; 

* The Greek word trachelaphoa imports a tlnd ot hart, froa* 
whose «^Qr.a hisfi haogt down lifcs dsat of goatt^ .i.} x xi 

- .. .- 'smuaii ^. 

tit . • miSTORT.ojp * . Mo9kXri. 

It may eanly be imagined, that in so long a pro cession, the 
Hiodon of a chariot, loaded like this, would be liable to g.^at 
incoDveoiences. In order, therefore, that the paviUon, with 
all ittf appendages, might, when the chariot moved in any un<« 
even ways, constantly continue in the some situation^ not- 
withstanding the inequality of the ground^ And the shocks 
that would frequently be unavoidable, a cyhnder was raised 
from the middle of eaeh axle-tree, to st;^])iort the pavilion ; 
by which expedient the whole machine was preserved steady. 

The chanot was followed by Xbs^ royal guards, all in arms, 
and magnificently arrayed. .. 

The multitude of spectators of this solemnity is hai-dly 
credible ; but they were drawn together as well by their ven<» 
eration for the memory of Alexander, as by the magnificence 
of this funeral pomp, which had never been equalled in the 

. There was a current prediction, that the place where 
Alexander should be interred would be rendered the most 
happy and flourishing part of the whde earth. The gover- 
nors contested with each other for the disposal of a body that 
was to be iittended with such a glorious prerogative. The 
affection Perdicc^s entertained for his country, made him 
desirous that the corpse should be conveyed to ^ge in Ma- 
cedonia, where the 'femains of its kings were depoated. 
Other places were likewise proposed, but the preference 
was given to Egypt. Ptolemy, who had such extraordinary 
and recent obligations to the king of Macedonia, was deter-*' 
mined to signalise his gratitude on this occasion. He ac- 
cordingly set out with a numerous guard of his best troops, 
in order to.mect the procession, and advanced as far as Syria. 
When he had joined the attendants on the funeral, he pre- 
"vented them from interring the corpse in the temple of 
Jupiter- Ammon, as they had proposed. It was therefore de-' 
posited, first in the city of Mcmpltis, and from thence was 
conveyed to Alexandria. Ptolemy raised a magnificent tem- 
ple to the memory of this monarch, and rendered him all- 
the honours which were usually paid to demi-geds and he- 
roes by pagan. antiquity. 

. * Freinshemiws, in his supplement to Livy, relates after' 
Leo the Afiican,t that the tomb* of Alexander the Great wasr 
still to be seen in his time, and tliat it was reverenced by the 
MahommMans, as the monument iK)t only of an illustrious 
king, but of a great prophet. 

\ Cappadocia and Paphlagonia, which border on the Pon-» 
tic sea, were allotted to Eumenes, in consequence of the par- 
. i l5> f ^*. 

* Lib. cxf xiil. r f Thii author lived in the 1$^ coDturf » 

I Plut. id Burnett, p. 584, Plod. 1. zviii. p. 599. 


Xition of the several govemmenla of Alexander's epopire ; 
and^t was expressly stipirtated by the treaty, ttiat Leonatiis 
and Antigorius should march with a great body of troops to 
establish Eumenes in the government of those dominions, 
and . dispossess king Ariarthes of the sovereignty. This 
general resolution of sending troops and experienced com^ 
manders into the several provinces of the empire, was form^ 
ed with great judgment ; and the intention of it was, that all 
those t:onquered territories should continue under the do- 
minidn of the Macedonians, and that the inhabitants, being 
lio longer governed by their own sovereigns, should have no 
future inclination to recover their former liberty, nor be in 
a condition to set each other the example of throwing oflTthc 
pew yoke of the Greeks, 

But neither Leonatus nor Antigonus were very solicit- 
ous to execute this article of the treaty : arid, as they were 
entirely attentive tg their own particular interest and ag- 
grandisement, they took other measures. Eumenes, seeing 
hinaself thus abandoned by those who ought to have estab- 
lished him in his government, set out with all his equipage, 
which consisted of 300 horse and 200 of his domestics well 
armed, with all his riches, which amounted to about 5000 
talents of gold, and retired to Perdiccas, who gave him a 
favourable reception, As he was much esteemed by that 
commander, he was admitted into a participation of all his 
counsels. Eumenes was indeed a man of great solidity and 
resolutionj and the most able of all the captains of Alexan^* 

Within a short time after this event, he was conducted 
into Gappadocia by a great army which Perdiccas thought 
fit to command in person. Ariarthes had made the neces* 
sary preparations mr a vigorous defence, and had raised 
20,000 foot and a great body of horse : but he was defeated 
find taken prisoner by Perdiccas, who destroyed his whole 
•family, and invested Eumenes with the government of his 
dominions. He intended, by this instance of severity, to in- 
timidate the people, and extinguish all seditions : and this 
conduct is very judicious, and' absolutely necessary in the 
conjuncture of a new government, when the state is in a gen- 
eral ferment, and all things are usually disposed for commo- 
tions, Perdiccas, after this transaction, advanced with his 
troops to chastiselsaura and Laranda, cities of Pisidia, which 
had massacred their governors, and revolted from the Ma- 
cedonians. The last of these cities was destroyed in a very 
surprising manner ; for the inhabitants finding themselves 
in no condition to defend it, and despairing of.a.ny quarter 
from the conqueror, shut themselves up in their houses, with 

9m si&TO&ir (ftr Bcok IVL 

tbek wives, ohildrcii, and parents, vtdaUthdr gold and sil» 
rer, mt fire to their several habVriatiODS, and,aiKer th^^ad 
fought with the fury of lions, threw themselves into thfi^ames. 
The city was abandoned to phinder ; aod the soldierS) a^r 
they had estinffuLshed the fire, fo^uda very great boe^ifor 
the place was £Ued with richea* 

*Perdiccas, after this expedition, inarched ioto Ctliciao 
where he passed the winter "seasoD. During his residence 
in that country, he iormed the resolution to divca-ce I^icea^ 
the daughter of Antipater, whom he had espoused at a lime 
when he thought that marriage subservient to his interest. 
But when the regency of tlie empire had ^ven him a super 
rior credit, and given birtli to more exalted hopes, his 
thoughts took a different tuni, and he was desirous of esp 
pousmg Cleopatra, the sister of Alexander the Great. She 
Tiad been married to Alexander king of Epirus ; and, having 
lost her husband in the wars of .Itaiy^ she had continued m a- 
atate of widowhood, and was then at S^k^ in Ly4ia. Per* 
- diccas dispatched £umenes thither, to propose his marriag^ , 
f.o that prmcess, and employ his endeavours to render it 
agreeable to l^r. This alliance with a lady who was the 
sister of Alexander by the same father and mother, pnd exr 
ceedingly beloved by the Macedonians, opened liim a way 
to the empire through tlie favour of that people^ which he 
^^[iight naturally expect from his marriage w4^h Cleqpatra. 

Antigonus penetrated into liis design, and eviden% forer 
saw that his owi> destruction was to be the foundation of the 
intended success. He therefore passed into Greece with th^ 
fgxieatest expedition, m x^der to&d Antipatar and C^raterus, 
who were thenengagf^ina war with the ^tolians, anddi^ 
closed to them the whole plan that Perdiccas had fonooied. 
'Upon this intelligence, they imme^ately came to an accom* 
•modation with the^toUans, and advanced towards theHei^ 
.)e$pont, to observe tlie motions of the new enemy ; and, ia 
order to strengthen tlieir own party, they isagaged Ptoiemy, 
governor. of Egypt, in tteir interest, 

Craterus, one of the greatest of Al^xand^^r's ^aptains,ha^ 
the largest share oif the af^ction and esteem of Uie Macedo** 
nians. Alexander, a little befit^re his death, had ordered him 
to conduct into Macedonia the 10,00P veteran troops. he in" 
tended to send thither, on account of their age, wounds, w 
jother infirmities, which rendered them ihcfLpabkvof the ser^ 
vice. The king had likewise conferred up(Hi him at the 
.|same *time the government of Macedonia in the room gi 
Antlpater, whom he recalled to Babyion . Xhf^e province 

fA. M. |6$j, Ant. J. C. i«i. ^Diid. j. fip6^^. 

BetuIII. Alexander's successors. 34f 

Saving been consigned to Crateras and Antipater after th* 
ealh-of Alexander, they governed them in concert, and Cra- 
terus always conducted himself like a good and faithful ^« 
sociate ; especially in the operations of this war, in which' 
they were unavoidably engaged by the discovery of the de- 
signs Perdiccas was forming. 

Perdiccas sent Eumenes back to his province, not only ta 
regulate the state of affairs in that country, but more particu* 
larly to keep a watchful eye on the motions of Neoptolemus 
his next neighbour, who was governor of Armenia, and whose 
conduct was suspected by Perdiccas, but not without sufficient 
reason, as will be evident in the sequel. 

* This Neoptolemus was a man remarkable for his stupid 
pride, and the insupportable arrogance he had contracted, 
from the vain hopes with which he fed hi^ imagination. 
Eumenes endeavoured to reduce him to reason by gentle 
measures ; and when he saw that the troops of the Macedo- 
nian phalanx, who were commanded by Neoptolemus, were 
grown very insolent and aud&cious,hemade it his care to as- 
semble a body.of horse strong enough to oppose their designs, 
and keep them within the bounds of respect and obedience. 
With this view he granted all sorts of immunities and ex- 
emptions from imposts, to those of the inhabitants who were 
in a condition to appear on horseback. He likewise purchas- 
ed a great number of horses, and bestowed them on those of 
his court in whom he confided the most ; and inflamed their 
courage by the honours and rewards he conferred upon them* 
He discipfined and habituated them to labour and fatigue by- 
reviews, exercises, and continual movements. Every body 
was surprised to see him assemble, in so short a time, a bod^ 
of 6000 horse, capable of good service in the field. 

Perdiccas having caused all his troops to file off the next 
spring towards Cappadocia, held a council with his friends 
on the operations of the intended war. The subject of their 
deliberations was, whether they should march first into Ma- 
cedonia against Antipater andCraterus, or into Egypt against 
Ptolemy. The majority of voices declared in favour of the 
last ; and it was concluded, at the same tline^that Eumenes, 
with part of the army, should guard the Asiatic prorincear 
against Antipater and Craterus : and, in order to engage 
him more effectually to espouse the common cause, Perdic^ 
cas added the provinces of Carira, Jtycia, andPhrygia to his 
government. He likewise declared him generalissimo of all 
the troops in f-vi^padpcia and Armenia, and ordered all the " 
govQmors to obey film. Perdiccas^ after this^ advanced to^ 

; Plot, m Sameiu p. jfSjTt ^ 


350 HtSTOEY 0¥ Book XFJt 

wards Egypt tlirough Damascene and Palestine. / He also 
took ^the two minor kings with him in this expedition, in 
order to cover his designs with the royal authority, 

• Eumenes spared no pains to have a good army on foot, 
in order to oppose Antipater and Craterus, who had already 
passed the Hellespont, and were marching against him, 
Tliey left nothing unattempted to disengage him from the 
party he had espoused, and promised him the addition of 
new provinces to those he already possessed : but he was 
too steady t to be shaken by those offers, in breach of his en-, 
pigements to Perdiccas. They succeeded better with Alce- 
tas and Neoptolemus, for they engaged the former to ob-t 
•erve a neutrality, though the brother of Perdiccas, and the 
other declared in their favour. Eumenes attacked and de- 
feated the latter at a narrow pass, and even took all his bag- 
gage. This victory was owing to his cavalry, whom he had 
formed with so much care. Neoptolemus saved himself 
■with 3Q0 horse, and joined Antipater and Craterus ; but the 
rest of his troops went over to Eqmenes, 

Antipater entered CUicia with an intention to advance in- 
to Eg>'pt, in order to assist Ptolemy, if his affairs should re- 
<}uire his aid ; and he detached Craterus and Neoptolemus 
•with the rest of his army against Eumenes, who was then in 
Cappadocia. A great battle was fought there, the success 
of which was entirely to be ascribed to the wise and vigilant 
precaution of Eumenes, which Plutarch justly considers as 
the master piece of a great commander. The reputation of 
Craterus was very great, and the generality of the Macedo- 
nians were desirous of him for their leader after the death of 
Alexander, remembering that his affection for them, and 
his desire to support their interest;, had caused him to incur the 
displeasure of that prince. Neoptolemus had flattered Mm, 
tliat as soon as he should appear in the field, all the Mace- 
donians of the opposite party would list themselves under his 
banners, and Eumenes himself was very apprehensive of 
tliat event. But, in order to avoid this misfoitune, which 
•would have occasioned liis inevitable ruin, he caused the ay-. 
enues and narrow passes to be so carefully guarded, that 
his army was entirely ignorant of the enemy against whom 
he was leading them, having caused a report to be spread, 
tliat it was only Neoptolemus, who was preparing to attack 
him a second time. In the dispositions he made for the bat-* 

. • Plat, in Kumcn. p. 585—587- ^'^^ lr.*xv!ff*tJ. '610—613. 

f Qaem (Perdiccam) etu infirmum videbat, quod unas omb1bo» 
reristere cogebatur, amicum noa deiersit, ocqae ttltttit ^uatD fidc\ 
fMit copidior, Cor, Nep. in £aincn, c, 3* 


tie, he was careful not to oppose any Macedonian against 
Craterus, and issued an order, with very severe penalties, 
that no herald from the enemy should be received on any 
account whatever. 

The first charge was very- rude ; the lances were soon 
shivered cm both sides, and the two armies attacked sword 
in hand. Craterus acted nothing to the dishonour of Alex- 
ander on this last day of his life, for he killed several of 
the enemy with his own hand, and frequently bore down 
all who opposed him ; till at last a Thracian wounded him 
in the flank, when he fell from his horse. All the ene- 
my's cavalry rode over him without knowmg who he was^ 
and did not discover him till he was breathing his last. 

As to the other wing, Neoptolemus and Eumenes, who 
personally hated each other, having met in the battle, and 
their horses charging with a violent shock, they seized each 
other ; and their horses springing from under them, they 
both fell on the earth, where they struggled like two impla- 
cable wrestlers, and fought for a considerable time with the 
utmost fury and rage, till at last Neoptolemus received a 
mortal wound, and immediately expired. ' 

Eumenes then remounted his horse, and pushed his left 
wing to that part of tlie field where he believed the encmy't 
troops still continued unbroken. There, when he was in- 
formed that Craterus was killed, he spurred his horse to the 
place where he lay, and found him expiring. When he be- 
held this melancholy spectacle, he could not refuse his tears 
to the death of an ancient friend, whom he had always es- 
teemed ; and he caused the last honours to be paid him with 
all possible magnificence. He likewise ordered his bones to 
be conveyed to Macedonia, in order to be given to his wife 
and children. Eumenes gained this second victory ten day« 
after the first. , 

» In the mean' time Perdlccas had advanced into Egypt, 
and began the war with Ptolemy, tliough with very different 
success. Ptolemy, from the time he was constituted gover- 
nor of that country, had conducted himself with so much 
justice and hun^anity, that he had entirely gamed the hearts 
of all the Egyptians. An infinite number of people charm- 
ed with the lenity of so wise an administration, came thither 
from Greece and other parts to enter into his service. Thia 
additional advantage rendered him extremely powerful ; 
and even the army of Perdiccas had so much esteem for 
Ptolemy, that they marched with reluctance against him, 

• Dipd. I, xyia, p, Cis-^M. Plut. in Sameo. p. 5S7. Cor, 
Wep. C.J, 


«nd great numbers of them deserted daily to his troops. All 
ihc?c circamstances were fatal to the views of Perdiccaa, 
and be lost his own life in that conntry. Having unfortu* 
nately taken a resolution to make his army pass an arm of 
the Kile, which formed an island near Memphis, in passmg 
he lost 2000 men, half of whom were drowned, and the re- 
mainder devoured by crocodiles. The Macedonians were 
exasperated to such a degree of fury, when they saw them- 
selves exposed to such unnecessary dangers, that they muti- 
nied agaiiist him ; in consequence of which, he was aban- 
doned by an hundred of his principal officers, of whom Pith- 
on was the most considerable, and was assassinated in hb 
tent with most of his intimate friends. 

Two days after this event, the army received intelli- 
gence of the victory obtained by Eumenes ; and had this 
account come two days sooner, it would certainly have 
prevented the mutiny, and consequently the revolution that 
toon succeeded it, which proved so favounible to Ptol^nj 
and Antipater; and all their adherents. 



Ptolemy passed the Nile the day after the death of Per- 
cliccas, and entered the Macedonian camp ; where he jus- 
tified his own conduct so effectually, that all the troops de* 
clared in his favonr.* When the death of Craterus was 
known, he made such an artful improvement of their aflftic- 
tion and resentment, that he induced them to pass a decree, 
whereby Eumenes, and fifty other persons of the same par- 
ty, were declared enemies to the Macedonian state ; and this 
decree authorised Antipater and Antigonus to carry on a 
war against them. But when this prince perceived the 
troops had a general inclination to offer him the regency of 
the two kings, which became vacant by the death of Fer- 
diccas, he had the precaution to decline that office, because 
he was very sensible that the royal pupils had a title with- 
out a reality ; that they would never be capable of svistain- 
iti% the weight of that vast empire, nor be in a condition to 
reunite, under their authority, so many governments accus- 
tomed to independency ; Uiat there was an inevitable ten- 

^ Dio<l.l,zviti,p.6x6-i'6x^. 


dency to dismember the whole, as well from the inclinations 
and interest of the officers, as the situation of affairs ; that 
all his acquisitions in the interim would redound to the 
advantage of his pupils- ; that while he appeared to pos-: 
sess the first- rank, he should in reality enjojr nothing fix- 
ed and solid, or that could any wajr be considered as his 
own property ; that upon the expiration of the regency, 
he should be left without any government or real estab^ 
Bshment, and that he should neither be master of an army« 
to support him, nor of any retreat for his preservation : 
Whereas all his colleagues would enjoy the richest provin- 
ces in perfect tranquillity, and he be the only one who had 
not derived any advantages from the common conquests. 
These considerations induced him to prefer the post he al- 
ready enjoyed to the new title that was offered him, as 
the former was less hazardous, and rendered him less ob- 
noxious to envy : he therefore caused the choice to fall on 
Pithon and Aridjcus. 

The first of these persons had commanded with distinc- 
tion in all the wars of Alexander, and had embraced the 
party of Perdiccas till he was a witness of his imprudent 
conduct in passing the Nile, which induced him to quit his 
service, and go over to Ptolemy. 

With respect to Aridseus, history has taken no notice 
of him before the death of Alexander, when the funeral 
solemnities of that prince were committed to his care ; 
and we have already seen in what manner he acquitted 
himself of that melancholy but honourable commission, af- 
ter he had employed two years in the preparations for it. 

The honour of this guardianship was of no long contin- 
uance to them. Eurydice, the consort of king Aridseus, 
whom we shall distinguish .for the> future by the name pf 
Philip, being fond of interfering in all affairs, and being 
supported in her pretensions by the Macedonians ; the two 
regents were so dissatisfied with their employment, that 
they voluntarily resigned it, after they had sent the army 
back to Triparadis in Syria ; and it was then conferred 
upon Antipater. 

As soon as he was invested with his authority, he made 
a new partition of the provkices of the empire, in which 
he excluded all those who had espoused the interests of 
Perdiccas and Eumenes, and re-established every person 
of the other party, who had been dispossessed. In this 
new division of the empire, Seleucus, who had great au- 
thority from the command of the cavalry, as we have al- 
ready intimated; had the government of Babylon* and be- 
Ff2 . 

9S4 «tsTOKT ev JBoQk ITJ. 

cane aftorvards the mostpowerfidcf an themccessoFsof 
Alexander. Pithoa had the government of Media ; but 
Atropates, who at that time enjoyed the government oC 
that province, supported himself in one part of the Goon- 
try, and assumed the regal di^ty, without acknowledging 
the authority of the Macedonians : and this tract of Media 
-was afterwards caUed Media Atropatena. Antipater, after 
this regulation of affairs, sent Antigoous against Eumenes, 
and then returned into Macedonia ; but left his son Cassan* 
der behind him, in quality of general of the cavalry, and 
with orders to be near the person of Antigonus, that he might 
the better be informed of his designs, 

* Jaddus, the high*priest of the Jews, died this year, and 
was succeeded by his son Onias, whose pontificate continued 
for tlie space of twenty .^Mie years. I make this remark, 
because the history of the Jews will, in the sequel of this 
work, be very much intermixed with that of Alexander's 

t Antigonus appeared early in the field against Eumenes ; 
and a battle was fought at Orcynium in Cappadocia, where- 
fai Eumenes was defeated, and lost 8000 men, by the treach- 
ery of AppoUonides, one of the principal officers of his cav- 
alry ; who was corrupted by Aiitigonus, and matched over 
to the enemy in the midst of the battle, i The traitor was 
soon punished for his perfidy, for Eumeoes took him, and 
caused him to be hanged upon the spot. 

$ A conjuncture, which happened soon after this defeat, 
would have enabled Eumenes to seize the baggage of Anti- 
gonus and all his ridies, with a great number of prisoners ; 
and his little troop already cast an eye on so considerable 
, a booty. But whether his apprehensions that so rich a prey 
would enervate the heart of his soldiers, who were then 
constrained to wander from place to place } or whether 
his regard to Antigonus, with. whom he had formerly con- 
tracted a particular friendship, prevented him from im- 
proving tlus opportunity ; it is certain, that he sent a let- 
ter to that commander, to inform him of the danger that 
threatened him ; and when he afterwards made a feint to 
attack the baggage, it was all removed to a place of se- 

Eumenes, after his overthrow, was obliged, for his pres- 
ervation, to employ most of his time in changing the p^ace 
•f his retreat ; and he was daily admired for the tranquiUity 

• A. M. 3683. Ant. J. C. |ii. Joie^. Antiq. l.ix. c. 8. 
t A. M. 3684. Ant. J. C. 3»o. Diod. 1. xviij. p. 6i8» 6x9. 
1 Plau in Eomtn. p. j88— j^Qt .. J Ctr. Ncp, in Eamco. c 4, 

SetUJf. ALEXAirsii's svccssaost. 35J 

and steadiness of.nund he discovered, in the wandering life 
to -which tie was reduced : for, as Plutarch observes, adver* 
aity alone can place greatness of soul in its full point of light| 
and render the real merit of mankind conspicuous ; where* 
as prosperity frequently casts a veil of £iilse grandeur over 
real meanness and imperfections. Eumenes, having at last 
disbanded most of his remaining troops, shut himself up» 
with 500 men, who were determined to share his fate, m 
the castle of Nora, a place of extraordinary strength on ttie 
frontiers of Cappadocia and Lycaonia, where he sustained a 
siege of twelve months. 

He was soon sensible, that nothing incommoded his garri^ 
son so much as the small space they possessed, being shut up 
in little close houses, and on a tract of ground, whose whole 
circuit did not extend 200 fathoms, where they could neither 
walk nor perform the least exercise ; and where their hors- 
es, having scarce any room for motion, became sluggish, and 
incapable of service. To remedy this inconvenience, he had 
recourse to the following expedient : He converted the larg- 
est house in the place, the extent of which did not exceed 21 
feet, into a kind of hall for exercise. This he consigned to 
the men, and ordered them to walk in it very gently at first ; 
they were afterwards to double their pace by degrees, and 
at last were to exert the most vigorous motions. He then 
took the following method for the horses : He suspended 
them, one after another, in strong sUngs, which were dispos- 
ed under their breasts, and from thence inserted into rings 
fastened to the roof of the stable ; after which he caused 
them to be raised into the air by the aid of puUies, and in 
such a manner, that only their hinder feet rested on the 
ground, while the extreme parts of the hoofs of their fore feet 
could hardly touch it. In this condition, the grooms lashed 
them sererely with their whips, which tormented the hors- 
es to such a degree, and forced them into such violent agita- 
tions, that their bodies were all covered with sweat and foam. 
After this exercise, which was finely calculated to strength- 
en and keep them in wind, and likewise to render their limbs 
supple and pliant, their barley was given to them very clean, 
and winnowed from all the chaffy that they might eat it the 
sooner, and with less difficulty. The abilities of a good gen- 
eral extend to every thing about him, and are seen in tlic 
minutest particulars. 

♦ The siege, or, more properly, the blockade of Nora, 
did not prevent Antigonus from undertaking a new expedi- 
tion iuto Pisidia, against Alcetas and Attalus i the last of 

♦A, M. 46^. .^«' J. C» ^h 

I5i HiSTeRT ^P JBcok XVT^ 

whom WM taken prisoner in a baule, and the other slain \^ 
treachery in the place to which he retired. 

* During these transactions in Asia, Ptolemy, seeing of 
what importance Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea«were, as well 
£>r coverbg Egypt, as for making proper dispositions on 
that side for the inva^uon of Cyprus, which he had then ia 
▼lew, determined to make himself master of these provin- 
aes, which were ^vemed by Laomedon. With this in*, 
tention he tent Nicanor into Syria wit)i a body of land- 
forces) while he himself set out with a fleet to attack the 
coasts. Nicanor defeated Laomedon, and took him pri- 
«oner ; in consequence of which he soon conquered the in- 
land country. Ptolemy had the same advantages on the 
coasts ; by which means he became absolute master of thos« 
provinces. The princes in alUance with him were alarm- 
ed at the rapidi^ of these conquests ; but Antipater wa^ 
at too great a distance, being then in Macedonia ; and 
Antigonus was too much employed against Eumenes, to 
oppose these great accessions to the power of Ptolemy, 
who gave them no little jealousy, 

t After the defeat of Laomedon, the Jews were the on- 
ly people who made any resistance. They were duly sen- 
sible of the obligation they were under, by the oath they 
had taken to their governor, and were determined to con- 
tmue faithful to him. Ptolemy advanced into Judaea, and 
Joormed the siege of Jerusalem. This city was so strong 
by its advintageous situation, in conjunction with the works 
of art, that it would have sustained a long siege, had it 
not been for the religious fear the Jews entertained of vio- 
lating the law, by which they were prohibited to defend 
themselves on the Sabbath. Ptolemy was not long unac« 
quainted with this particular ; and, in order to improve the 
great advantage it gave him, he chose that day for the gen- 
eral assault ; and as no individual among the Jews would pre- 
cume to defend himself, the city was taken without difficu ty. 

Ptolemy at first treated Jerusalem and Judaea with great 
. severity, for he carried above 100,000 of the inhabitants cap- 
tives into i^gypt ; but when he afterwards considered the 
steadiness with which they had persisted in the fidelity they 
had sworn to their governors, on this and a variety of other 
occasions, he was convinced, that this quality rendered them 
more worthy of his confidence ; and he accordingly chose 
S0,000 of the most distinguished among them, who were roost 
. capable of serving him, and appointed them to guard the 
most important places in his dominions. * 

* Diod p. ^4X, 6as. f Jofeph. Aotlq, I, sil c. Z| 


^Much about this time Antipater fell sick in Macedonia. ^ 

The Athenians were greatly dissatisfied with the garrison be 
h%d left in their city, and had frequently pressed Phocion to ^ 

go to the court of that prince, and solicit him to recal those 
troops ; but he always declined that commission, either i» 

through a despair of not succeeding, or else because he was 
conscious that the fear of this garrison was the best expedient * 

for keeping them within the bounds of their duty. Demades, .*^ 

•^vho was not so difficult to be prevailed upon, undertook the y 

commission with pleasure, and immediately set out with his 
ton for Macedonia. But his arrival in that country could 
not have happened at a more fatal conjuncture for himself.. 
Antipater, as I have already intimated, was seized with a 
severe illness, and his son Cassander, who was absolute mas* *" 

tcr of all affairs, had lately^ intercepted a letter which De« ^ 

mades had written to Antigonus in Asia, pressing himta • 

come as soon as possible, and make himself master of Greece 
and Macedonia ; "which," as he expressed himself, "were 
held together only by a thread, and even an old rotten 
thread," ridiculing Antipater by those expressions. As 2^ 

,8oon as Cassander saw them appear at court, he caused 
them both to be arrested ; and he himself seizing the son 
•first, stabbed him before the face of his father, and at so lit- 
tle distance from him, that he was covered with his blood. 
After which he reproached him with his perfidy and in- 
gratitude, and when he had loaded him with insults, he also 
killed him with his own hands on the dead body of his son. 
It was impossible that such a !)arbarous proceeding should 
not be detested ; but mankind are not much disposed to pity 
such a wretch as Demades, who had dictated the decree 
by which Demosthenes and Hypcrides were condemned to 

The indisposition of Antipater proved fatal to him, and his 
last attention was employed in filling up the two great sta- 
tions which he enjoyed. His son Cassander was very desir- 
ous of them , and ex|>ected to have them confeiTcd upon him ; 
notwithstanding which, Antipater bestowed the regency of 
the kingdom, and the government of Macedonia, on Poly4S- 
perchon, the most ancient of all the surviving captains of 
Alexander, and thought it sufficient to associate Cassander 
with him in those employments. 

I am at a loss to determine, whether any instance of hu- 
man conduct was ever greater, or more to be admired, than ^ 
this which I have now related in few words ; nothing cer- 
tainly could be more extraordinary, and liistory affords u« 

f Plod. 1; lyuL p, 635. 6%6. Pint, ia Phoc p. 7SS* 

M mtTORT pp$ Hook XrX 

few instanees of the same natare. It was necessary toap" 
point a governor over Macedonia, and a i*egent of the eiB- 
pire. Antipater, who knew the importance of those stations, 
was persuaded diat his own glory and reputation, and, what 
was still more prevalent with him, the interest of the state, 
and the preservation of the Macedonian monarchy, obliged 
btm to nominate a man of authority, and one respected for 
his age, experience, and past services. He had a son who 
was not void of merit ; how rare and difl&cult, therefore, 
but at the same time how amiable and glorious was it to 
•elect on such an occasion, no man but the most deserving, 
And best qualified to serve the public effectually ; to extln-* 
guish the voice of nature ; turn a deaf ear to all her remon- 
fit ranees, and not suffer the judgment to be seduced by the 
impressions of paternal afiecti(» ; in a word, to continue so 
much master of one's penetraticni, as to render justice to the 
merit of a stranger, and openly prefer it to that of a son, 
and sacrifice all the interest of one's own family to the pub" 
lie welfare ! History has transmitted to us an expression of 
the emperor Galba, which will do honour to his memory 
throughcut all ages, "Augustus*," said he, "chose a successor 
out of his own family $ and I one from the whole empire.^ 

Cassander was extremely enraged at the afiront, which, 
as he pretended, had been offered him by his choice ; and 
thought in that respect, like the generality of men, who are 
apt to look upon the employments they possess as hereditary, 
and with this flattering persuasion, that the state is of no con- 
sequence in comparison with themselves : never examining 
what is requisite to the posts they enjoy, or whether they 
have competent abilities to sustain them, and considering 
only whether those posts ai*e agreeable to their fortune. 
Cassander, not being able to digest his father's preferring a 
stranger before him, endeavoured to form a. party against 
the new regent. He also secured to himself all the places he 
could in the government of that officer, as well in Greece as 
in Macedonia, and proposed nothing less than to divest him 
of the whole. 

tTo this effect, he endeavoured to engage Ptolemy and 
Antigonus in his party ; and they readily espoused it with 
the same views, and from the same motives. It was equalfy* 
their interest to destroy this new regent, as well as the 
regency itself, which always kept them in apprehensions, 
and reminded them of their state of dependency. They 
likewise imagined, that it secretly reproached them for 

*ADguttiis IB domo inccctsoren' ^aaesivit ; ego in repubfiou 
Tacit, hitt. it i, JT^, ^Diodt P« ^ao. 

Hect, IV. Alexander's successors. S5t 

fi^spl^ing at sovereignty, while it cherished the rights of the 
two pupils, and left the governors in a situation of uncer- 
tainty, in consequ^ce of which they were perpetually in 
fear of being divested of their power. Both the one and the 
other believed it would be easy for them to succeed in their 
designs, if the Macedonians were once engaged at home in a 
civil war. 

The death of Antipater had rendered Antigonus the most 
powerful of all the captains of Alexander. His authority 
was absolute in all tlie provinces of Asia Minor, in conjunc- 
tion with the title of generalissimo, and an army of 70,000 
men, and 30 elephants, which no power in the empire was, gt 
that time, capable of resisting. It cannot, therefore, be 
thought surprising, that this superiority should inspire him 
"With the design of engrossing the whole monarchy of the Mac- 
edonians ; and, in order to sufcceed in that attempt, he be- 
gan with making a reformation in all the governments of the 
provinces within his jurisdiction, displacing all those per- 
sons whom he suspected, and substituting his creatures in 
their room. In the conduct of this scheme, he removed 
Aridaeus from the government of Lesser Phrygia and th^ 
Hellespont, and Clitus from that of Lydia. 

*Polysperchon neglected nothing on his part, that was nc^ 
cessary to strengthen his^ interest ; and thought it advisable 
to recal Olymplas, who had retired into Epirus under the 
regency of Antipater, with the offer of sharing his authority 
with her. This princess dispatched a courier to Eutnenes, 
to consult him on the proposal she had received ; and he 
advised her to wait some time inorder to see what turn affairs 
would take ; adding, that if she determined to return to Mace« 
donia, he would recommend it to her in particular,to forget alj 
the injuries she thought she had received ; that it also would 
be her interest to govern with moderation, and to make 
others sensible of her authority by benefactions, ^nd not by 
severity. As to all other particulars, he promised an in-i 
▼iolable attachment to herself and the royal family. 01ym-» 
pias did not conform to these judicious counsels in any re- 
spect, but set out as soon as possible for Macedonia ; where, 
upon her arrival, she consulted nothing but her passions, 
ahd her insatiable desire of dominion and revenge. 

Polysperchon, who had many enemies upon his hands, en- 
deavoured to secure Greece, of which he foresaw CassauT 
der would attempt to make himself master. He also took 
measures .with relation to other parts of the empire, a^ wiU 
appear by the sequel. 

|J2iod. J| xtUi, p. M^ 6441 Cor. N<f , la £»ineB. c^ ^^ 

360 HXSTORT or . JBcok 17L 

*Iii order to ennge the Greeks in bis interest, he issued 
a decree, by whicli he recalled the exiles, and reinstated 
All the cities in their ancient privileges. He acquainted 
the Athenians in particular by letters, tiiat the king had 
re-established their democracy and ancient form of govern- , 
ment, b^ which the Athenians were admitted without dis- 
tinction into public offices. This was a strain of pdicv cal- 
culated to ensnare Phocion ; for Polysperchon intending to 
make himself master of Athens, as was evident in a short 
time, he despaired of succeeding in that design, unless he 
could find some expedient to procure the banishment of Pho- 
cion, who had favoured and introduced oligarchy undet 
Antipater ; and he was therefore certain of accomplishing 
this scheme, as soon as those who had been excluded from 
the government should be reinstated in Uieir ancient rigl^t^ 


Cltrgymar^M Almanack for 1814. 

voted to deeds oC charity and benevolence? To live in lUte and tp1endor«^ 

to < f^e sumptuousTf every day,* and to repoM on beds of dovin, may ex* 

nibit attrartivet to cbarm the minds of the vain, the weak, and ioeoniide- 
irate ; but to the inhabitants of heaven, these things ^must appear at unim* 

portant ?nd frivplous, as does the * vanity of the vainesv things' to ut. 
Oh» these vain and flattering things! what supreme impor^mce does It 

give thee, that a most unsightly and disgusting worm^has spun fbe thee a 
splendid dress ; or that the milliner has bespangled it with fancifnl t>«iia- 

men ts ? For whom do the>te ornaments s^rve as a covering } for a ^kx)^ 
worm/ for a wretched sinner \ O let this consideration abase thy pride, 
and humble thy vanity ! But should this constd .'ration be unavailable to 
t\\\^ salutary purpose, reflect that the peacock shines and struts with a 
more splendid attire, and that the most ordinary flower of the field, it 
more beautifully decked than thou. 

What is the dignity or distmctioQ of your birth and edocation, if the#e 
adventitious circumstances %re not accompanied with dignified and useful 
conduct ? And of what avail are the highest distinctions of a worldly na^ 
ture, unless they are improved to the glory of God, and in doing good ? 
Vain and inflated mortal !-«ln an instant thou mayest be stripp^ of Idl 
which makes yoa vain. Thou must die— It may be very soon—at an hour 
unezpected-«^apd most solemn must be thy future reckonin'g. O be en* 
treated to look but a little forward— to the moment, which will bury, with 
yourself, all which you now hold dear, and makes you vain— 'to the mo- 
ment when the heavens shai^pass away with a great noise, and the earthy 
as to its present form, and *all that it inhabits, shall be dissolved, and leave 
Ro wreck behind^-^^when thou must stand before the supreme . Majesty of 
beaven^when thy conduct will pass the most scni^nizing and impartial 
review, and when eteraity— an eternity of nuuttcrable wee, ^jt of mcon« 
:eivabie joy will l>e thy retribution \ Look forward to these itnepeakably 
ateresting And momentous events, and let every vain imagination die with* 
n thee, and every enterprise of pride be abandoned. Be humble, be 
vatchful, be deligent— * Prepare to meet thy God.* 

The Author of our.tholy religion, the divine Saviour, was • meek and 
owly in heart.' Although he could have commanded kingdoms, he inha- 
}ited a cottage, and oft-times had not where to lay his heiad* Humility is 
iie distingatslijed badge of his religion. It is a garment comeljr as it is 
ni table for ^ail, unworthy, and sinful beings. If hit real disciples, we 
lall fiot cherish a spirit of vanity and pride; but cultivate a meek' and 
lumble ftpirit. And althoi^h distinguished by the hijf^hest honors and 
bounding wealth, we shall not proudly seek' to exalt ourselves above the 
jwest of, our fellow beings ; bat under a consciousness of human guilt we 
^all, with the*pnbii<^an, smite upon our breaite, and penitently saiy, •0#i 
e merciful to us sintiert.* 

Hpw little do I prize this feeble^ etnaciated, sickly and almost worn<out 
ady ? It ia w^on** to return home— ^ ttt'^tt, as it' was ; that my soul 
ay have the sam» fnrisvilege, in returning home— /d him who gave Hi O 
veet as4 bulmy sleep ! In thee I lose the se^ae 6f bodily pain and isuffelP- 
tr. Surely some guardian angel watches my slumbers, and seizes the mo^ 
ent, when, abstract^» as it were, ftrom the body and from the w<Mid and 
I jt« 9oxr&mt to teach mf immortal ftm the most 9fcred, sublime and w- 

Clergyman* J Almanack for 1814* 

imatiB^ truths. O that mjr prej udice, error, pride, uul unhallowed passicms 
i«igbt never aiirake. 

Ourthe soul be aortal which is capable of tuch impresnoBt-— «ach Tiewt 
«Bii such CDJoymiOit \ Shall tbJC tout ever die, which can thus bid adieu 
AC wottdiv Kenei and corjKtral auflSeringB,and aoar on the ifrings of love and 
delight to the verf seat o( God, and he converaant with scenes of tmatter- 
fthle glurv, »^ '°^(^^c>*>^'Abl3r distant ? ImpnuilAt. 

S|}^ mg^ ai^gutnent, tball subtle sophistry, and fine-spun sr^Wrsm, 
mntt^ the man, and reduce to a level with the bmteKcreatkm ths im^^ol 
/KKi ? Our bodies must indeed die and mingle < duit with dust.* But the 
graves, (an matingv deKghtful though!!) shall give up their dead, when pi- 
ous frien4t who parted with aching hearts, shall meet in thatnvorld of light 
.and lovn of joy and bliis, where tears shall be wiped from ever^ eye^ 
wliere cherubs ever smile, and sesaphs ever bjrn before the throne of God. 

With this proi.pect in view, in all nfy sickness I will rejoice, and in 2!) 
fVf pahis and sufferings*! will be glad. Each pang which I endure will I 
regard as the beckoning of a friendly aagel, calling me to happy — ^^happier 
oimea. others boait thst they are brutea-<but mine, let it be to giory that I 
4.91 \ i^an, destined to immortal -ty. While others waste their golden hoars 
in attempting to prove the precioas gospel which brings life and xromorta- 
l»(y to light, to be an ' idle tale,' most sensibly do f feel somediing withX 
me, giving the most satisfactory assurance, that it is a glorions reahry. 
AVhile others consign the soul as welt as the body to the diist, I fed some- 
thing which emphatically says that tbe clods of the valley shall never be a 
covering fbr my soul. Never will my loul descend into tht; grave ; and as 
for my bodyr««'*l«fians of angels ^n't confine it there.* 


' This is as ramote from prudery as it is from immodest assurance. The 
lovely female who possesres this 'estimable and engaging quality is easy and 
accessible to the worthy of the other sex. She is chleerfut, frank and cn- 
rrstraiaed in her conversation with them, yet such is the delicacy of her 
feelings, herwords, her manners, that the most licentious man acqunnteti 
with th« rules of good breeding, would not dare to use a dwhU entenite in 
her company, or give the conversation a dissolute or improper turn, tuch 
is the nice and correct sensibiiity of her mind as to vibrate tothesUghte^r 
tpuchof what is *' seemly*' and he<»ning»-^and to shHttli, like the^ sens- 
4ive pUnti fromrevery iodecent gesture or allusion. 

Fa^ionhble ma&ners have too much attempted to 'discountenance true 
d^lic^eyof f«elia|^.and manners, and tfteradieate it fr^n tbe Female char- 
acter as ;a».irksome appendage. But let every female be assured that with 
Oj^^hipWely. trait «f character, she can neither' be strictlyj'virtnous, nor 
truly e^timaBie to the worthy and etcellenc of the-other sexl ■ - 

Delicacy is a ver;^ general and e^teRstre, as Well as ezcelient quality. It 
^tends to every thing In whibh woinan Is doneentM/and which is requi- 
«^fr,to focm:and'gi^e the foishmgtonofaesto herv^haracie^.^ '^dnVersatioc, 
h^ol^Sf-picturesoattituda^igostus^, fwemiticiation^'^ar^Jai^lindef^c* salutary 
restratnts•^and judiciously regnlaitedihfy the. deU%ht«i^ii»fttei ' tf %he but 
lose .this .jewel,4aretrell^' a(iaalg.fal«well(to^ailhefll<Mr9^^iatutfcti▼ka• 
. T«E SURRENiffiR«:C«? THE:HE^tr. 
The luwcMkur of ,ih» haam t»t4b&<he]iv?Ml:ob>i|tiio|[^h6kfci»mie«f ihe 

Clergynutr^s Almanack fir 1814. 

most detectable sensations of which human nature is susceptible. No gift 
we can make of fortune is eqnal to this noble and generdus boon. This U 
indeed the mine^ which contains the richest treasures. When mad^ by a 
noble nature, xiz sources are ihexhaustihie ;^d none but a noble sature is 
capable of making such, a gift. Not when the sun breaks forth in all its 
radiance, does its light and heat cheer the meterial world with greater glo- 
ry and genial warmth, than does the beam of noble enthusiasm illumine 
i*>^ sphere of intellect, and transport t i^e heart, when we have given our 
•vlwle soul, with a!i its vital powers, to a loving and beloved object. 

Look out of your door — lake notice of that man : see what disquieting, 
imriguing and'snifting he is content to go through, merely to be thought 
a man of plain dealing. Three grains of real honesty would save him al 
this trouble — alas I poor man be has them not. 

He that is little in his own eyes, is little too in his desires, and conse- 
quently moderate in his pursuit *f them. Like another man he may fail 
in his attempts, and lose the point he aimed at ;— >but that is all — be late* 
not bimtelf^he loses not his happiness and peace of mind with it. Even 
the contention* of the humble man^are j»i^ an^ placid. Blessed characters ! 
when such a one is thrust back, wiio does not pity him / when he falls, 
«vho would not stretch out a hand to raise him up ? 


Patience and coi^tedtment, which like the treasure hid in the ^eM, for 
which a man sold all he had to purchase — is of that value that it cannot 
be had at too great a price, since without it the Ust condition in life can- 
pot make us happy, — and with it>it is impossible we should be miserable 
in the tfforst, 


Public favor is no less capricious than private friendship. It is a bird of 
passages-lost as soon as it is found — now in the moon, perhaps — and now 
under ground. He whom the voice of the public unites to praise, the pub- 
lic voice will conspire to censure. 


The height of ridicule^ in a presumptuous fool, is the affectation of mo- 

The world pardons our faults when we knoio them — our good qualities 
inU virtues, when we know them not. •" 

Fly all pleafures which may be followed by repentance ; and taste none 
o satiety. , * ^ 

No selfish gratificat-ion ever conveys one sensation h iFf so exquisite, as 
lie slightest sacrifife w^ make of our own wishes to those of othersr. If 
iny thing can be motit foolish and ridiculous, th.-^n to be always speaking* 
ivell of ourserves, it is to be always speaking rV/ of ourselves. 

He who refers all events to the great First Cause, possesses a staff of 
:omfort and support, which the world can neither give nor take away. 

Rank, titles, grandeur, are mere glittering baubles; but the treasures of 
m upright heart are the only treasures that moths may not corrupt, or 
hieves break^ipto and steal.. 

The chaistemind, like a polished plane) may admit foul thoughts, with- 
out receiving their tincture. 

Men are like ^£uts—>some delight in the £un, and others pi the shadei 

We C££nji0l tiuikk too highly of our natures , n r too meanly of aurtdv^i. 




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